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Mucosal and systemic anti-GAG immunity induced by neonatal immunization with HIV LAMP/gag DNA vaccine in mice

GOLDONI, Adriana Leticia; MACIEL JR., Milton; RIGATO, Paula Ordonhez; PIUBELLI, Orlando; BRITO, Cyro Alves de; MELO, Andrea; MARQUES, Ernesto Torres; AUGUST, Joseph Thomas; DUARTE, Alberto Jose da Silva; SATO, Maria Notomi
Fonte: ELSEVIER GMBH, URBAN & FISCHER VERLAG Publicador: ELSEVIER GMBH, URBAN & FISCHER VERLAG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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46.4%
Vaccines capable of inducing mucosal immunity in early postnatal life until adulthood, protecting early sexual initiation, should be considered as strategies to vaccination against HIV. The HIV-1 GAG protein as a chimera with the lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP/gag), encoded by a DNA vaccine, is targeted to the endosomal/lysosomal compartment that contains class II MHC molecules and has been shown to be immunogenic in adult mice. Assuming that one such strategy could help to overcome the immunological immaturity in the early postnatal period, we have evaluated the systemic and mucosal immunogenicity of LAMP/gag immunization in neonatal mice. Intranasal immunization with LAMP/gag vaccine induced higher levels of sIgA and IgG anti-GAG antibodies in intestinal washes than did the gag vaccine. The combination of ID injections and the IN protocol with the chimeric vaccine promoted the increase of Ab levels in sera. Both vaccines induced splenic IFN-gamma- secreting cells against GAG peptide pools, as well as in vivo cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) function, and increased the percentage of CD8+ T cells to the immunodominant class I peptide in gut and spleen. However, only the chimeric vaccine was able to enhance Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion in response to class II GAG peptide and to enhance IL-4-secreting cells against GAG peptides and p24 protein stimuli. Long-lasting humoral and cellular responses were detected until adult age...

In Vitro Assembly Properties of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Gag Protein Lacking the p6 Domain

Campbell, Stephen; Rein, Alan
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1999 EN
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46.38%
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) normally assembles into particles of 100 to 120 nm in diameter by budding through the plasma membrane of the cell. The Gag polyprotein is the only viral protein that is required for the formation of these particles. We have used an in vitro assembly system to examine the assembly properties of purified, recombinant HIV-1 Gag protein and of Gag missing the C-terminal p6 domain (Gag Δp6). This system was used previously to show that the CA-NC fragment of HIV-1 Gag assembled into cylindrical particles. We now report that both HIV-1 Gag and Gag Δp6 assemble into small, 25- to 30-nm-diameter spherical particles in vitro. The multimerization of Gag Δp6 into units larger than dimers and the formation of spherical particles required nucleic acid. Removal of the nucleic acid with NaCl or nucleases resulted in the disruption of the multimerized complexes. We conclude from these results that (i) N-terminal extension of HIV-1 CA-NC to include the MA domain results in the formation of spherical, rather than cylindrical, particles; (ii) nucleic acid is required for the assembly and maintenance of HIV-1 Gag Δp6 virus-like particles in vitro and possibly in vivo; (iii) a wide variety of RNAs or even short DNA oligonucleotides will support assembly; (iv) protein-protein interactions within the particle must be relatively weak; and (v) recombinant HIV-1 Gag Δp6 and nucleic acid are not sufficient for the formation of normal-sized particles.

