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An imperfect reality: gender mainstreaming and disarmament, demobilisation, rehabilitation and reintegration (DDRR) in Liberia

Basini, Helen. S.A
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
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46.88%
peer-reviewed; Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) programmes are a fundamental component in peacebulding operations and feature in most contemporary peace agreements. Since the conceptualisation of peacebuilding in the early 1990s, there has been a marked shift towards promoting the spread of liberal democracy, rule of law and rejuvenation of markets in countries emerging from conflict. This liberal peacebuilding approach has been criticised by scholars for creating sequencing difficulties, for imposing a form of Western Imperialism and for neglecting the local context. Furthermore, feminists consider this type of peacebuilding as limited as it focuses on the priorities of men in the post-conflict environment and fails to recognise women’s changed roles through conflict or their agency, and frequently expects them to return to conventional gender roles. Despite policy revisions to include women’s perspectives (e.g. UNSCR 1325) women are still viewed as victims and peacemakers, and their roles and needs are not sufficiently addressed. This is acutely evident in DDR programmes, which have neglected many of the concerns of women who help constitute fighting forces in modern warfare. Moves to include women through gender mainstreaming have not been researched in detail and in this respect this study provides an original contribution to knowledge. This study investigated the gender mainstreaming of DDRR in Liberia from both implementer and participant perspectives. This hybrid approach reveals that the gender provision only fully exerted an impact within the DD process with campaigns to improve participation. Proxy cases stretched budgets that meant that the gender mainstreaming of both the RR was virtually non-existent. Women were treated largely the same as men with a programme that focused solely on economic reintegration. Issues of enhancing gender equality were sidelined. Despite the majority not using the skills learnt through DDRR...

Study of gender mainstreaming in the Caribbean

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
EN
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47.07%
Includes bibliography; Background The mandate for gender mainstreaming underpins the comprehensive provisions of the Beijing Platform for Action which itself finds continuity with the concern for the development of institutional mechanisms for the advancement of women contained in the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies. Governments in the Caribbean have attempted in various ways to advance gender equity not only through substantive policy but also through administrative reform. In these attempts, governments have both made progress and confronted conceptual and operational difficulties. The United Nations mid-term review of the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action provides an opportunity to reflect on and assess governmental action in the mainstreaming of the responsibility for gender equity throughout the State sector. In facilitating this review process, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC); Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean conducted a study on gender mainstreaming among 10 Caribbean countries, namely, Barbados, Belize, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago.1 The study was funded and supported by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA); Gender Equity Fund. This paper attempts to describe and analyze how the countries under study have sought to institutionalise or routinise the responsibility for gender equity throughout government activities...

Strategic Gender Assessment of Mali

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Bamako Publicador: World Bank, Bamako
EN_US
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56.72%
This issues paper discusses a gender assessment exercise carried out in April-June 2005. It provides the government of Mali and its partners with proposals aimed at improving policies and activities that promote gender equity and equality (GEE). The study is divided into four sections: Section 1 presents the national context within which the study falls; Section 2 deals with the gender profile in Mali; Section 3 addresses the institutional framework for gender implementation in Mali; and Section 4 gives the conclusions and recommendations of the study. Based on the findings of the study, advocacy will be carried out among decision-makers to inform them about gender-specific developmental challenges, and encourage them to give concrete support to gender mainstreaming.

Enhancing the Role of Women in Water User Associations in Azerbaijan

Merkle, R.; Meerbach, D.; Akhmedova, A.; Bagirzadeh, M.; Dideron, S.; Javazadeh, L.; Rustamova, S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.88%
The purpose of this report on enhancing the role of women in water user associations in Azerbaijan is to provide guidance for mainstreaming gender in irrigation management projects in Azerbaijan and in the wider Caucasus and Central Asian regions in order to foster efficient and equitable development in irrigation management. The paper is divided in three chapters. Chapter one sets the background relating the themes of gender to water users associations (WUAs) and irrigation agriculture. It provides both the general sector background as well as an introduction of the overall study and research that was undertaken at the end of Irrigation Distribution System and Management Improvement Project (IDSMIP). Chapter two provides the informative basis for enhancing the role of women in irrigation management. It analyses and discusses the role of men and women in irrigation agriculture in Azerbaijan by synthesizing the findings of the gender survey. Chapter three provides lessons for WUAs in Azerbaijan on how to promote gender equity and for World Bank projects on how to operationalize gender mainstreaming in irrigation agriculture in the country. It also provides guidance in establishing an enabling environment that will foster gender equity in similar irrigation sector programs in the wider Caucasus and Central Asian region.

