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Análise proteômica do intestino primitivo de embriões bovinos; Proteomic analysis of primitive gut from bovine embryo

Mançanares, Ana Carolina Furlanetto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/02/2012 PT
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O desenvolvimento de biotecnologia de embriões em animais de produção é prejudicado por perdas no primeiro trimestre da gestação, idade em que o intestino primitivo está sendo estabelecido. O estudo das proteínas contidas no intestino primitivo nesta fase inicial da gestação pode aumentar o conhecimento sobre as vias moleculares envolvidas no desenvolvimento embrionário normal e em perdas de embriões, assim como a sua participação na organogênese e diferenciação celular. Intestino primitivo de embriões de bovinos a partir dos 39 SD ± 4 dias de desenvolvimento (variando de 33 a 45 dias) foram coletados em um matadouro local. As amostras foram processadas e agrupadas para análise proteômica shotgun label-free usando MudPIT (Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology). Análise funcional e de via foram feitas usando FatiGO (www.babelomics.org); Pathway Express (http://vortex.cs.wayne.edu/ ontoexpress) para identificar as ontologias relevantes e vias canônicas ou não-canônicas representada pelas proteínas expressas no Intestino primitivo. Um total de 74 proteínas ou sequências randômicas foram identificadas, correspondentes a 30 proteínas específicas expressas pelo Intestino primitivo bovino. Das 30 proteínas únicas...

Chitinolytic activities in the gut of Aedes aegypti (Diptera : Culicidae) larvae and their role in digestion of chitin-rich structures

Souza-Neto, J. A.; Gusmao, D. S.; Lemos, FJA
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 717-724
ENG
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Mosquito larvae are believed to be capable of digesting chitin, an insoluble polysaccharide of N-acetylglucosamine, for their nutritional benefit. Studies based on physiological and biochemical assays were conducted in order to detect the presence of chitinase activities in the gut of the detritus-feeding Aedes aegypti larvae. Larvae placed for 24 h in suspensions of chitin azure were able to digest the ingested chitin. Semi-denaturing PAGE using glycol chitin and two fluorogenic substrate analogues showed the presence of two distinct chitinase activities: an endochitinase that catalyzed the hydrolysis of chitin and an endochitinase that cleaved the short substrates [4MU(GlcNAc)(3)] and [4MU(GlcNAc)(2)] that hydrolyzed the chitobioside [4MU(GlcNAc)(2)]. The endochitinase had an extremely broad pH-activity against glycol chitin and chitin azure, pH ranging from 4.0 to 10.0. When the substrate [4MU(GlcNAc)(3)] was used, two activities were observed at pH ranges 4.0-6.0 and 8.0-10.0. Chitinase activity against [4MU(GlcNAc)(3)] was detected throughout the gut with the highest specific activity in the hindgut. The pH of the gut contents was determined by observing color changes in gut after feeding the larvae with color indicator dyes. It was observed a correlation between the pH observed in the gut of feeding larvae (pH 10-6.0) and the optimum pH for gut chitinase activities. In this work...

First isolation of microorganisms from the gut diverticulum of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): New perspectives for an insect-bacteria association

Gusmão, Desiely Silva; Santos, Adão Valmir; Marini, Danyelle Cristine; Russo, Érica de Souza; Peixoto, Anelise Maria Dias; Bacci Jr., Maurício; Berbert-Molina, Marília Amorim; Lemos, Francisco José Alves
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 919-924
ENG
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We show for the first time that the ventral diverticulum of the mosquito gut (impermeable sugar storage organ) harbors microorganisms. The gut diverticulum from newly emerged and non-fed Aedes aegypti was dissected under aseptic conditions, homogenized and plated on BHI medium. Microbial isolates were identified by sequencing of 16S rDNA for bacteria and 28S rDNA for yeast. A direct DNA extraction from Ae. aegypti gut diverticulum was also performed. The bacterial isolates were: Bacillus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Serratia sp. The latter was the predominant bacteria found in our isolations. The yeast species identified was Pichia caribbica.