Rous Sarcoma Virus Gag Protein-Oligonucleotide Interaction Suggests a Critical Role for Protein Dimer Formation in Assembly

Ma, Yu May; Vogt, Volker M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2002 EN
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46.38%
The structural protein Gag is the only viral product required for retrovirus assembly. Purified Gag proteins or fragments of Gag are able in vitro to spontaneously form particles resembling immature virions, but this process requires nucleic acid, as well as the nucleocapsid domain of Gag. To examine the role of nucleic acid in the assembly in vitro, we used a purified, slightly truncated version of the Rous sarcoma virus Gag protein, ΔMBDΔPR, and DNA oligonucleotides composed of the simple repeating sequence GT. Apparent binding constants were determined for oligonucleotides of different lengths, and from these values the binding site size of the protein on the DNA was calculated. The ability of the oligonucleotides to promote assembly in vitro was assessed with a quantitative assay based on electron microscopy. We found that excess zinc or magnesium ion inhibited the formation of virus-like particles without interfering with protein-DNA binding, implying that interaction with nucleic acid is necessary but not sufficient for assembly in vitro. The binding site size of the ΔMBDΔPR protein, purified in the presence of EDTA to remove zinc ions at the two cysteine-histidine motifs, was estimated to be 11 nucleotides (nt). This value decreased to 8 nt when the protein was purified in the presence of low concentrations of zinc ions. The minimum length of DNA oligonucleotide that promoted efficient assembly in vitro was 22 nt for the zinc-free form of the protein and 16 nt for the zinc-bound form. To account for this striking 1:2 ratio between binding site size and oligonucleotide length requirement...

Human endogenous retrovirus K10: expression of Gag protein and detection of antibodies in patients with seminomas.

Sauter, M; Schommer, S; Kremmer, E; Remberger, K; Dölken, G; Lemm, I; Buck, M; Best, B; Neumann-Haefelin, D; Mueller-Lantzsch, N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1995 EN
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46.38%
The human endogenous retrovirus K10 (HERV-K10) has been identified in the human genome by its homology to retroviruses of other vertebrates (M. Ono, T. Yasunaga, T. Miyata, and H. Ushikubo, J. Virol. 60:589-598, 1986). Using PCR amplification, DNA cloning, sequencing, and procaryotic expression, we were able to demonstrate that HERV-K10 encodes a 73-kDa protein which was processed by a HERV-K10-encoded protease to yield proteins p22/p26, p30, and p15/16. Analysis of the teratocarcinoma cell line Tera 1 or tumor tissues by immunoblotting demonstrated that the 80-kDa polyprotein of HERV-K10 gag and a processed protein of 39 kDa were expressed. In addition, a major protein of 39 kDa and additional species of 30, 22, 19, and 17 kDa could be detected in the supernatant of Tera 1 cells, suggesting that HERV-K10 Gag proteins are either secreted or processed to probably incomplete viral particles. In addition, the gag gene of HERV-K10 was expressed in the baculovirus system. Using this recombinant system to test antisera from patients with different diseases and healthy individuals, we were able to detect antibodies against the N-terminal part of HERV-K10 Gag in 2 to 4% of groups of tumor patients with titers ranging between 1:80 and 1:640...

Evidence for a second function of the MA sequence in the Rous sarcoma virus Gag protein.

Parent, L J; Wilson, C B; Resh, M D; Wills, J W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1996 EN
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46.33%
During retrovirus assembly, Gag proteins bind to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane to initiate the budding process. The molecular basis of this protein-lipid interaction is poorly understood. For the human, immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag protein, we recently reported that the membrane-binding domain resides within the N-terminal 31 amino acids and consists of two components: myristate and a cluster of basic residues, which together promote membrane binding in vitro and budding in vivo (W. Zhou, L. J. Parent, J. W. Wills, and M. D. Resh, J. Virol. 68:2556-2569, 1994). The positively charged residues associate electrostatically with acidic phospholipids to stabilize membrane binding, while myristate provides membrane-binding energy via hydrophobic interactions. Here we demonstrate that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag membrane-binding domain can fully replace the membrane-targeting function of the N-terminal 100 residues of the non-myristylated Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag protein. To further explore the importance of myristate and basic residues in membrane binding, we developed a gain-of-function assay whereby budding was restored to defective mutants of RSV Gag. Detailed mutational analysis revealed that the position...

