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Economia Global e a "Americanização" da cultura Latino-Americana.; The Global Economy and the 'Americanization" of Latin American Culture

Migliori Neto, João
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/04/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Existe um sem número de obras que tratam da Economia Global (ou Globalização), analisando-a quanto aos aspectos econômicos, sociais, culturais, etc. Neste trabalho, utilizando-se as teorias de Gramsci, Althusser e outros sobre os Aparelhos Coercitivos de Estado, os Aparelhos de Hegemonia (Gramsci), os Aparelhos Ideológicos de Estado (Althusser) e a Indústria Cultural, partiu-se para uma perspectiva de Estado Transnacional Ampliado, liderado pelos Estados Unidos da América com as inevitáveis conseqüências para os países Latino-Americanos, no que tange aos aspectos econômicos e culturais. A necessária resistência a esse processo é enfatizada como a única saída possível para a América Latina, se quiser manter sua identidade perante a chamada "Americanização" econômico-cultural.; There are innumerable works on the issue of the Global Economy (or Globalization), analyzing the theme from economic, social and cultural aspects, etc. This work uses the theories of Gramsci, Althusser and others of the Coercive Apparatus of the State, the Hegemonic Apparatus (Gramsci), the Ideological Apparatus of the State (Althusser) and the Cultural Industry to move towards the perspective of an Enlarged Transnational State led by the United States of America and its inevitable consequences for Latin American nations on both the economic and cultural levels. Necessary resistance to this process is stressed as the only possible way out for Latin America...

The Global Financial Crisis and Development Thinking

Rogers, F. Halsey
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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56.31%
The global financial crisis has not only dealt a major blow to the global economy, but also shaken confidence in economic management in the developed world and the economic models that guide it. The crisis has revealed major market failures, especially in the housing bubble and its transmission to the financial system, but also glaring state failures that propagated and exacerbated the crisis. Will the events of the past two years lead to major shifts in thinking about development economics, and should they? This paper assesses that question for several key domains of development thinking, including the market-state balance, macroeconomic management, globalization, development financing, and public spending. On the one hand, changed global circumstances and new awareness of vulnerability should lead to some policy changes, as developing countries take steps to reduce and buffer risks, including risks generated in developed countries. At the same time, the crisis should largely reinforce the Post-Washington Consensus on development that has emerged over the past decade -- a world view that aims to achieve private sector-driven growth but sees a facilitating role for the state...

Rebalancing, Growth, and Development in a Multipolar Global Economy

Qureshi, Zia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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56.23%
Reduction of large and persistent external imbalances is currently a key focus of G-20 discussions. The paper argues that in a progressively multipolar world economy, the goals of global rebalancing, growth, and development are increasingly inter-linked. Growth-oriented rebalancing calls for emphasizing structural reforms and leveraging the role of developing countries in supporting strong and balanced global growth.

Global Economic Prospects, Volume 6, January 2013 : Assuring Growth Over the Medium Term

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.25%
More than four years after the global financial crisis hit, high-income countries struggle to restructure their economies and regain fiscal sustainability. Developing countries, where growth is 1-2 percentage points below what it was during the pre-crisis period, have been affected by the weakness in high-income countries. To regain pre-crisis growth rates, they will need to focus on productivity-enhancing domestic policies rather than demand stimulus. Although the major risks to the global economy are similar to those of a year ago, the likelihood that they will materialize has diminished, as has the magnitude of estimated impacts should these events occur. Major downside risks include the loss of access to capital markets by vulnerable Euro Area countries, lack of agreement on U.S. fiscal policy and the debt ceiling, and commodity price shocks. In an environment of slow growth and continued volatility, a steady hand is required in developing countries to avoid pro-cyclical policy and to rebuild macroeconomic buffers so that authorities can react in the case of new external or domestic shocks.

Korea and the Knowledge-based Economy : Making the Transition

Dahlman, Carl; Anderson, Thomas
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and OECD Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and OECD
EN_US
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56.32%
Knowledge is fast becoming a key factor in economic and social development worldwide. Rapid innovations in science, communications and computing technologies are opening up new opportunities for countries to harness knowledge and participate more fully in the global economy. Developing countries that successfully make the transition to the knowledge-based economy will have unprecedented possibilities to become more competitive in world markets and to participate in the global information society. New technologies can also extend the benefits of knowledge to all segments of society and help countries close the gap in living standards among their citizens. This book defines a knowledge-based economy as one where knowledge is created, acquired, transmitted and used effectively by enterprises, organizations, individuals and communities. It does not focus narrowly on high-technology industries or on information and communications technologies, but rather presents a framework for analyzing a range of policy options in education...