Mainstreaming Gender in Water and Sanitation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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57.15%
Gender is a concept that refers to socially constructed roles, behavior, activities and attributes that a particular society considers appropriate and ascribes to men and women. A useful definition of the concept of gender mainstreaming is provided by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (1997), suggests that mainstreaming a gender perspective is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programs, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making the concerns and experiences of women as well as men, an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programs in all political, economic and societal spheres, so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality. The chapters that follow highlight in a short summary form experiences of mainstreaming gender at various levels in the water and sanitation sector. It begins with a discussion on gender responses to policy and its requirement for analysis and clear policy objectives to guide operations. The second section touches on experiences of mainstreaming gender within sector operations...

Guidelines to Mainstream Gender in Transport Projects

Caballero, Luz
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.88%
The consideration of gender in transport is essential to ensure that transport is equitable, affordable, and provides access to resources and opportunities required for development. This note aims to provide guidance for mainstreaming gender into transport projects. It provides examples of how to do this, in relation to the various transport modes used in development operations by the World Bank, and well-known good practices in this area. The note is based on a number of key studies and projects from the World Bank and partner organizations, including the EU and UN. It highlights a number of constraints that women face in accessing transport infrastructure and services, as well as examples of interventions that could circumvent these constraints. Also, it identifies employment and participatory opportunities where women could play a role in the planning and implementation of transport operations. The information provided is not meant to be exhaustive but simply to draw attention to the most basic gender aspects in relation to transport.

Beyond Quality at Entry

Mollard, Ingrid; Brearley, Emily; Vyzaki, Marialena; Taivalmaa, Sanna-Liisa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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47.13%
The objective of this study was to go beyond a standard gender review of project design to increase knowledge of how and to what extent World Bank agriculture projects address gender issues during implementation. The study introduces a tool to track gender mainstreaming in the implementation phase of a project. The tool is then used to review the portfolio of current agriculture projects, establish a baseline, and suggest targets for gender mainstreaming for the future portfolio. There is a need to move beyond quality at entry to have a more realistic picture of gender mainstreaming in projects. The Agriculture Action Plan (2013-15) explicitly emphasizes the importance of reducing gender inequality in access to assets, services, collective action, and opportunities. The plan specifies key actions to increase the share of agriculture and rural development projects by 2015. That will (1) include gender analysis in its design, with a target of 100 percent, and (2) include gender mainstreaming in all three dimensions of design (analysis...

Gender Inclusion Strategies in PNPM

Azarbaijani-Moghaddam, Sippi
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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47.03%
The Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM) or National Community Empowerment Program is the world’s largest program of its kind with long term goals to reduce poverty by making development planning more inclusive, accountable, and reflective of local needs. PNPM currently covers about 70,000 rural and urban communities across Indonesia. PNPM works by giving communities block grants to spend on projects developed through a participatory, bottom-up planning process, facilitated by social and technical specialists who provide advice to communities without controlling funds. PNPM is supported by a multi-donor trust fund called the PNPM Support Facility (PSF). Part of PSF’s role is to provide more effective strategic support to the government’s objectives, especially by improving the effectiveness of PNPM’s gender action plan. Increasing women’s voice in community planning and decision-making has been an explicit goal of PNPM since its founding, and since 2007 PNPM Rural has had an overarching gender action plan to guide actions to involve women in all procedures. A maximum of 25 per cent of all PNPM funds are reserved to support proposals from village women’s groups for RLF groups referred to in this report as SPP. Women play increasingly central roles in PNPM’s kecamatan and village administration. The PSF engaged a gender specialist with expertise in working in challenging rural contexts to review the system and provide a short critical report and practical recommendation on gender sensitive approaches in the overall implementation of PNPM Rural. A PSF operational analyst with in depth knowledge of PNPM accompanied the specialist to the field. Objectives and outputs are laid out in full in described in Appendix 6. The report below lays out the findings and recommendations of the mission.