Transport and processing of the Rous sarcoma virus Gag protein in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Krishna, N K; Weldon, R A; Wills, J W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
The Gag proteins of replication-competent retroviruses direct budding at the plasma membrane and are cleaved by the viral protease (PR) just before or very soon after particle release. In contrast, defective retroviruses that bud into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have been found, and morphologically these appear to contain uncleaved Gag proteins. From this, it has been proposed that activation of PR may depend upon a host factor found only at the plasma membrane. However, if Gag proteins were cleaved by PR before the particle could pinch off the ER membrane, then the only particles that would remain visible are those that packaged smaller-than-normal amounts of PR, and these would have an immature morphology. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we made use of the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag protein, the PR of RSV IS included on each Gag molecule. To target Gag to the ER, a signal peptide was installed at its amino terminus in place of the plasma membrane-binding domain. An intervening, hydrophobic, transmembrane anchor was included to keep Gag extended into the cytoplasm. We found that PR-mediated processing occurred, although the cleavage products were rapidly degraded. When the anchor was removed, allowing the entire protein to be inserted into the lumen of the ER...

The carboxyl terminus of the human foamy virus Gag protein contains separable nucleic acid binding and nuclear transport domains.

Yu, S F; Edelmann, K; Strong, R K; Moebes, A; Rethwilm, A; Linial, M L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
The Gag protein of human foamy virus (HFV) lacks Cys-His boxes present in the nucleocapsid (NC) domains of other retroviruses; instead it contains three glycine-arginine-rich motifs (GR boxes). We have expressed the carboxyl end of HFV Gag containing the GR boxes (the NC domain equivalent) and analyzed its nucleic acid binding properties. Our results show that the NC domain of HFV Gag binds with high affinity to both RNA and DNA, in a sequence-independent manner, as determined by filter binding assays. Analysis of a mutant containing a heterologous sequence in place of GR box I indicates that this motif is required for nucleic acid binding and for viral replication. A mutant in GR box II still binds to RNA and DNA in vitro, but virus containing this mutation does not replicate and no nuclear staining of the Gag protein is found in transfected cells. Surprisingly, a revertant from this mutant that completely lacks GR box II and exhibits very little nuclear transport of Gag can readily replicate in tissue culture. This finding thus provides a direct evidence that although the sequences in GR box II can serve as a nuclear transport signal, they are not required for HFV replication and it is unlikely that nuclear localization of Gag protein plays any critical role during viral infection. Taken together...

Mapping the multimerization domains of the Gag protein of yeast retrotransposon Ty1.

Brachmann, C B; Boeke, J D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
The two-hybrid system was used to define regions of the Ty1 Gag protein responsible for multimerization. Gag truncations lacking the first 146 or the last 97 amino acids (Gag is 440 amino acids in length) interact. A severely C-terminally truncated molecule (lacking the last 207 amino acids) was the smallest truncation to interact, suggesting that some protein-protein interactions between Gag molecules are mediated through the first 233 amino acids. However, an internal deletion of amino acids 147 to 233 does not abolish Gag-Gag interaction, indicating that more than one region can mediate Gag interaction. Surprisingly, we found that a truncation lacking the last 97 amino acids interacts with itself but not with full-length Gag. This is apparently due to an artifact of the two-hybrid assay, since these same molecules coassemble with wild-type Gag into Ty1 virus-like particles.

Characterization of a small (25-kilodalton) derivative of the Rous sarcoma virus Gag protein competent for particle release.

