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"Produção de óleo diesel limpo a partir do gás natural: estudo de viabilidade técnico-econômica para a instalação de uma planta GTL (gas-to-liquids) no Brasil"; Production of liquid hydrocarbons employing Natural Gas: a study of the technical and economical feasibility of a GTL plant in Brazil

Callari, Roberto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2007 PT
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CALLARI. R. Produção de óleo diesel limpo a partir do gás natural: estudo de viabilidade técnico-econômica para a instalação de uma planta gtl (gas-to-liquids) no Brasil. 2007. 84 p. Tese de Mestrado ? Programa Interunidades de Pós-Graduação em Energia. Universidade de São Paulo. A tecnologia de produção de combustíveis sintéticos iniciou seu desenvolvimento a partir de 1919, na Alemanha, tendo o carvão mineral como insumo para a gaseificação. Este processo conhecido como Gas-To-Liquids (GTL) é uma transformação química que gera produtos líquidos e estáveis à temperatura e pressão ambientes. Essa transformação pode ser realizada no próprio local de produção do gás, evitando investimentos e problemas ambientais na construção de gasodutos. No Brasil, o gás natural apresenta crescente incremento da sua produção, e forte aumento das suas reservas, tanto associado quanto não-associado ao petróleo. Dessa forma, como as estruturas de plataformas normalmente se localizam em áreas remotas, torna-se custoso o aproveitamento desse gás que é liberado pela produção do óleo, sendo o mesmo queimado ou ventado. Devido às restrições estabelecidas pela legislação ambiental, a queima do gás natural nas plataformas de produção passa a ser problemática e crítica. Este trabalho visa avaliar a economicidade da implantação de uma planta para a produção de GTL no Brasil...

Vietnam : Framework for Thermal BOT Tenders and Strategy for Gas Coordination and Harmonization with Market Roadmap, Volume 1

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The purpose of this Volume 1 report is to explore how development of the gas andelectricity sectors can be better coordinated within this dynamic environment. In particular,this report aims to: Briefly outline the gas resources and developments in Vietnam, and describe the current institutional arrangements for the gas sector and how they relate to overall gas and electricity planning; Identify key gas sector issues as they relate to gas and electricity sector planning in general and BOT electricity generation project development, and in particular identify the development and operating risks for a BOT electricity generation project developer and suggest mitigation measures for these risks ;Suggest mechanisms to improve gas and electricity planning coordination. Present a case study that illustrates some of the gas and electricity planning issues and how these would be addressed if the suggested planning changes were implemented. This assignment has been undertaken during a period of unprecedented change in Vietnam. The electricity sector is part way through the complex process of introducing a market. In global world energy markets...

Pakistan : Oil and Gas Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Substantial progess has been made in Pakistan in the restructuring and reform of the oil and gas sectors, deregulation of prices, and privatization of selected assets. The reforms have enhanced transparency, making decisionmakers aware of the various aspects of the business. This review documents the accomplishments to date, and attempts to identify measures that merit priority attention with respect to natural gas, petroleum downstream, and macroeconomic management. The report concludes that Pakistan would benefit greatly from pursuing the reform program it initiated in 2000. The remaining measures will enable the government to unlock the full indigenous resource potential to accelerate growth and improve the welfare of the population. It would release scarce public resources from the hydrocarbon sector, which could then be mobilized for other priority needs like health and education. The reform process would be greatly facilitated through consultations with stakeholders, and using international experience in oil and gas sector reform. A competitive...

Greenfield Gas Distribution : Cross-country Experience

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The study aims to present information about specific countries which have initiated gas distribution projects rather than suggestions. However, by drawing on the experience of a large number of countries, it also aims to provide practical lessons about issues which could potentially foster or impede gas distribution projects. The study emphasizes how countries vary in terms of the level of development of gas distribution networks. Chapter 3 outlines the major factors contributing to such diversity. These factors fall into three categories which form the basis for analyzing gas distribution in the countries selected in the study : supply-side factors, demand-side factors and policy choices of governments

Export Restraints on Russian Natural Gas and Raw Timber : What Are the Economic Impacts?

Tarr, David G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Export restraints by the Russian Federation on natural gas and timber have been the source of major controversy between the European Union and the Russian Federation. The analysis of this paper suggests that the export restraints in natural gas very substantially benefit Russia. On the other hand, in raw timber the analysis suggests that a substantial reduction of Russian export taxes would increase Russian welfare. The paper explains that Gazprom has failed to invest adequately, resulting in little development of new gas supplies. The result has been progressively increasing use by Gazprom of Central Asian gas supplies, at progressively higher prices for Russia. The increased prices of gas for Russian consumers have shown that it is crucial for Russia to allow new entrants and to introduce competition in the Russian domestic market. Without export restraints, however, competition among multiple gas suppliers from Russia would erode or eliminate the monopoly profits of the Russian Federation on gas exports. Thus...

