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Variação temporal e crescimento do zooplâncton no litoral norte de São Paulo, com ênfase em estágios imaturos de copépodes; Zooplankton temporal variation and growth of in the north coast of São Paulo, with emphasis on copepod immature stages

Martinelli Filho, José Eduardo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/12/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
O objetivo desta tese foi o estudo da variabilidade temporal, crescimento e produção do zooplâncton metazoário, com ênfase sobre estágios imaturos de copépodes, na região costeira de Ubatuba (SP, Brasil). Para tal, a comunidade zooplanctônica foi estudada durante as estações de verão e inverno em regime de dias alternados, para os anos de 2009 a 2011, através de coletas realizadas com redes de malha de 20 e 100 m. Índices ecológicos como densidade, diversidade e equitabilidade foram calculados. Os estágios imaturos de copépodes foram submetidos a experimentos de coortes artificiais em quatro classes de tamanho (50-80, 80-100, 100-150 e 150-200 m) para a determinação das taxas de crescimento de 14 táxons em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento. A biomassa foi estimada através de equações de regressão comprimento-peso para o posterior cálculo da produção secundária. A incidência e possíveis efeitos de um protista alveolado parasita (Ellobiopsis sp.) sobre o crescimento de copépodes hospedeiros, com ênfase sobre a família Paracalanidae, também foi avaliada. A comunidade de copépodes esteve representada por 66 espécies e caracterizada por valores relativamente altos de diversidade e equitabilidade em relação aos demais trabalhos na plataforma interna da região sudeste do país. Os copépodes foram o grupo dominante...

Growth rates in modern speleothems from Santana Cave, Brazil, by the Pb-210-method

Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Karmann, I.; Baskaran, M. M.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier B.V. Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier B.V. Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 168-177
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Santana Cave is located at the Upper Ribeira Touristic State Park (PETAR-Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira) in southern São Paulo State, Brazil. This paper describes Pb-210 activity concentration data in soda straw stalactites samples collected at Salao das Flores in Santana Cave that is a fossil tributary of the cave river. Non-expensive alpha counting following some analytical steps for extracting and depositing Pb-210 were used for providing the Pb-210 data. In the analyzed samples, Pb-210 values of increasingly older samples fitted an exponential curve, thus suggesting that the production of Pb-210 has been constant with time. Also, the near-ideal fit indicated that the growth was uniform and there was no break in the continuous growth. The soda straw growth rates were determined from the best fit to the exponential curve through the Pb-210 activity concentration. The results of the measurements allowed estimate a longitudinal rate corresponding to 1.3 mm/yr and a lateral rate of 0.01 mm/yr, which permitted calculate times of 70 years and 317-498 years for their formation, respectively. The lateral growth rate is compatible with values from studies of chemical weathering rates held under laboratory and natural conditions. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Estimation of biomass concentration and multiple specific growth rates of fed-batch fermentation of recombinant E. coli

Lubenova, V.; Rocha, I.; Ferreira, E. C.
Fonte: Union of Automation and Informatics Publicador: Union of Automation and Informatics
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2003 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.89%
In this paper, a two step estimation approach is proposed for estimation of multiple (specific) growth rates and biomass concentration of fed-batch fermentation of recombinant E. coli. It is considered the case when the process is described using a switch between two partial sub-models. On the first step two out of the three growth rates are estimated on the basis of observer-based estimators using on-line measurements of acetate concentration. In the second step, the third biomass growth rate and the biomass concentration, are estimated for both submodels, on the basis of estimation algorithms using on-line measurements of glucose concentration. The performances of the proposed estimation algorithms are investigated by simulations for a model of fed-batch fermentation of recombinant E. coli.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) – PRAXIS XXI/BD/16961/98 , Programa Operacional “Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação” (POCTI) - POCTI BPD/6950/2001.

Job Growth and Finance : Are Some Financial Institutions Better Suited to Early Stages of Development Than Others?