Weldon, R A; Wills, J W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1993 EN
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46.39%
Retroviral Gag proteins have the ability to induce budding and particle release from the plasma membrane when expressed in the absence of all of the other virus-encoded components; however, the locations of the functional domains within the Gag protein that are important for this process are poorly understood. It was shown previously that the protease sequence of the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag protein can be replaced with a foreign polypeptide, iso-1-cytochrome c from a yeast, without disrupting particle assembly (R. A. Weldon, Jr., C. R. Erdie, M. G. Oliver, and J. W. Wills, J. Virol. 64:4169-4179, 1990). An unexpected product of the chimeric gag gene is a small, Gag-related protein named p25C. This product was of interest because of its high efficiency of packaging into particles. The goal of the experiments described here was to determine the mechanism by which p25C is synthesized and packaged into particles. The results demonstrate that it is not the product of proteolytic processing of the Gag-cytochrome precursor but is derived from an unusual spliced mRNA. cDNA clones of the spliced mRNA were obtained, and each expressed a product of approximately 25 kDa, designated p25M1, which was released into the growth medium in membrane-enclosed particles that were much lighter than authentic retrovirions as measured in sucrose density gradients. DNA sequencing revealed that the clones encode the first 180 of the 701 amino acids of the RSV Gag protein and no residues from iso-1-cytochrome c. This suggested that a domain in the carboxy-terminal half of Gag is important for the packaging of Gag proteins into dense arrays within the particles. In support of this hypothesis...

Incorporation of chimeric gag protein into retroviral particles.

Weldon, R A; Erdie, C R; Oliver, M G; Wills, J W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
The product of the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) gag gene, Pr76gag, is a polyprotein precursor which is cleaved by the viral protease to yield the major structural proteins of the virion during particle assembly in avian host cells. We have recently shown that myristylated forms of the RSV Gag protein can induce particle formation with very high efficiency when expressed in mammalian cells (J. W. Wills, R. C. Craven, and J. A. Achacoso, J. Virol. 63:4331-4343, 1989). We made use of this mammalian system to examine the abilities of foreign antigens to be incorporated into particles when fused directly to the myristylated Gag protein. Our initial experiments showed that removal of various portions of the viral protease located at the carboxy terminus of the RSV Gag protein did not disrupt particle formation. We therefore chose this region for coupling of iso-1-cytochrome c from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Gag. This was accomplished by constructing an in-frame fusion of the CYC1 and gag coding sequences at a common restriction endonuclease site. Expression of the chimeric gene resulted in synthesis of the Gag-cytochrome fusion protein and its release into the cell culture medium. The chimeric particles were readily purified by simple centrifugation...

Insertion of a Classical Nuclear Import Signal into the Matrix Domain of the Rous Sarcoma Virus Gag Protein Interferes with Virus Replication

Garbitt, Rachel A.; Bone, Karen R.; Parent, Leslie J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
The Rous sarcoma virus Gag protein undergoes transient nuclear trafficking during virus assembly. Nuclear import is mediated by a nuclear targeting sequence within the MA domain. To gain insight into the role of nuclear transport in replication, we investigated whether addition of a “classical ” nuclear localization signal (NLS) in Gag would affect virus assembly or infectivity. A bipartite NLS derived from nucleoplasmin was inserted into a region of the MA domain of Gag that is dispensable for budding and infectivity. Gag proteins bearing the nucleoplasmin NLS insertion displayed an assembly defect. Mutant virus particles (RC.V8.NLS) were not infectious, although they were indistinguishable from wild-type virions in Gag, Gag-Pol, Env, and genomic RNA incorporation and Gag protein processing. Unexpectedly, postinfection viral DNA synthesis was also normal, as similar amounts of two-long-terminal-repeat junction molecules were detected for RC.V8.NLS and wild type, suggesting that the replication block occurred after nuclear entry of proviral DNA. Phenotypically revertant viruses arose after continued passage in culture, and sequence analysis revealed that the nucleoplasmin NLS coding sequence was deleted from the gag gene. To determine whether the nuclear targeting activity of the nucleoplasmin sequence was responsible for the infectivity defect...