Peru's Downstream Natural Gas Sector : A Preliminary Assessment

Reinstein, David; Benítez, Daniel A. Benítez; Johnson, Todd M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This study assesses the natural gas market in Peru. In the process of evaluating the downstream market, the study identifies opportunities for meeting the Government s aspirational goals with respect to energy and natural gas development, including the efficient use of natural gas in the power and other sectors, strengthening and coordinating national energy planning for the gas sector, infrastructure development and prospects for decentralization of the natural gas market in Peru, and the potential of natural gas pricing reforms for the promotion of hydroelectricity and other renewable energy sources. This report is divided into five chapters. Chapter I describes the context in which this study was prepared. Chapter II presents a history of the natural gas sector and the Government of Peru s policy objectives to increase the use of natural gas in the domestic economy. Chapter III presents potential new markets for natural gas within the present context of the natural gas industry and the Peruvian economy. Chapter IV describes findings...

Yemen : A Natural Gas Incentive Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Mining/Oil and Gas; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Yemen is planning to export gas through Yemen Liquefied Natural Gas (YLNG) starting from 2009. Yemen is also aiming to develop the domestic gas market, in particular gas-to-power. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) export revenue and domestic gas sales are expected to partially offset the decline in crude oil revenue from currently producing fields. The development of a gas sector has the potential to substantially contribute to Yemen's economic growth and fiscal revenue generation. Because of the high risk and considerable investment involved in developing a gas sector, attracting foreign capital and expertise will be essential. To this end, in addressing the public interest and developing the preferred policies, Yemen should ensure that decisions on project development and technologies will be based on their economic merits, and gas will be allowed to find its highest value market.

Harnessing African Natural Gas : A New Opportunity for Africa's Energy Agenda?

Santley, David; Schlotterer, Robert; Eberhard, Anton
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Sub-Saharan Africa's persistent power shortages act as a severe constraint on its economic and human development. Over the last several years, a series of major offshore gas discoveries in Mozambique and Tanzania have rekindled interest in expanding the use of natural gas to address the continent's power shortages. Once thought of as a Nigeria-only story, gas-to power in Sub-Saharan Africa is now being considered in a continent-wide context, both as a supplement to Africa's abundant hydropower resources and as a replacement for more carbon intensive coal and liquid fuels. But the concentration of gas resources in just a few countries and the virtual absence of gas transportation infrastructure create economic challenges to the wider adoption of gas as a power generation fuel, particularly in smaller countries that cannot achieve economies of scale in gas production and transportation. As a result, the timeline between the discovery of gas and its commercialization is often measured in decades. This study examines the economic conditions facing policy makers...

Regulatory Reform in Mexico's Natural Gas Industry : Liberalization in the Context of a Dominant Upstream Incumbent

Rosellon, Juan; Halpern, Jonathan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The natural gas industry combines activities with natural monopoly characterisitics with those that are potentially competitive. Pipeline transport and distribution, which have natural monopoly characterisitcs, require regulation of price and non-price behavior. Production is a contestable activity, but in a few countries (including Mexico) it remains a state monopoly. Gas marketing is also contestable, but the presence of a dominant, upstream, vertically integrated incumbent may pose significant barriers to entry. Market architecture decisions--such as horizontal structure, regional development, and the degree of vertical integration--are also crucial. The authors report that Mexico has undertaken structural reform in the energy sector more slowly than many other countries, but it has introduced changes to attract private investment in natural gas transport and distribution. These changes were a response to the rapid growth in demand for natural gas (about 10 percent a year) in Mexico, which was in turn a response to economic development and the enforcement of environmental regulations. The new regulatory framework provides incentives for firms to invest and operate efficiently and to bear much much of the risk associated with new projects. It also protects captive consumers and improves general economic welfare. The continued vertical integration of the state-owned company Pemex and its statutory monopoly in domestic production posed a challenge to regulators. Their response in liberalizing trade...

Bulgaria : Options to Improve Security of Gas Supply

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report presents the findings of a study aiming to define the least cost short (up to 2015) and medium term (up to 2020) measures that the Government of Bulgaria (GoB) can implement to meet gas security of supply requirements seen in the light of Bulgaria's vulnerability to gas supply disruptions and its increasingly important role for regional gas cross-border transmission and trade. Bulgarian gas demand is of modest size (3.0 bcm in 2011) and natural gas only plays a small role in Bulgaria's energy mix (14 percent of the total primary energy supply). Over the next ten years gas demand patterns are likely to change, however, and consumption levels are expected to grow steadily. The growth rate of gas demand and its importance in the supply mix will be driven by choices of electricity generation strategy and the rate of household gasification. There is a significant risk that a gas-focused electricity strategy would reduce Bulgaria's overall security of supply. However, this would only be the case if the new gas supply was contracted from the same sources and routes as the existing contracts (from Russia via Ukraine) and if the gas-fired power plants did not have back-up fuels. Conversely...