Organically produced coffee exerts protective effects against the micronuclei induction by mutagens in mouse gut and bone marrow

Silva, J. P L; Ferreira, E. B.; Barbisan, L. F.; Brigagao, M. R P L; Paula, F. B A; Moraes, G. O I; Magalhães, C. S.; Azevedo, L.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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While researchers have extensively evaluated the beneficial effects of coffee consumption in reducing the frequency of certain diseases, studies examining the differences between organic and conventional coffee intake are still needed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the functional effects of organic and conventional coffee by examining both its chemical composition and its mutagenic/antimutagenic properties. Infusions of 10% or 20% (w/v) of organic and conventional coffee were administered by gavage (10 mL/kg b.w., once or twice a day) to male Swiss mice against doxorubicin (DXR) and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced mutagenicity. The levels of chlorogenic acids, caffeine and trigonelline from the coffee infusions and oxidative stress analysis from the liver were measured by HPLC. Gut and bone marrow micronucleus assays were used as mutagenic/antimutagenic endpoints, as well as the crypt measurements and gut apoptosis index. The in vivo tests revealed that only organic coffee exerted protective effects, despite oxidative stress analysis and crypt measurements not showing differences among treatments. Intriguingly, the low dose (10% w/v mL/kg) displayed a robust protective effect that showed a significant reduction in bone marrow micronuclei (26.8%)...

First isolation of microorganisms from the gut diverticulum of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): new perspectives for an insect-bacteria association

Gusmão,Desiely Silva; Santos,Adão Valmir; Marini,Danyelle Cristine; Russo,Érica de Souza; Peixoto,Anelise Maria Dias; Bacci Júnior,Maurício; Berbert-Molina,Marília Amorim; Lemos,Francisco José Alves
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 EN
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We show for the first time that the ventral diverticulum of the mosquito gut (impermeable sugar storage organ) harbors microorganisms. The gut diverticulum from newly emerged and non-fed Aedes aegypti was dissected under aseptic conditions, homogenized and plated on BHI medium. Microbial isolates were identified by sequencing of 16S rDNA for bacteria and 28S rDNA for yeast. A direct DNA extraction from Ae. aegypti gut diverticulum was also performed. The bacterial isolates were: Bacillus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Serratia sp. The latter was the predominant bacteria found in our isolations. The yeast species identified was Pichia caribbica.

Isolation and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Gut of Three Phytophagus Insect Species

Shil,Rajib Kumar; Mojumder,Suman; Sadida,Faozia Faleha; Uddin,Myn; Sikdar,Dwaipayan
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
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The cellulolytic bacteria from the gut of three different phytophagous insects were studied to isolate novel cellulolytic organism for biofuel industry. Among the threse, gut of P. quatuordecimpunctata larvae contained both highest no of total bacterial count (6.8x107 CFU/gut) and cellulolytic bacteria (5.42x103 CFU/gut). Fifteen different isolates were obtained from the gut of O. velox, A. miliaris and P. quatuordecimpunctata. All the isolates produced clear zone in CMC medium staining with Congo red. The isolates included Gram positive Enterococcus, Microbacterium and Gram negative Aeromonas, Erwinia, Serretia, Flavobacterium, Acenitobacter, Klebsiella, Yersinia, Xenorhabdus, Psedomonas and Photorhabdus. Out of the fifteen isolated and identified bacterial species, twelve bacterial species were novel being reported for first time as having cellulase activity.

B cell attracting chemokine 1 (CXCL13) and its receptor CXCR5 are expressed in normal and aberrant gut associated lymphoid tissue

Carlsen, H S; Baekkevold, E S; Johansen, F-E; Haraldsen, G; Brandtzaeg, P
Fonte: Copyright 2002 by Gut Publicador: Copyright 2002 by Gut
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2002 EN
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Background and aims: In mice, the B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) CXC chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) is sufficient to induce a series of events leading to the formation of organised lymphoid tissue. Its receptor, CXCR5, is required for normal development of secondary lymphoid tissue. However, the human counterpart, B cell attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1) has only been detected in the stomach and appendix and not in other parts of normal or diseased gut. Hence to elucidate the potential role of this chemokine and its receptor in human gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), we analysed their expression in normal intestine and ulcerative colitis (UC).