HIV Gag protein conjugated to a Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist improves the magnitude and quality of Th1 and CD8+ T cell responses in nonhuman primates

Wille-Reece, Ulrike; Flynn, Barbara J.; Loré, Karin; Koup, Richard A.; Kedl, Ross M.; Mattapallil, Joseph J.; Weiss, Walter R.; Roederer, Mario; Seder, Robert A.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
Induction and maintenance of antibody and T cell responses will be critical for developing a successful vaccine against HIV. A rational approach for generating such responses is to design vaccines or adjuvants that have the capacity to activate specific antigen-presenting cells. In this regard, dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells for generating primary T cell responses. Here, we report that Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists and ligands that activate DCs in vitro influence the magnitude and quality of the cellular immune response in nonhuman primates (NHPs) when administered with HIV Gag protein. NHPs immunized with HIV Gag protein and a TLR7/8 agonist or a TLR9 ligand [CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN)] had significantly increased Gag-specific T helper 1 and antibody responses, compared with animals immunized with HIV Gag protein alone. Importantly, conjugating the HIV Gag protein to the TLR7/8 agonist (Gag-TLR7/8 conjugate) dramatically enhanced the magnitude and altered the quality of the T helper 1 response, compared with animals immunized with HIV Gag protein and the TLR7/8 agonist or CpG ODN. Furthermore, immunization with the Gag-TLR7/8 conjugate vaccine elicited Gag-specific CD8+ T responses. Collectively...

Conformation of the HIV-1 Gag Protein in Solution

Datta, Siddhartha A. K.; Curtis, Joseph E.; Ratcliff, William; Clark, Patrick K.; Crist, Rachael M.; Lebowitz, Jacob; Krueger, Susan; Rein, Alan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.41%
A single multi-domain viral protein, termed Gag, is sufficient for assembly of retrovirus-like particles in mammalian cells. We have purified the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein (lacking myristate at its N terminus and the p6 domain at its C terminus) from bacteria. This protein is capable of assembly into virus-like particles in a defined in vitro system. We have reported that it is in monomer–dimer equilibrium in solution, and have described a mutant Gag protein that remains monomeric at high concentrations in solution. We report that the mutant protein retains several properties of wild-type Gag. This mutant enabled us to analyze solutions of monomeric protein. Hydrodynamic studies on the mutant protein showed that it is highly asymmetric, with a frictional ratio of 1.66. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments confirmed its asymmetry and yielded an Rg value of 34 Å. Atomic-level structures of individual domains within Gag have previously been determined, but these domains are connected in Gag by flexible linkers. We constructed a series of models of the mutant Gag protein based on these domain structures, and tested each model computationally for its agreement with the experimental hydrodynamic and SANS data. The only models consistent with the data were those in which Gag was folded over...

Insulin-Like Growth Factor II mRNA Binding Protein 1 Associates with Gag Protein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1, and Its Overexpression Affects Virus Assembly▿

Zhou, Yongdong; Rong, Liwei; Lu, Jennifer; Pan, Qinghua; Liang, Chen
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
The assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles is driven by viral Gag protein. This function of Gag not only benefits from its self-multimerization property but also depends on its interaction with a number of cellular factors such as TSG101 and ALIX/AIP1 that promote virus budding and release from cell surfaces. However, interaction with Gag also allows some cellular factors such as APOBEC3G and Trim5α to access viral replication machinery and block viral replication. In this study, we report a new HIV-1 Gag-binding factor named insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 1 (IMP1). Gag-IMP1 interaction requires the second zinc finger of the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of Gag and the KH3 and KH4 domains of IMP1. A fourfold reduction of HIV-1 infectivity was seen with overexpression of the wild-type IMP1 and its mutant that is able to interact with Gag but not with overexpression of IMP1 mutants exhibiting Gag-binding deficiency. The decreased viral infectivity was further shown as a result of diminished viral RNA packaging, abrogated Gag processing on the cellular membranes, and impeded maturation of virus particles. Together, these results demonstrate that IMP1 interacts with HIV-1 Gag protein and is able to block the formation of infectious HIV-1 particles.