Gender mainstreaming and enlargement: the EU as negligent actor?

Bretherton, Charlotte
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 93763 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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66.97%
In its relations with the ‘near abroad’, and in particular with countries eager to attain membership status, the ability of the EU to adopt a proactive role in international politics has been very evident. Indeed, in the case of Central and East European applicants, the EU has used its position to play the role of mentor, shaping transition processes and policy preferences in order to ensure compatibility with the EU acquis. A notable exception in this case has been the EU’s evolving policy on gender relations. While there has been discussion of the formal, legal requirements of equality Directives, the EU’s declared strategy of gender mainstreaming has been disregarded. This absence represents a lost opportunity – for EU and CEEC officials to explore together the potential of, and impediments to, an effective mainstreaming strategy. This paper outlines the principles of gender mainstreaming, explains why gender issues are important in the context of enlargement and suggests reasons for the failure to adopt a mainstreaming strategy during the pre-enlargement period.; no

Gender mainstreaming versus diversity mainstreaming: Methodology as emancipatory politics

Eveline, J.; Bacchi, C.; Binns, J.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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66.86%
This article examines the question of whether and how the intersectional oppression of sexism and racism can be challenged by government policy. It draws on a case study of an Indigenous policy strategy in Australia to argue that, in contrast to concerns expressed by feminist policymakers, gender equality is not inevitably neglected when the target for remedial action is institutional racism. Our study suggests that successful action on Indigenous emancipation necessarily mobilizes a methodology for moving past one-dimensional category distinctions. Therefore, focusing on the task of translating declared policy goals into action can provide a way out of the impasse over whether ‘diversity’ or ‘gender’ is the better vehicle for mainstreaming equity policy. To develop its case, the article draws conclusions about the politics of methodology from gender mainstreaming debates, intersectionality theory and institutional ethnography, then uses our conclusions to analyze the political and methodological effectiveness of the Indigenous policy strategy.; Joan Eveline, Carol Bacchi and Jennifer Binns

Men-streaming food security: Gender, biodiversity and ecological sustainability

Wanner, T.
Fonte: Common Ground Publicador: Common Ground
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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56.82%
This paper examines the link between gender equality, biodiversity and food security by analysing the neglected role of men. The sustainability of biodiversity and the realisation of food security are issues with significant gender dimensions. Gender relations between men and women are important as it is becoming apparent that the future of food security is not only dependent on a reduction in resource-intensive agriculture but on more knowledge-intensive approaches which includes the exchange and interaction of different ideas and knowledge about natural resource management and food production, use and distribution. This paper argues that the emphasis on women and gender mainstreaming needs to include the role of men in food security. Gender mainstreaming approach with the sole focus on women can lead to declining ecological sustainability and thus food insecurity. In other words, food security not only needs to be gender mainstreamed but also men-streamed in order to establish and implement effective food security solutions.; Thomas Wanner

El camino hacia la transversalidad de género, el empoderamiento y la corresponsabilidad en laspolíticas de igualdad de género; The road to gender mainstreaming, empowerment and responsibility in gender equality policy

Fernández de Castro, Patricia
Fonte: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto de derechos humanos Bartolomé de las Casas Publicador: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto de derechos humanos Bartolomé de las Casas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2012 SPA
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Existen tres líneas estratégicas de actuación en el diseño y planificación de estas políticas por parte de la Administración General del Estado en España y la Comisión Europea, que son la transversalidad de género en las políticas públicas, la exigencia de tomar medidas que conduzcan al empoderamiento femenino y la corresponsabilidad como evolución del principio de conciliación. En este trabajo se ha tratado de conceptualizar detalladamente cada una de ellas para, en un segundo momento, describir cuál ha sido su evolución y desarrollo en la planificación política de los ejecutivos, como institución encargada de promover la igualdad de oportunidades entre mujeres y hombres y que representa, por tanto, un papel básico dentro de las políticas públicas de igualdad como actor clave en la elaboración, planificación y ejecución de las políticas de igualdad; There are three strategic lines of action in the design and planning of these policies by the Central Government in Spain and the European Commission, which are gender mainstreaming in public policies, the need for action leading to female empowerment and responsibility as an evolution of the principle of reconciliation. In this paper, we have tried to conceptualize in detail each of them to...