Gut Microbiota as Potential Orchestrators of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Bennet, Sean M.P.; Öhman, Lena; Simrén, Magnus
Fonte: Gut and Liver Publicador: Gut and Liver
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial functional disorder with no clearly defined etiology or pathophysiology. Modern culture-independent techniques have improved the understanding of the gut microbiota’s composition and demonstrated that an altered gut microbiota profile might be found in at least some subgroups of IBS patients. Research on IBS from a microbial perspective is gaining momentum and advancing. This review will therefore highlight potential links between the gut microbiota and IBS by discussing the current knowledge of the gut microbiota; it will also illustrate bacterial-host interactions and how alterations to these interactions could exacerbate, induce or even help alleviate IBS.

Effect of aerobic exercise and low carbohydrate diet on pre-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal women and middle aged men – the role of gut microbiota composition: study protocol for the AELC randomized controlled trial

Liu, Wu Yi; Lu, Da Jiang; Du, Xia Ming; Sun, Jian Qin; Ge, Jun; Wang, Ren Wei; Wang, Ru; Zou, Jun; Xu, Chang; Ren, Jie; Wen, Xin Fei; Liu, Yang; Cheng, Shu Mei; Tan, Xiao; Pekkala, Satu; Munukka, Eveliina; Wiklund, Petri; Chen, Yan Qiu; Gu, Qing; Xia, Zhe
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Background: Pre-diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are associated with an unhealthy lifestyle and pose extremely high costs to the healthcare system. In this study, we aim to explore whether individualized aerobic exercise (AEx) and low carbohydrate diet (LCh) intervention affect hepatic fat content (HFC) in pre-diabetes via modification of gut microbiota composition and other post-interventional effects. Methods/design A 6-month randomized intervention with 6-month follow-up is conducted from January 2013 to December 2015. The target sample size for intervention is 200 postmenopausal women and middle-aged men aged 50–65 year-old with pre-diabetes and NAFLD. The qualified subjects are randomized into 4 groups with 50 subjects in each group: 1 = AEx, 2 = LCh, 3 = AEx + LCh, and 4 = control. In addition, two age-matched reference groups (5 = pre-diabetes without NAFLD (n = 50) and 6 = Healthy without pre-diabetes or NAFLD (n = 50)) are included. The exercise program consists of progressive and variable aerobic exercise (intensity of 60 to 75% of initial fitness level, 3–5 times/week and 30–60 min/time). The diet program includes dietary consultation plus supplementation with a special lunch meal (40% of total energy intake/day) which aims to reduce the amount of carbohydrate consumption (30%). The control and reference groups are advised to maintain their habitual habits during the intervention. The primary outcome measures are HFC...

Effects of dietary fish oil and fibre on contractility of gut smooth muscle.

Patten, Glen Stephen
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008
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From animal experimentation, and studies using in vitro models, there was evidence in the literature to suggest that dietary fibre may influence contractility and motility of the gastrointestinal tract and long chain (LC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from marine sources may influence contractility of smooth muscle cells in blood vessels. The hypothesis of this thesis was that dietary fish oil and/or fibre influence the contractility of isolated intact sections of gut smooth muscle tissue from small animal models. Methodology was established to measure in vitro contractility of intact pieces of guinea pig ileum with the serosal side isolated from the lumen. It was demonstrated that four amino acid peptides from κ-casein (casoxins) applied to the lumen overcame morphine-induced inhibition of contraction. Using this established technology, the guinea pig was used to investigate the effects of dietary fibre and fish oil supplementation on gut in vitro contractility. In separate experiments, changes in sensitivity to electrically-driven and 8-iso-prostanglandin (PG)E₂-induced contractility were demonstrated for dietary fibre and fish oil. A modified, isolated gut super-perfusion system was then established for the rat to validate these findings. It was subsequently shown that LC n-3 PUFA from dietary fish oil significantly increased maximal contraction in response to the G-protein coupled receptor modulators...