Regional Gas Trade Projects in Arab Countries, Volumes 1 and 2

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Mining/Oil and Gas; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Arab countries hold about 29 percent of the world's proven gas reserves, but every country (except Qatar and Algeria) is short of the gas supply needed to meet its current and projected demand. The rapid growth in gas demand is mostly a consequence of a sharp increase in electricity consumption. Gas trade in the Arab world has been dominated by the objective of exporting gas in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to points in Asia, Europe, and North America. Gas trade within the region is limited to rather small volumes, moved from Algeria to Tunisia and Morocco; from Egypt to Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon; and from Qatar to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) - all through pipelines. The shortage of gas in the Arab countries has become more pronounced, justifying the higher gas prices needed to secure imported gas or to encourage domestic gas production. Such changes in the landscape provide an impetus for the Arab world to optimize the region's gas resources, at least partly on the basis of meeting growing regional demand. The objective of this study is to assist the attempt by: (i) identifying the opportunities for gas trade through cross-border gas pipelines and LNG; (ii) assessing the economic and political aspects of the identified projects; (iii) presenting financing and implementation schemes that utilize the synergy between the public and private sector in project formulation and development; and (iv) reviewing the legal...

Africa Gas Initiative : Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.69%
The Africa Gas Initiative (AGI) has been established by the Oil and Gas Division of the World Bank, to promote the utilization of natural gas in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study focuses on coastal countries - Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, and Gabon - along the West African coastline, and the Gulf of Guinea, where most of the region's gas reserves are located, and where significant proportions of the gas produced, is being wasted through flaring, or venting. Thus, the study's goal is to end gas flaring, by developing indigenous natural gas resources for local markets, and export, achieving economic benefits from gas substitution - through reduced imports, or increased exports of oil products - and, by improving environmental conditions at the local, and global levels. Under the AGI, technical assistance with regard to institutional, and regulatory framework was conducted in Cameroon, and Cote d'Ivoire, and, additionally, analysis of current petroleum fiscal legislation was undertaken, to review the profitability of gas field development from the investors' point of view. This analysis enabled recommendations to respective governments...

Africa Gas Initiative : Volume 3. Cameroon

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.69%
The Africa Gas Initiative (AGI) has been established by the Oil and Gas Division of the World Bank, to promote the utilization of natural gas in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study focuses on coastal countries - Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, and Gabon - along the West African coastline, and the Gulf of Guinea, where most of the region's gas reserves are located, and where significant proportions of the gas produced, is being wasted through flaring, or venting. Thus, the study's goal is to end gas flaring, by developing indigenous natural gas resources for local markets, and export, achieving economic benefits from gas substitution - through reduced imports, or increased exports of oil products - and, by improving environmental conditions at the local, and global levels. Under the AGI, technical assistance with regard to institutional, and regulatory framework was conducted in Cameroon, and Cote d'Ivoire, and, additionally, analysis of current petroleum fiscal legislation was undertaken, to review the profitability of gas field development from the investors' point of view. This analysis enabled recommendations to respective governments...

Africa Gas Initiative : Volume 5. Cote d'Ivoire

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.69%
The Africa Gas Initiative (AGI) has been established by the Oil and Gas Division of the World Bank, to promote the utilization of natural gas in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study focuses on coastal countries - Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, and Gabon - along the West African coastline, and the Gulf of Guinea, where most of the region's gas reserves are located, and where significant proportions of the gas produced, is being wasted through flaring, or venting. Thus, the study's goal is to end gas flaring, by developing indigenous natural gas resources for local markets, and export, achieving economic benefits from gas substitution - through reduced imports, or increased exports of oil products - and, by improving environmental conditions at the local, and global levels. Under the AGI, technical assistance with regard to institutional, and regulatory framework was conducted in Cameroon, and Cote d'Ivoire, and, additionally, analysis of current petroleum fiscal legislation was undertaken, to review the profitability of gas field development from the investors' point of view. This analysis enabled recommendations to respective governments...

Turkey : Gas Sector Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The purpose of this note is to assist policymakers by proposing a pragmatic and flexible program of change which will enable Turkey to develop a modernized gas market structure. The note is supportive of the objectives of the natural gas market law and does not call for fundamental changes in it. Rather, it suggests some modification of the law's present rigidities. The context for the note includes several implementation concerns and questions raised by the incumbent gas monopoly, Turkish National Gas Company, government institutions and the private sector.