How Much Does an Increase in Oil Prices Affect the Global Economy? Some Insights from a General Equilibrium Analysis

Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
A global computable general equilibrium model is used to analyze the economic impacts of rising oil prices with endogenously determined availability of biofuels to mitigate those impacts. The negative effects on the global economy are comparable to those found in other studies, but the impacts are unevenly distributed across countries/regions or sectors. The agricultural sectors of high-income countries, which are relatively energy intensive, would suffer more from rising oil prices than would those in lower-income countries, whereas the reverse is true for the impacts across manufacturing sectors. The impacts are especially strong for oil importers with relatively energy-intensive manufacturing and trade, such as India and China. Although the availability of biofuels does mitigate some of the negative impacts of rising oil prices, the benefit is small because the capacity of biofuels to economically substitute for fossil fuels on a large scale remains limited.

Kazakhstan : Solid Growth, Unsettled Global Environment - Kazakhstan Economic Update, Fall 2013

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.22%
While the world economy continues to be unsettled, economic growth in Kazakhstan has been solid. Strong domestic demand, coupled with increased oil output and favorable weather conditions, is likely to boost economic growth. An expansion of credit was the key driver of growth in private consumption and investment activity in 2013. Income growth in the country had a positive impact on poverty indicators, with prosperity shared broadly. Prudent macroeconomic policy has helped the economic performance. Prospects of additional oil output with Kashagan coming on stream will help boost economic activity in the coming years and increase Kazakhstan s vulnerability to external shocks unless the country succeeds in diversifying its endowments from natural resources to stronger institutions and higher quality human capital. In his recent speech on the strategic vision Kazakhstan-2050, the President of Kazakhstan highlighted the need to diversify the endowments of the country to achieve its development objectives. He reiterated the key development priorities for the country to become one of the top 30 developed countries by 2050. Trade policy will remain a central instrument to help the country integrate into the global economy...

What Are the Implications for Global Value Chains When the Market Shifts from the North to the South?

Kaplinsky, Raphael; Farooki, Masuma
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.25%
Rapid growth in many low-income economies was fuelled by the insertion of producers into global value chains feeding into high-income northern markets. This paper charts the evolution of financial and economic crisis in the global economy and argues that the likely outcome will be sustained growth in the two very large Asian Driver economies of China and India and stagnation in the historically dominant northern economies. Given the nature of demand in low-income southern economies, it is likely to be reflected in sustained demand for commodities, with other southern economy producers in global value chains being forced into lower levels of value added. Standards are likely to be of considerably reduced significance in value chains feeding into China and India.

Changes in equity risk perceptions: global consequences and policy responses

McKibbin, Warwick J; Vines, David
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 1154233 bytes; 360 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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The current weakness in the global economy has generated a debate on the likely outlook for the world economy and the appropriate response for monetary policies. The world economy is currently being buffeted by a number of major shocks. A particular feature has been the large fall in equity markets in many countries. In this paper we use the MSG3 global economic model to assess the impact on the global economy of a sharp rise in the equity risk premium in a number of countries. In particular we examine whether a rise in equity risk premia (or fall in productivity which has many similar implications) is a shock to aggregate supply or aggregate demand. We explore the difference in the transmission mechanism if the shocks occur just in one country (i.e. the United States) versus across the OECD generally. We then assess the appropriate responses of monetary policy to shocks of this type and explore whether there are gains to coordinating the monetary policy responses of the G7.; no

Climate change and food security to 2030: a global economy-wide perspective

Valenzuela, Ernesto; Anderson, Kym
Fonte: Asociación Española de Economía Agraria (AEEA)/Spanish Association of Agricultural Economics Publicador: Asociación Española de Economía Agraria (AEEA)/Spanish Association of Agricultural Economics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 30 pages
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66.08%
The effects of climate change on agriculture raise major food security concerns. We use a global economy-wide model to assess the effects on farm product prices of expected yield changes. Also modelled is an expected adverse effect of higher temperatures and humidity in the tropics on the productivity of unskilled workers in developing countries. Given the degrees of uncertainty about plausible effects of climate change, our modelling accounts for a range of yield productivity and labor shocks. The results entail consequences for international agricultural prices, national food consumption, self sufficiency, net farm income and economic welfare.