Relative gut lengths of coral reef butterflyfishes (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

Berumen, M.L.; Pratchett, M.S.; Goodman, B.A.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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Variation in gut length of closely related animals is known to generally be a good predictor of dietary habits. We examined gut length in 28 species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae), which encompass a wide range of dietary types (planktivores, omnivores, and corallivores). We found general dietary patterns to be a good predictor of relative gut length, although we found high variation among groups and covariance with body size. The longest gut lengths are found in species that exclusively feed on the living tissue of corals, while the shortest gut length is found in a planktivorous species. Although we tried to control for phylogeny, corallivory has arisen multiple times in this family, confounding our analyses. The butterflyfishes, a speciose family with a wide range of dietary habits, may nonetheless provide an ideal system for future work studying gut physiology associated with specialization and foraging behaviors.; M. L. Berumen, M. S. Pratchett, B. A. Goodman

Early life events influence whole-of-life metabolic health via gut microflora and gut permeability

Kerr, C.A.; Grice, D.M.; Tran, C.D.; Bauer, D.C.; Li, D.; Hendry, P.; Hannan, G.N.
Fonte: Informa Healthcare Publicador: Informa Healthcare
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
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The capacity of our gut microbial communities to maintain a stable and balanced state, termed ‘resilience’, in spite of perturbations is vital to our achieving and maintaining optimal health. A loss of microbial resilience is observed in a number of diseases including obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There are large gaps in our understanding of why an individual’s co-evolved microflora consortium fail to develop resilience thereby establishing a trajectory towards poor metabolic health. This review examines the connections between the developing gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function in the neonate, infant and during the first years of life. We propose that the effects of early life events on the gut microflora and permeability, whilst it is in a dynamic and vulnerable state, are fundamental in shaping the microbial consortia’s resilience and that it is the maintenance of resilience that is pivotal for metabolic health throughout life. We review the literature supporting this concept suggesting new potential research directions aimed at developing a greater understanding of the longitudinal effects of the gut microflora on metabolic health and potential interventions to recalibrate the ‘at risk’ infant gut microflora in the direction of enhanced metabolic health.; Caroline A. Kerr...

Charakterisierung und Isolierung von adulten entodermalen Stamm- und Vorläuferzellen aus dem Mikrokompartiment der Darmkrypte; Characterization and isolation of adult entodermal stem and progenitor cells of the gut

Bareiß, Petra
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
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Stammzellmarker sind wichtige Werkzeuge, um Stammzellen isolieren und charakterisieren zu können. Im Bereich des Darmepithels sind bisher wenige Gene oder Proteine beschrieben worden, die spezifisch in den Stammzellen exprimiert werden. Eine Isolation der Stamm- bzw. Vorläuferzellen ist bislang nicht publiziert worden. Das Ziel dieser Promotionsarbeit war daher einen Antikörper zu finden, der eine Selektion und anschließende Charakterisierung der entodermalen Stamm- und Vorläuferzellen des humanen Darmepithels ermöglicht. Zunächst wurde die dazu notwendige Isolation des gesamten Darmepithels sowie die anschließende Zellvereinzelung etabliert. In einem nächsten Schritt wurde für die Identifizierung der intestinalen Stamm- und Vorläuferzellen ein Antikörperscreening an humanen Darmschnitten und isolierten Darmepithelzellen mittels Immunhistochemien bzw. FACS-Analysen vorgenommen. Dabei wurden zusätzlich vergleichende Analysen an Caco-2-Zellen und Tumorgeweben durchgeführt. Diese Untersuchungen ergaben mit dem SSEA-1-Antikörper einen interessanten Kandidaten, mit dessen Hilfe erstmals eine Anreicherung von Zellen des Proliferationskompartiments des Darmepithels etabliert werden konnte. Zellzyklusanalysen der SSEA-1 positiven Zellen verdeutlichten dabei deren proliferative Eigenschaften. In ersten Experimenten wurden anschließend isolierte intakte Krypten sowie mittels MACS angereicherte SSEA-1-positive Zellen auf ihr Integrationsverhalten in intestinalen Geweben mit Hilfe des in dieser Arbeit etablierten Gewebekulturmodells untersucht. Dieses in vitro-Modell des Darmes weist aufgrund der dreidimensionalen Zellorganisation...