Roads to agency; Effects of Enhancing Women’s Participation in Rural Roads Projects on Women’s Agency

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Infrastructure projects, and more specifically, roads construction, and maintenance are one of the core operations of the World Bank. However, despite the increase of gender mainstreaming efforts in transport projects little is known about the effects of these interventions on women’s agency defined as the ability to make effective choices and transform these choices into desired outcomes’. This study aims to bridge this knowledge gap. The study looks at the effects of women’s participation in roads construction and maintenance and rural economy promotion activities on women’s agency, which has recently become a focus of study at the World Bank. Through individual interviews and focus groups the study assesses the effects of women-targeted interventions in three rural transport projects in Argentina, Nicaragua, and Peru. By focusing on agency, the study sheds light on effects of gender mainstreaming interventions that have more lasting effects on gender equality given the catalytic value of agency on other gender outcomes such as economic opportunities and endowments. The report is structured as follows: section one gives introduction. Second section describes the gender dimensions and agency-enhancing approaches in transport projects and the gender approaches in project implementation in the selected case studies. The third section provides a summary of the methodology of the study. The fourth section describes the key findings of the qualitative research. The fifth section presents the lessons learned to inform future rural transport interventions. The sixth section provides concluding remarks.

Mainstreaming Gender in Global Governance

HAFNER-BURTON, Emilie M.; POLLACK, Mark A.
Fonte: Sage Publications Ltd Publicador: Sage Publications Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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In this article, we seek to explain both the origins of gender mainstreaming as a 'policy frame' in International Relations, as well as the variable implementation of mainstrearning over time and across various international organizations. We emphasize that in the years since the UN Fourth World Women's Conference in Beijing (1995), mainstrearning has been endorsed and adopted not only by European organizations and governments, but also by nearly every important international organization, and we compare the adoption and implementation of mainstrearning in two international organizations, the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme. We suggest, however, that the rhetorical acceptance of mainstreaming by various international organizations obscures considerable diversity in both the timing and the nature of mainstreaming processes within and among organizations. This variation, we argue, can be explained in terms of the categories of political opportunity, mobilizing structures and strategic framing put forward by social movement theorists.

Gender and Environment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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57.03%
This report focuses on the nexus of environment and gender equality, defined as equality of access to and control over natural resources and development benefits; and equality of access to decision-making and representation for environmental and natural resources management process. The report provides recommendations to expand women's opportunities to own land; expand men's and women's knowledge and participation in reducing exposure to environmental hazards; strengthen gender mainstreaming efforts at the national policy level; improve women's participation at national, regional and local levels; and expand women's involvement in demand-side accountability mechanisms for environmental governance.

Truly Teaming : Partnering to Integrate Gender in Kenya’s Water Sector

Torkelsson, Asa; Rop, Rosemary; Wasike, Theresa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.87%
In spite of its importance in development and poverty reduction, the water sector has had one of the largest gaps between what women do and the influence they actually have. In Kenya, women are still underrepresented in water governance structures at all levels, yet they are the most negatively affected by unavailability of water. To substantially boost gender integration in the country's water sector, a team of professionals from the World Bank, the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), and the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MoWI) pooled their resources and energies. This smart lesson illustrates how forging nurturing partnerships with a wide variety of development partners can result in effective strategies for gender mainstreaming allowing us to do far more together than any one of us could do alone.