Vietnam - Gas Sector Development Framework : Final Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
ENGLISH
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Vietnam's gas sector is at a critical point. Vietnam's gas industry, from the producing field to the end-user, is already a vital component of the nation's energy economy and has the potential for major growth. Successes in the past decade have created a strong prospective demand for gas. However, Vietnam has begun to experience gas shortages. If the gas sector is to meet the rising demand for gas, there are challenges that must be addressed promptly. If certain key decisions are not made soon, these gas shortages can be expected to worsen with potentially serious economic impacts. To achieve its stated objectives for developing national gas resources, Vietnam must seek to create a 'moving train' of projects that will convert gas resources into proven reserves and production. It must also stimulate investment in the development of the requisite pipeline infrastructure as well as incentivize investment in gas consuming loads downstream such as power plants. And this will require gas pricing in consuming sectors (particularly the electricity sector) to be appropriately linked with gas pricing in the upstream gas exploration and production sector. Much remains to be done if Vietnam is to realize the potential it sees in its gas resources. This report proposes a vision...

Nigeria Strategic Gas Plan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The study underlines the government's strategic role in promoting proactive gas development schemes, and the drive for change in gas flaring reduction, for better use of Nigeria's gas resources. It is an analysis and integration of independent proposals from international oil companies to the Government of Nigeria for gas utilization projects. The elements and policy framework are evaluated, so as to formulate a consolidated development plan for the country's gas resources, through a series of viable projects. It covers the basic elements of gas supply, the uses for gas, the sequence involved in gas planning evaluations, the background issues for gas planning - for Nigeria, and the development of a Stage I Gas Management Model.

Review of the Master Plan for Gas Development in Southern Vietnam

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report is prepared under contract to the World Bank as part of a review of PetroVietnam's (PV's) Gas Master Plan (GMP) for Southern Vietnam for the period 2006-2015, with an orientation to 2020. The review is to consider, in particular, the realism of the Master Plan, whether it represents the best use of resources both natural and financial and the sustainability of the plan in the context of development in Southern Vietnam. It should review constraints and opportunities and identify any shortcomings which are critical to achievement of the GMP. This Workshop Version Report has been prepared following the receipt of comments on a previous Inception Report from the World Bank and Vietnam's Ministry of Industry (MOI) and is an updated version of that report.

An Assessment of the Potential Costs and Benefits to New Jersey from Shale Gas Extraction in Pennsylvania and an Examination of Cost Mitigation Strategies

Melillo, Jacqueline
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' Project
Publicado em 29/09/2011 EN_US
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Shale gas extraction in the United States has increased considerably over the last three years. President Obama and many Republican and Democratic members of Congress hail this increase as vital to energy security and a substantial step toward energy independence. Concurrently, numerous environmental organizations have voiced concerns about the effects shale gas extraction has on water resources and air quality. The Marcellus Shale, which underlies much of the Northeast, is a rock formation that has become a major source of shale gas. Pennsylvania, in particular, has seen shale gas extraction increase from 9,800,000 Mcf (thousand cubic feet) in 2008 to 271,800,000 Mcf in the six month period between July 2010 and December 2010, the latest time period for which data is available. Production in Pennsylvania is projected to increase even more in future years. New Jersey has no substantial shale gas plays, but it abuts the Marcellus Shale deposit, and is downwind (especially during the winter) and downstream from shale gas development in Pennsylvania. To date, no studies examining the economic and environmental benefits New Jersey will realize, or the environmental costs New Jersey will incur as a result of this shale gas extraction...

Multi-criteria evaluation of the expansion of natural gas distribution network by the urban dynamics (doi: 10.4090/juee.2010.v4n2.055062)

Massara, Vanessa Meloni; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales
Fonte: JUEE Press Publicador: JUEE Press
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/06/2011 ENG
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The objective of this work is to analyze the expansion of the infrastructure of natural gas distribution, identifying priorities from large metropolis using the energy planning based on urban design tools like urban dynamics and techniques like AHP. The methodology proposed uses matrices considering the relations between the concept of urban dynamics, quality of life and the possibilities of natural gas displacing other energy forms. The matrices are made up of information about social and urban development, costs of establishing the infrastructure and projections of the consumption potential in various sectors. Relating the consumption to urban development parameters and the real estate future of the areas in study, the methodology allows to indicate the viability of a gas network for each district. As conclusion, the model presents the integration between the cities profile and the natural gas use, by means of a growing natural gas use in districts of São Paulo City as a specific case study.