The relationship between human beta-defensins and anaerobic commensal gut microbiota; Die Beziehung zwischen humanen Beta-Defensinen und anaeroben kommensalen Darmbakterien

Schröder, Björn Ole
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
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Humans are permanently confronted with microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi and viruses. They do not only colonize outer surfaces but also grow in large numbers in the human intestine. In the gut, the majority of microbes are commensal bacteria, which have beneficial effects on the host. They assist in degrading complex carbohydrates, provide vitamins and modulate the intestinal immune system. As important components of the innate immune system, endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) defend against bacteria, fungi and some viruses. They are small, cationic peptides produced by multicellular organisms, including vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. One of the major classes of AMPs are the defensins, which are characterized by a conserved array of disulphide bridges. Depending on their disulphide-connectivity, they are sub-grouped into alpha- and beta-defensins. Probiotics, which are live nonpathogenic microorganisms that confer health benefits on the host when administered in adequate amounts, have been found to stimulate beta-defensin production in different cell culture experiments. They exhibit a beneficial effect after application in different diseases, but the molecular basis of their in vivo effect was unclear. In this work it is described that the probiotic E. coli Nissle stimulates the secretion of human beta-defensin 2 (hBD-2) into the feces of healthy volunteers. The probiotics used are effectively killed by hBD-2 and other antimicrobial peptides...

Origin and differentiation of gut endocrine cells

Rawdon, B.B.; Andrew, A.
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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The epithelium of the digestive tract contains endocrine cells which produce serotonin and an array of regulatory peptides. It is now irrefutably established that gut endocrine cells are not of neural crest nor even of neurectodermal origin. Furthermore, the proposal that they might originate from neuroendocrine-programmed epiblast has been retused by recent evidence that they share the endodermal stem cell pool with the other epithelia1 cells of the gut. Based on the available evidence, a working hypothesis for the differentiation of gut endocrine cells has been developed. It is proposed that initially the developing gut acquires an underlying tendency to differentiate into intestine: the endoderm has the potential to form a wide range of endocrine cell types. A little later, some influence operative over the length of the presumptive gut imposes a regionally specific pattern on the tract. This process concerns morphogenesis and pre-selection of the range and proportions of the endocrine cell types. Thereafter, the mesenchyme feeds to the endoderm confirmatory signals reinforcing this pre-selected regional pattern of endocrine cells. Once the different endocrine cell types have started to differentiate, their maturation is effected by circulating factors which include glucocorticoid hormone: this process is mediated by the mesenchyme. Other factors concerned at various stages of gut endocrine cell differentiation could be other hormones...

Gut glycoconjugates in Sparus aurata L. Pisces, Teleostei. A comparative histochemical study in larval and adult ages

Domeneghini, C.; Pannelli Straini, R.; Veggetti, A.
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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This study examined the gut of the euryaline fish Sparus aurata, from the pharynx to the rectum. The specimens were collected from adult animals, both sexes, and several larval and juvenile stages, from 4 to 135 days of age. Histochemical methods to distinguish neutral and acidic glycoconjugates, as well as specific techniques to identify acidic glycoconjugates which contained 0-acylated sialic acids were used. The presence and distribution of sugar residues in the oligosaccharide side chain of glycoconjugates were investigated with the use of biotinylated lectins. The pharynx and oesophagus of adult fishes showed the presence of abundant secretory cells which synthesized a large quantity of neutral, as well as sulphated and sialylated glycoconjugates, with different cellular combinations of them in the proximal and distal tract. This may be related to the complex functions carried out by this end of the gut in a marine euryaline fish. Epithelia1 secretory cells were found in the developing oesophagus during larval life (14 days) earlier than in the stomach and intestine (34 days). The simple columnar epithelium that lined the gastric mucosa of adult fish synthesized a mixture of neutral and acidic glycoconjugates...

Gut microbiota and immunity: possible role in sudden infant death syndrome

Goldwater, P.N.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
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The gut microbiome influences the development of the immune system of young mammals; the establishment of a normal gut microbiome is thought to be important for the health of the infant during its early development. As the role of bacteria in the causation of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is backed by strong evidence, the balance between host immunity and potential bacterial pathogens is likely to be pivotal. Bacterial colonization of the infant colon is influenced by age, mode of delivery, diet, environment, and antibiotic exposure. The gut microbiome influences several systems including gut integrity and development of the immune system; therefore, gut microflora could be important in protection against bacteria and/or their toxins identified in SIDS infants. The aims of the review are to explore (1) the role of the gut microbiome in relation to the developmentally critical period in which most SIDS cases occur; (2) the mechanisms by which the gut microbiome might induce inflammation resulting in transit of bacteria from the lumen into the bloodstream; and (3) assessment of the clinical, physiological, pathological, and microbiological evidence for bacteremia leading to the final events in SIDS pathogenesis.; Paul N. Goldwater