Cull, Robert; Xu, L. Colin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper combines firm-level data from 89 countries with updated country-level data on financial structure, and uses two estimation approaches. It finds that in low-income countries, labor growth is swifter in countries with a higher level of private credit/gross domestic product; the positive effect of bank credit is especially pronounced in industries that depend heavily on external finance; and banking development is positively associated with more physical and human capital investment. These findings are consistent with predictions from new structural economics. In high-income countries, labor growth rates are increasing in the level of stock market capitalization, which is also consistent with predictions from new structural economics, although the analysis is unable to provide evidence that the association is causal. It finds no evidence that small-scale firms in low-income countries benefit most from private credit market development. Rather, the labor growth rates of larger, capital-intensive firms increase more with the level of private credit market development...

Post-HIPC growth dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa

Bayraktar, Nihal; Fofack, Hippolyte
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
Access to debt relief under the Highly Indebted Poor Country Initiative enhanced the growth performance across Sub-Saharan Africa, especially in the subset of debt-ridden low-income countries. Over the past few years, these Completion Point countries have enjoyed significantly higher investments and growth rates, primarily fueled by the expanding fiscal space of the post-Highly Indebted Poor Country Initiative era. They are also weathering the adverse effects of the global crisis much better than their non-Highly Indebted Poor Country Initiative counterparts. Despite these growth rebounds, the region is not likely to meet the Millennium Development Goals, however. Long-term growth projections from a simple macroeconomic model, which is applied to Ethiopia, suggest that prospects for reversing the widening income gaps with other regions of the developing world are limited. Under the baseline scenario, assuming current growth trends, the estimates show that it could take more than five decades for per capita real income to double in Ethiopia. However...

Distributions in Motion : Economic Growth, Inequality, and Poverty Dynamics

Ferreira, Francisco H.G.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%
The joint determination of aggregate economic growth and distributional change has been studied empirically from at least three different perspectives. A macroeconomic approach that relies on cross-country data on poverty, inequality, and growth rates has generated some interesting stylized facts about the correlations between these variables, but has not shed much light on the underlying determinants. "Meso-" and microeconomic approaches have fared somewhat better. The microeconomic approach, in particular, builds on the observation that growth, changes in poverty, and changes in inequality are simply different aggregations of information on the incidence of economic growth along the income distribution. This paper reviews the evolution of attempts to understand the nature of growth incidence curves, from the statistical decompositions associated with generalizations of the Oaxaca-Blinder method, to more recent efforts to generate "economically consistent" counterfactuals, drawing on structural, reduced-form...

Global Economic Prospects, Volume 6, January 2013 : Assuring Growth Over the Medium Term

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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55.99%
More than four years after the global financial crisis hit, high-income countries struggle to restructure their economies and regain fiscal sustainability. Developing countries, where growth is 1-2 percentage points below what it was during the pre-crisis period, have been affected by the weakness in high-income countries. To regain pre-crisis growth rates, they will need to focus on productivity-enhancing domestic policies rather than demand stimulus. Although the major risks to the global economy are similar to those of a year ago, the likelihood that they will materialize has diminished, as has the magnitude of estimated impacts should these events occur. Major downside risks include the loss of access to capital markets by vulnerable Euro Area countries, lack of agreement on U.S. fiscal policy and the debt ceiling, and commodity price shocks. In an environment of slow growth and continued volatility, a steady hand is required in developing countries to avoid pro-cyclical policy and to rebuild macroeconomic buffers so that authorities can react in the case of new external or domestic shocks.

Trade, Growth, and Poverty

Dollar, David; Kraay, Aart
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.99%
The evidence from individual cases and from cross-country analysis supports the view that globalization leads to faster growth and poverty reduction in poor countries. To determine the effect of globalization on growth, poverty, and inequality, the authors first identify a group of developing countries that are participating more in globalization. China, India, and several other large countries are part of this group, so well over half the population of the developing world lives in these globalizing economies. Over the past 20 years, the post-1980 globalizers have seen large increases in trade and significant declines in tariffs. Their growth rates accelerated between the 1970s and the 1980s and again between the 1980s and the 1990s, even as growth in the rich countries and the rest of the developing world slowed. The post-1980 globalizers are catching up to the rich countries, but the rest of the developing world (the non-globalizers) is falling further behind. Next, the authors ask how general these patterns are...