Gender and Macroeconomic Policy

Nallari, Raj; Griffith, Breda
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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This report aims to show how macroeconomic policies create differential opportunities for women and men. This volume comprises nine chapters covering four broad themes: gender as a category of analysis in macroeconomics; the implications of gender for macroeconomic aggregates, in particular consumption and economic growth; the role of gender in the labor market, globalization, and access to credit; and gender budgeting. Chapters one and two address the first theme. Chapter one focuses on the macroeconomic cost to growth and development that arises from rigid gender roles and associated gender asymmetries. Chapter two documents the progress made in gender mainstreaming by highlighting developments in data collection and monitoring that have moved beyond simply disaggregating data by male and female. Chapters three and four cover the second theme. Chapter three considers the role of gender relations in the macroeconomic aggregates of consumption, savings, investment, and government expenditure and the implications for macroeconomic policy in these areas. Chapter four examines gender relations and economic growth. Chapters five through seven focus on the third theme. Chapter five examines the labor market. Chapter six examines how globalization affects gender relations...

More than Mainstreaming : Promoting Gender Equality and Empowering Women through Post-Disaster Reconstruction

MDF-JRF Secretariat
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.89%
The Multi Donor Fund for Aceh and Nias (MDF) and the Java Reconstruction Fund (JRF) have played significant roles in the remarkable recovery of Aceh, Nias and Java, following some of the worst disasters in Indonesia in recent years. The MDF and the JRF, which is patterned after it, are each considered a highly successful model for post-disaster reconstruction. This paper presents lessons from the MDF and JRF's efforts to facilitate women's empowerment and gender equality during the reconstruction process. The reconstruction process presented opportunity to address gender issues and other social inequalities. Enhancing the role of women under the MDF and JRF programs saw significant results, such as improved and sustained outcomes in housing and infrastructure, faster economic and livelihood recovery and increased productivity, strengthening of women's legal rights, more representative decision making and enhanced resilience for women and communities.

Transversalid de género en un marco de derechos: el desafio actual; Gender mainstreaming in rights frame: the present challenge

Pautassi, Laura C.
Fonte: UnB-BCE Publicador: UnB-BCE
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado por pares; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/08/2009 POR
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66.96%
El artículo analiza las interrelaciones existentes entre el enfoque de género, las políticas públicas y el conjunto de derechos humanos. Para ello considera la transversalización de género, entendida como el proceso de examinar las implicaciones para mujeres y hombres de cualquier tipo de acción pública planificada, legislación, políticas y programas en todas las esferas de gobierno. A partir de allí se busca establecer los principales puntos de contacto entre el enfoque de derechos en conjunción con la transversalización de género (gender mainstreaming) y la ingeniería necesaria para hacer posible la implementación de un andamiaje que haga efectivo los derechos existentes y que amplíe las oportunidades de vida de mujeres y varones.; This article analyses the existing interrelation between rights approach, public policies and human rights. In this way, gender mainstreaming means how to understand the examination process of the implication for women and men in all public policies, law and social programs in every sphere of government. There fore, we try to define the principal points of contact between the rights approach towards the gender mainstreaming and the necessary engineering to make possible the implementation of a structure that ensures the existing rights and that increases the life opportunities for women and men.

El derecho internacional de los derechos humanos y su apertura al principio del Gender Mainstreaming: el caso español

Gil Ruiz,Juana María
Fonte: Instituto de Ciencias Jurídicas de Puebla, Departamento de Investigaciones Publicador: Instituto de Ciencias Jurídicas de Puebla, Departamento de Investigaciones
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 ES
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El derecho internacional tiene claro el urgente objetivo de eliminar las desigualdades entre mujeres y hombres, así como promover su igualdad. No en vano, el principio de transversalidad de género parte del compromiso de la comunidad internacional para lograr la igualdad entre los géneros, así como el desarrollo y la paz para todas las mujeres. Este trabajo pretende abordar, en el marco de las nuevas técnicas legislativas que exigen dicha perspectiva, la implementación del principio de Gender Mainstreaming por parte de la administración española, analizando los obligados Informes de Evaluación de Impacto de Género (IEIG) que deben acompañar las disposiciones normativas que elabore el gobierno por Ley 30/2003, del 13 de octubre, como los planes de especial relevancia económica, social, cultural y artística, por mandato de la L.O.3/2007, del 22 de marzo.