Oil Prices and the Global Economy; A General Equilibrium Analysis

Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
A global computable general equilibrium model is used to analyze the economic impacts of rising oil prices with endogenously determined availability of biofuels to mitigate those impacts. The negative effects on the global economy are comparable to those found in other studies, but the impacts are unevenly distributed across countries/regions or sectors. The agricultural sectors of high-income countries, which are relatively energy intensive, would suffer more from a rising oil prices than that in lower-income countries, whereas the reverse is true for the impacts across manufacturing sectors. The impacts are especially strong for oil importers with relatively energy-intensive manufacturing and trade, such as India and China. While the availability of biofuels does mitigate some of the negative impacts of rising oil prices, the benefit is small because capacity of biofuels to economically substitute for fossil fuels on a large scale remains limited.

Connecting to Compete 2012 : Trade Logistics in the Global Economy

Arvis, Jean-François; Mustra, Monica Alina; Ojala, Lauri; Shepherd, Ben; Saslavsky, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Knowledge Economy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
This is the third edition of connecting to compete: trade logistics in the global economy. At its heart is the Logistics Performance Index (LPI), which the World Bank has produced every two years since 2007. The LPI measures on-the-ground trade logistics performance this year, in 155 countries helping national leaders, key policymakers, and private sector traders understand the challenges they and their trading partners face in reducing logistical barriers to international commerce. Logistics, organizing the movement of goods over time and space, has evolved from its 19th century military roots to today's international supply chains. As the backbone of international trade, logistics encompasses freight transportation, warehousing, border clearance, payment systems, and many other functions. These functions are performed mostly by private service providers for private traders and owners of goods, but logistics is also important for the public policies of national governments and regional and international organizations. The LPI provides a simple...

Mauritius : From Preferences to Global Competitiveness, Report of the Aid for Trade Mission

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.28%
Mauritius is facing a sharp transition from dependence on trade preferences to open competition in the global economy. And it must do so in an unusually difficult environment. After 20 years of remarkable performance, the economy has fallen off a high growth plateau of about 6 percent toward the 2-3 percent range. The creation of new jobs is now too slow to prevent an increase in unemployment. Domestic investment has fallen, the external accounts have shifted from surplus into deficit by $300 million, and the country has sporadically lost reserves. This report, the first step in a process, outlines the trade competitiveness challenges facing Mauritius that, if confronted and managed, will pave the way to a return to a higher growth path. After the Government develops the specific actions in its program, the Bank will work with the government in costing the specific investments necessary to implement its program of trade competitiveness, and will help in mobilizing external support as part of the international community's effort put together a global program of aid for trade.

Advancing Innovation in the Republic of Tatarstan : A Framework for Competing and Thriving in the Global Economy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.26%
This report provides recommendations for transforming Tartarstan's traditional industrial economy into a globally competitive, knowledge based economy, and for involving Russia in the development process. A broad range of innovation policies are best handled at the regional level and are difficult to achieve through an approach solely based on national innovation. Regional innovation systems are constantly evolving and government must be flexible enough to support learning and interactions between innovation stakeholders and the ability of firms to find their competitive advantages in global markets.

Ascent after Decline : Regrowing Global Economies after the Great Recession

Canuto, Otaviano; Leipziger, Danny M.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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56.25%
This volume combines the analyses of leading experts on the various elements affecting economic growth and the policies required to spur that growth. Ascent after Decline: Regrowing Global Economies after the Great Recession identifies the main challenges to the economic recovery, such as rising debt levels, reduced trade prospects, and global imbalances, as well as the obstacles to growth posed by fiscal conundrums and lagging infrastructure. It also examines the way forward, beginning with the role of the state and then covering labor markets, information technology, and innovation. The common thread throughout the book is the view that economic re-growth will depend in large measure on smart policy choices and that the role of government has never been more crucial than at any time since the great depression. As members of the World Bank community, these issues are of particular importance to us, since without a resurrection of strong economic growth in major economies, the likelihood of rapid economic development in poorer developing countries is dampened. This is troubling because we have seen progress in many parts of the globe in the past decade...