Republic of Niger; Niger - Tendances de la pauvreté, l’inégalité, et la croissance, 2005-2011; Trends of Poverty, Inequality, and Growth, 2005-2011

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The ability to accurately monitor poverty trends is crucial to ensure the adoption of effective antipoverty policies and to assess progress toward the achievement of national development goals. In Niger, efforts to assess poverty dynamics between 2005 and 2011 are complicated by methodological differences in the three household surveys conducted over the period, in 2005, 2007-08 and 2011. While Niger’s overall poverty rate has dropped significantly between 2005 and 2011, changes in the poverty incidence are highly uneven across location types. Among the major causes of persistent poverty are the country’s minimal economic diversification and extremely limited agricultural infrastructure, which leave the majority of Nigerien households dependent on highly vulnerable farming and livestock production. In addition, the country’s extremely high rate of population growth presents a serious obstacle to sustainable poverty reduction. Not only does Niger have one of the highest population growth rates in the world...

Sri Lanka : From Peace Dividend to Sustained Growth Acceleration

Fonseka, Daminda; Pinto, Brian; Prasad, Mona; Rowe, Francis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.01%
Following the cessation of hostilities in May 2009, the Government of Sri Lanka has announced a suitably ambitious macroeconomic vision to capitalize on the peace dividend. Its goals include growing at 8 percent or more per year and lowering government indebtedness from around 80 to 60 percent of GDP by 2015. This paper's main finding is that while some post-conflict bounce is only to be expected, sustaining high growth presents significant challenges. A substantial rise in the national investment and savings rates will be needed to sustain growth rates of 8 percent even when accompanied by a significant rise in total factor productivity growth. With the government's balance sheet constrained by its desire to lower public indebtedness, private investment will need to become the engine of growth. This places high priority on better infrastructure, clear signals about the relative roles of the public and private sectors, and hard budget constraints and competition both to strengthen the investment climate and spur technological upgrading in pursuit of faster productivity growth.

Pakistan : Finding the Path to Job-Enhancing Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Islamabad: World Bank Publicador: Islamabad: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.99%
Pakistan's rebound from the global financial crisis has been slow and fragile, and unless the economy changes course swiftly, it could face its second balance of payments crisis in five years. Its recovery from the 2008-09 global financial crisis has been the weakest in South Asia, with a double dip pattern. This report identifies conditions for a sustainable job-enhancing growth agenda for Pakistan. Policy must target both goals as they are closely intertwined. Higher growth rates can be achieved through productivity improvements (technology, innovation, better economic governance), but also from higher output extracted from factors-physical capital, labor, human capital, and land. This report considers whether Pakistan should pursue historical growth of 4.3 percent a year, supported by piecemeal structural reforms leading to partial and unsatisfactory outcomes-or rapid growth of 7 percent, requiring comprehensive big-bang reforms. The report is organized around three major themes: (i) the stylized facts, what are the pluses and minuses of Pakistan's patterns of growth and job creation? (ii) the diagnostics...

Saving and Growth in Sri Lanka

Hevia, Constantino; Loayza, Norman
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.99%
In the aftermath of its long-standing civil war, Sri Lanka is keen to reap the social and economic benefits of peace. Even in the middle of civil conflict, the country was able to grow at rates that surpassed those of its neighbors and most developing countries. It is argued, then, that the peace dividend may bring about even higher rates of economic growth. Is this possible? And if so, under what conditions? To be sure, Sri Lanka's high growth rate in the past three decades did not come for free. It took an increasing effort of resource mobilization in the country, with a rise in national saving from 15 percent of gross domestic product in the mid-1970s to 25 percent in 2010. This rise in national saving was fundamentally fueled and sustained by the private sector. In the future, however, the private saving rate is likely to decline because the demographic transition experienced in the country is bound to produce higher old dependency rates in the next two decades. However, the public sector has much room for reducing its deficits and increasing public investment. Similarly...