Newcastle Disease Virus Expressing a Dendritic Cell-Targeted HIV Gag Protein Induces a Potent Gag-Specific Immune Response in Mice ▿

Maamary, Jad; Array, Frida; Gao, Qinshan; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Steinman, Ralph M.; Palese, Peter; Nchinda, Godwin
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
Viral vaccine vectors have emerged as an attractive strategy for the development of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) stands out as a vaccine vector since it has a proven safety profile in humans, it is a potent inducer of both alpha interferon (IFN-α) and IFN-β) production, and it is a potent inducer of dendritic cell (DC) maturation. Our group has previously generated an rNDV vector expressing a codon-optimized HIV Gag protein and demonstrated its ability to induce a Gag-specific CD8+ T cell response in mice. In this report we demonstrate that the Gag-specific immune response can be further enhanced by the targeting of the rNDV-encoded HIV Gag antigen to DCs. Targeting of the HIV Gag antigen was achieved by the addition of a single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody specific for the DC-restricted antigen uptake receptor DEC205 such that the DEC205 scFv-Gag molecule was encoded for expression as a fusion protein. The vaccination of mice with rNDV coding for the DC-targeted Gag antigen induced an enhanced Gag-specific CD8+ T cell response and enhanced numbers of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in the spleen relative to vaccination with rNDV coding for a nontargeted Gag antigen. Importantly...

Solution Properties of Murine Leukemia Virus Gag Protein: Differences from HIV-1 Gag▿

Datta, Siddhartha A. K.; Zuo, Xiaobing; Clark, Patrick K.; Campbell, Stephen J.; Wang, Yun-Xing; Rein, Alan
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
Immature retrovirus particles are assembled from the multidomain Gag protein. In these particles, the Gag proteins are arranged radially as elongated rods. We have previously characterized the properties of HIV-1 Gag in solution. In the absence of nucleic acid, HIV-1 Gag displays moderately weak interprotein interactions, existing in monomer-dimer equilibrium. Neutron scattering and hydrodynamic studies suggest that the protein is compact, and biochemical studies indicate that the two ends can approach close in three-dimensional space, implying the need for a significant conformational change during assembly. We now describe the properties of the Gag protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV), a gammaretrovirus. We found that this protein is very different from HIV-1 Gag: it has much weaker protein-protein interaction and is predominantly monomeric in solution. This has allowed us to study the protein by small-angle X-ray scattering and to build a low-resolution molecular envelope for the protein. We found that MLV Gag is extended in solution, with an axial ratio of ∼7, comparable to its dimensions in immature particles. Mutational analysis suggests that runs of prolines in its matrix and p12 domains and the highly charged stretch at the C terminus of its capsid domain all contribute to this extended conformation. These differences between MLV Gag and HIV-1 Gag and their implications for retroviral assembly are discussed.

Nucleolar Trafficking of the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Gag Protein Induced by Interaction with Ribosomal Protein L9

Beyer, Andrea R.; Bann, Darrin V.; Rice, Breanna; Pultz, Ingrid S.; Kane, Melissa; Goff, Stephen P.; Golovkina, Tatyana V.; Parent, Leslie J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Gag protein directs the assembly in the cytoplasm of immature viral capsids, which subsequently bud from the plasma membranes of infected cells. MMTV Gag localizes to discrete cytoplasmic foci in mouse mammary epithelial cells, consistent with the formation of cytosolic capsids. Unexpectedly, we also observed an accumulation of Gag in the nucleoli of infected cells derived from mammary gland tumors. To detect Gag-interacting proteins that might influence its subcellular localization, a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed. Ribosomal protein L9 (RPL9 or L9), an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit and a putative tumor suppressor, was identified as a Gag binding partner. Overexpression of L9 in cells expressing the MMTV(C3H) provirus resulted in specific, robust accumulation of Gag in nucleoli. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and coimmunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that Gag and L9 interact within the nucleolus, and the CA domain was the major site of interaction. In addition, the isolated NC domain of Gag localized to the nucleolus, suggesting that it contains a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS). To determine whether L9 plays a role in virus assembly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown was performed. Although Gag expression was not reduced with L9 knockdown...