Toward a Switchover of Locomotives in the Global Economy

Canuto, Otaviano
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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66.19%
The recovery in advanced economies is now exhibiting several signs of fragility and the medium-term growth prospects for these economies also look difficult. Could developing economies 'switch over' to become locomotives in the global economy, providing a countervailing force against downward trends? The view taken here says, yes, as long as appropriate domestic policies and reforms are pursued in developing countries.

Global Economic Prospects, Volume 2, January 2011 : Navigating Strong Currents

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
EN_US
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56.34%
Economic activity in most developing countries has, or is close to having, recovered. Supported by resurgence in international and domestic financial flows and higher commodity prices, most of the spare capacity in developing countries that was created by the crisis has been reabsorbed, and developing countries have regained trend growth rates close to those observed in the pre-crisis period. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. The next section discusses recent developments in global production, trade, and financial markets, and presents updates of the World Bank's forecast for the global economy and developing countries. The global economy is transitioning from the bounce-back phase of the recovery toward a period of slower but more sustainable growth. Growth in most developing countries is increasingly running into capacity constraints, while in high-income and developing Europe and Central Asia growth is hampered by the concentrated nature of slack and ongoing restructuring. In this environment, policy needs to be moving away from short-term demand stimulus toward measures that generate additional employment by enhancing the supply potential of economies. The global policy environment has become highly charged and uncertain...

In the Wake of the Global Crisis : Evidence from a New Quarterly Database of Export Competitiveness

Gaulier, Guillaume; Santoni, Gianluca; Taglioni, Daria; Zignago, Soledad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.22%
Over the past two decades, international trade has become a privileged engine of growth for much of the developing world. With the global economy evolving continuously and rapidly, countries must pay close attention to their positioning on the map of global trade and production. Within this framework, countries must also become aware of how they fare relative to competitors and to their past export performance. Of particular importance is the extent to which their performance is driven by exporter own supply-side capacity as opposed to external or compositional factors, including product and geographical specialization and how these trends compare across countries. This paper describes a new initiative that uses quarterly data for 2005q1-2013q1 to compute comparable indicators of export performance for 228 countries and territories. The database, the Export Competitiveness Database, reveals interesting patterns in trade performance. Export performance, stripped of compositional effects, was strongest for countries from the Asia and Pacific region...

RIT’s engineering honors program: product innovation in a global economy

Czernikowski, Roy; Bailey, Margaret; Borkholder, David; Marshall, Matthew; Nye, Alan; Reeve, N. Richard
Fonte: IEEE Publicador: IEEE
Tipo: Proceedings
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
The honors program in the Kate Gleason College of Engineering at Rochester Institute of Technology began in 2002. The program admits approximately thirty first year students each year and focuses upon product innovation in a global economy. The goal of the program is to provide talented engineering students with a full appreciation of the product development cycle, from concept to realization; in particular, how products are conceived, how decisions are made at the corporate level to pursue certain products and not others, and how product concepts are refined, engineered, and then manufactured for the marketplace. The first strategy being used is a two academic year course sequence covering topics ranging from teamwork and leadership to globalization. The second strategy involves taking students on two comprehensive “field trips” – one domestic and the other international, where students explore how companies, large and small, address product development. Prior to each trip students present background material on each company and after the company visit students engage in a discussion of the company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. This paper will describe the successful integration of this specialized series of courses with the domestic and international company visits to achieve student appreciation of product development in a global marketplace. Program and course assessment results will be presented.; This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases...

Implications for Indonesia of Asia’s rise in the global economy

Anderson, K.; Strutt, A.
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
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This article projects Indonesia’s production and trade patterns to 2020 and 2030 in the course of global economic development under various growth and policy scenarios. We support our projections of the global economy by employing the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model and version 8.1 of the GTAP database, along with supplementary data from a range of sources. Our baseline projection assumes that trade-related policies do not change in each region, but that endowments and real GDP do change, at exogenously selected rates. We use this baseline and its assumptions to analyse how potential global changes may affect the Indonesian economy over this and the next decade. We then consider the potential impacts of three policy reforms by 2020: an increase in global rice exports, associated with the opening of Myanmar; the recently imposed export taxes in Indonesia on unprocessed primary products; and the implementation of Indonesia’s new food law.; Kym Anderson, Anna Strutt