The Growth Report : Strategies for Sustained Growth and Inclusive Development; Informe sobre el crecimiento : estrategias para el crecimiento sostenido y el desarrollo incluyente

Commission on Growth and Development
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.02%
The report has four main parts. In the first, the commission reviews the 13 economies that have sustained, high growth in the postwar period. Their growth models had some common flavors: the strategic integration with the world economy; the mobility of resources, particularly labor; the high savings and investment rates; and a capable government committed to growth. The report goes on to describe the cast of mind and techniques of policy making that leaders will need if they are to emulate such a growth model. It concludes that their policy making will need to be patient, pragmatic, and experimental. In the second part, the commission lays out the ingredients a growth strategy might include. These range from public investment and exchange rate policies to land sales and redistribution. A list of ingredients is not enough to make a dish, of course, as Bob Solow, a Nobel Prize-winning economist and a member of the Commission, points out. The commission, however, refrains from offering policy makers a recipe...

Demand Growth versus Market Share Gains : Decomposing World Manufacturing Import Growth

Aksoy, M. Ataman; Ng, Francis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.01%
This paper decomposes manufacturing import growth rates in a selected set of large industrial and developing countries (five industrial and eight developing) and measures the relative contributions of domestic demand and market share changes for two separate periods 1991/92 - 2001/02 and 2001/02 - 2007/08. It also shows the shares of imports both from the rest of the world and from developing countries for aggregate and three-digit manufacturing sectors. Import growth is much higher during the 2000s driven by higher demand growth rates. While market share changes explain most of the growth during the 1990s, its contribution is relatively smaller during the 2000s. Imports from developing countries have grown much faster both in industrial and developing country markets driven primarily by market share changes. However, more than half of market share gains by developing countries are caused by the exports of China, which accounts for more than 70 percent of market share gains of developing countries in the sample countries during the 2000s. Despite rapid growth...

Economic Growth in Ghana : Determinants and Prospect

Raggl, Anna K.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
This paper employs a simple cross-country panel framework to assess the determinants of growth in Ghana's gross domestic product over the past four decades. A set of standard covariates is used to explain growth rates. Natural resource variables are included because the effects of natural resource rents in gross domestic products are of particular interest for Ghana. Using the preferred specification, Ghana's growth potential is predicted for the upcoming decades under different scenarios. The results indicate that under the most pessimistic scenario of no improvements in the determinants of growth compared with the period 2005-09, Ghana's gross domestic product per capita growth rates will stagnate at approximately 4.5 percent during the next decade and decrease thereafter. If the policy measures and country characteristics improve in the way they did in the past three decades, average per capita growth rates of roughly 5.5 percent could be reached during 2015-34. Taking into account the expected oil production until 2034 adds 0.6 percentage points to projected gross domestic product growth rates on average.

Global Growth and Distribution : Are China and India Reshaping the World?

Bussolo, Maurizio; De Hoyos, Rafael E.; Medvedev, Denis; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
Over the past 20 years, aggregate measures of global inequality have changed little even if significant structural changes have been observed. High growth rates of China and India lifted millions out of poverty, while the stagnation in many African countries caused them to fall behind. Using the World Bank's LINKAGE global general equilibrium model and the newly developed Global Income Distribution Dynamics (GIDD) tool, this paper assesses the distribution and poverty effects of a scenario where these trends continue in the future. Even by anticipating a deceleration, growth in China and India is a key force behind the expected convergence of per-capita incomes at the global level. Millions of Chinese and Indian consumers will enter into a rapidly emerging global middle class-a group of people who can afford, and demand access to, the standards of living previously reserved mainly for the residents of developed countries. Notwithstanding these positive developments, fast growth is often characterized by high urbanization and growing demand for skills...