POLY IC IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR ADJUVANT FOR SIV GAG PROTEIN INDUCED T CELL RESPONSES IN NON-HUMAN PRIMATES

Park, Haesun; Adamson, Lauren; Ha, Tae; Mullen, Karl; Hagen, Shoko I; Nogueron, Arys; Sylwester, Andrew W.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Legasse, Al; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; McElrath, Juliana M.; Picker, Louis J.; Seder, Robert A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.43%
Prime-boost immunization with heterologous vaccines elicits potent cellular immunity. Here, we assessed the influence of various TLR ligands on SIV Gag-specific T cell immunity and protection following prime-boost immunization. Rhesus macaques (RM) were primed with SIV Gag protein emulsified in montanide ISA51 with or without TLR3 (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly IC)), TLR4 (monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)), TLR7/8, TLR9 (CpG) or TLR3 (Poly IC) combined with TLR7/8 ligands, then boosted with replication defective adenovirus 5 expressing SIV Gag (rAd5-Gag). After priming, RM that received SIV Gag protein plus Poly IC developed significantly higher frequencies of SIV Gag-specific CD4+ Th1 responses in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid lymphocytes (BAL) compared to all other adjuvants, and low-level SIV Gag-specific CD8+ T cell responses. After the rAd5-Gag boost, the magnitude and breadth of SIV Gag-specific CD8+ T cell responses were significantly increased in RM primed with SIV Gag protein plus Poly IC, with or without the TLR7/8 ligand, or CpG. However, the anamnestic, SIV Gag-specific CD8+ T cell response to SIVmac251 challenge was not significantly enhanced by SIV Gag protein priming with any of the adjuvants. In contrast...

Phosphorylation at Serines 216 and 221 Is Important for Drosophila HeT-A Gag Protein Stability

Brar, Sukhdev S.; Petrovich, Robert M.; Williams, Jason G.; Mason, James M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
Telomeres from Drosophila appear to be very different from those of other organisms – in size and the mechanism of their maintenance. In the absence of the enzyme telomerase, Drosophila telomeres are maintained by retrotransposition of three elements, HeT-A, TART, and TAHRE, but details of their transposition mechanisms are not known. Here we characterized some biochemical characteristics of the HeT-A Gag protein encoded by the HeT-A element to understand this mechanism. The HeT-A Gag protein when overexpressed in S2 cells was localized to the nucleus but was resistant to high salt, detergents and nuclease extraction treatments. Analysis of the HeT-A Gag protein by tandem mass spectrophotometry revealed that serines 216 and 221 are phosphorylated. Substituting these serines with alanine or aspartic acid by site-directed mutagenesis did not result in any changes in HeT-A Gag translocation across the nucleus, suggesting that phosphorylation of these sites is not associated with HeT-A Gag translocation, but time course experiments showed that these phosphorylation sites are important for Gag-protein stability.

Pericentriolar Targeting of the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus GAG Protein

Zhang, Guangzhi; Sharon, David; Jovel, Juan; Liu, Lei; Wine, Eytan; Tahbaz, Nasser; Indik, Stanislav; Mason, Andrew
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/06/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
The Gag protein of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is the chief determinant of subcellular targeting. Electron microscopy studies show that MMTV Gag forms capsids within the cytoplasm and assembles as immature particles with MMTV RNA and the Y box binding protein-1, required for centrosome maturation. Other betaretroviruses, such as Mason-Pfizer monkey retrovirus (M-PMV), assemble adjacent to the pericentriolar region because of a cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal in the Matrix protein. Previous studies suggest that the MMTV Matrix protein may also harbor a similar cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal. Herein, we show that a substantial fraction of MMTV Gag localizes to the pericentriolar region. This was observed in HEK293T, HeLa human cell lines and the mouse derived NMuMG mammary gland cells. Moreover, MMTV capsids were observed adjacent to centrioles when expressed from plasmids encoding either MMTV Gag alone, Gag-Pro-Pol or full-length virus. We found that the cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal in the MMTV Matrix protein was sufficient for pericentriolar targeting, whereas mutation of the glutamine to alanine at position 56 (D56/A) resulted in plasma membrane localization, similar to previous observations from mutational studies of M-PMV Gag. Furthermore...