Cellular Mechanisms Regulating Single Lumen Formation in the Zebrafish Gut

Lento, Ashley Alvers
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2014
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The formation of a single lumen during tubulogenesis is crucial for the development and function of many organs. Although 3D cell culture models have identified molecular mechanisms controlling lumen formation in vitro, their function during vertebrate organogenesis is poorly understood. In this work we used the zebrafish gut as a model to investigate single lumen formation during tubulogenesis. Previous work has shown that multiple small lumens enlarge through fluid accumulation and coalesce into a single lumen. However, since lumen formation occurs in the absence of apoptosis, other cellular processes are necessary to facilitate single lumen formation.

Using light sheet microscopy and genetic approaches we identified a distinct intermediate stage in lumen formation, characterized by two adjacent un-fused lumens. These lumens are separated by cell contacts that contain basolateral adhesion proteins. We observed that lumens arise independently from each other along the length of the gut and do not share a continuous apical surface. Resolution of this intermediate phenotype into a single, continuous lumen requires the remodeling of basolateral contacts between adjacent lumens and subsequent lumen fusion.

Furthermore...

Microbial diversity and digestive enzyme activities in the gut of earthworms found in sawmill industries in Abeokuta, Nigeria

Julius A.,Bamidele; Adewunmi B.,Idowu; Kehinde O.,Ademolu; Adijat O.,Atayese
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
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The growing demand for wood has resulted in large volumes of wood wastes that are daily released to the soil from the activities of sawmills in South-Western Nigeria. In an attempt to setup a bioremediation model for sawdust, this study therefore aimed at evaluating microbial diversity, and the level of digestive enzymes in the gut of earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae, Libyodrilus violaceous and Hyperiodrilus africanus) of sawmill origin. Four major sawmills located in Abeokuta (7o9’12” N - 3o19’35” E), namely Lafenwa, Sapon, Isale-Ake and Kotopo sawmills were used for this study. The arboretum of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta was used as control. Gut microbial analysis was carried out using the pour-plate method while digestive enzyme activities in the earthworm guts were done by the spectrophotometric method. Higher microbial counts (28.5±0.1x10³-97.0±0.1x10³cfu for bacteria and 7.0±0.1x10³-96.0±0.1x10³cfu for fungi) and microbial diversity were recorded in the gut of earthworms of the sawmill locations than those of the control site (17.5±0.1x10³cfu for bacteria and 4.5±0.1x10³cfu for fungi). Streptococcus mutans and Proteus spp.were common in the gut of E. eugeniae, and L. violaceous from the study sawmills...

Gut microbiota and the development of obesity

Boroni Moreira,A. P.; Fiche Salles Teixeira,T.; Gouveia Peluzio,M.ª do C.; Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas,R. de
Fonte: Nutrición Hospitalaria Publicador: Nutrición Hospitalaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2012 ENG
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Introduction: Advances in tools for molecular investigations have allowed deeper understanding of how microbes can influence host physiology. A very interesting field of research that has gained attention recently is the possible role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. Objective: The aim of this review is to discuss mechanisms that explain the influence of gut microbiota on host metabolism. Results and discussion: The gut microbiota is important for normal physiology of the host. However, differences in their composition may have different impacts on host metabolism. It has been shown that obese and lean subjects present different microbiota composition profile. These differences in microbiota composition may contribute to weight imbalance and impaired metabolism. The evidences from animal models suggest that it is possible that the microbiota of obese subjects has higher capacity to harvest energy from the diet providing substrates that can activate lipogenic pathways. In addition, microorganisms can also influence the activity of lipoprotein lipase interfering in the accumulation of triglycerides in the adipose tissue. The interaction of gut microbiota with the endocannabinoid system provides a route through which intestinal permeability can be altered. Increased intestinal permeability allows the entrance of endotoxins to the circulation...