Cote d'Ivoire : Volatility, Shocks and Growth

Bogetic, Zeljko; Espina, Carlos; Noer, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.99%
Key economic variables in Cote d'Ivoire vary widely from their long-run trends, moving in multi-year cyclical patterns. Cocoa prices move with cycles in growth rates, capital stock, real exchange rates, terms of trade, cocoa production, and coffee production and output. These patterns have become more pronounced since the 1970s as volatility increased. This paper characterize these cycles, estimates the cocoa price-quantity relationship, and analyzes co-movements due to shocks generate a forecast. Three key conclusions follow. First, the economy of Cote d'Ivoire has experienced two fundamental transitions, one in 1976 related to cocoa, and another in 1994 related to exchange rates. From 1960 to 1976, world cocoa prices grew steadily, and then fell in real terms. The country's growth showed a similar pattern. An econometric model indicates that the relationship between cocoa price and quantity experienced a break in 1976 and provides evidence of Cote d'Ivoire's significant influence on world cocoa prices. Second...

Book review: Sazhina, L.I. - 2006. Breeding, growth rates, and production of marine copepods

Calbet, Albert
Fonte: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España) Publicador: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España)
Tipo: Artículo
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.84%
Book review of: Sazhina, L.I. – 2006. Breeding, growth rates, and production of marine copepods. Universities Press, Hyderabad, India. 160 pp. ISBN 81 7371 438 X PB (translated from Russian).; This monograph, resulting from the translation to English of an original work by L.I. Sazhina (1987), presents an extended body of information regarding copepod growth and production for a wide range of ecosystems, including regions of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, and the Mediterranean and Black Seas. The monograph offers precious and unique data on fecundity of 85 copepod species, and a detailed study of the life cycle of 29 species.; Peer reviewed

Factors affecting growth of the spiny lobsters Panulirus gracilis and Panulirus inflatus (Decapoda: Palinuridae) in Guerrero, México

Briones-Fourzán,Patricia; Lozano-Álvarez,Enrique
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.99%
The effects of sex, injuries, season and site on the growth of the spiny lobsters Panulirus gracilis, and P. inflatus, were studied through mark-recapture techniques in two sites with different ecological characteristics on the coast of Guerrero, México. Panulirus gracilis occurred in both sites, whereas P. inflatus occurred only in one site. All recaptured individuals were adults. Both species had similar intermolt periods, but P. gracilis had significantly higher growth rates (mm carapace length week -1 ) than P. inflatus as a result of a larger molt increment. Growth rates of males were higher than those of females in both species owing to larger molt increments and shorter intermolt periods in males. Injuries had no effect on growth rates in either species. Individuals of P. gracilis grew faster in site 1 than in site 2. Therefore, the effect of season on growth of P. gracilis was analyzed separately in each site. In site 2, growth rates of P. gracilis were similar in summer and in winter, whereas insite 1 both species had higher growth rates in winter than in summer. This could be due to spatial differences in processes related to changes in population density and food resources, which were documented in previous works. The overall results show that P. gracilis grows faster than P. inflatus...

An economical non-destructive method for estimating eelgrass, Zostera marina (Potamogetonaceae) leaf growth rates: formal development and use in northwestern Baja California

Solana-Arellano,Elena; Echavarria-Heras,Héctor; Franco-Vizcaíno,Ernesto
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.91%
Seagrass beds provide much of the primary production in estuaries; host many fishes and fish larvae, and abate erosion. The present study presents original analytical methods for estimating mean leaf-growth rates of eelgrass (Zostera marina). The method was calibrated by using data collected in a Z. marina meadow at Punta Banda estuary in Baja California, Mexico. The analytical assessments were based on measurements of leaf length and standard regression procedures. We present a detailed explanation of the formal procedures involved in the derivation of these analytical methods. The measured daily leaf-growth rate was 10.9 mm d-1 leaf-1. The corresponding value projected by our method was 10.2 mm d-1 leaf-1. The associated standard errors were of 0.53 and 0.56 mm d-1 leaf-1 respectively. The method was validated by projecting leaf-growth rates from an independent data set, which gave consistent results. The use of the method to obtain the mean leaf growth rate of a transplanted plot is also illustrated. Comparison of our leaf-growth data with previously reported assessments show the significant forcing of sea-surface temperature on eelgrass leaf dynamics. The formal constructs provided here are of general scope and can be applied to equivalent eelgrass data sets in a straightforward manner. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3): 1003-1013. Epub 2008 September 30.