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Gender, Poverty and Demography

Buvinic, Mayra; Gupta, Monica Da; Casabonne, Ursula
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.47%
Much has been written on gender inequality and how it affects fertility and mortality outcomes as well as economic outcomes. What is not well understood is the role of gender inequality, embedded in the behavior of the family, the market, and society, in mediating the impact of demographic processes on economic outcomes. This article reviews the empirical evidence on the possible economic impacts of gender inequalities that work by exacerbating demographic stresses associated with different demographic scenarios and reducing the prospects of gains when demographic conditions improve. It defines four demographic scenarios and discusses which public policies are more effective in each scenario in reducing the constraints that gender inequality imposes on poverty reduction

Does Gender Inequality Hinder Development and Economic Growth? Evidence and Policy Implications

Bandiera, Oriana; Natraj, Ashwini
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
Does the existing evidence support policies that foster growth by reducing gender inequality? The authors argue that the evidence based on differences across countries is of limited use for policy design because it does not identify the causal link from inequality to growth. This, however does not imply that inequality-reducing policies are ineffective. In other words, the lack of evidence of a causal link is not in itself evidence that the causal link does not exist. Detailed micro studies that shed light on the mechanisms through which gender inequality affects development and growth are needed to inform the design of effective policies.

Gender Aspects of the Trade and Poverty Nexus : A Macro-Micro Approach

Bussolo, Maurizio; De Hoyos, Rafael E.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.46%
This report is on the findings of a major international research project examining the links between trade, gender, and poverty. Trade liberalization can create economic opportunities, but women and men cannot take advantage of these opportunities on an equal basis. Women and men differ in their endowments, control over resources, access to labor markets, and their roles within the household. It may seem obvious that gender differences play an important role in transmitting the effects of trade expansion to poverty, especially in less developed countries, where gender inequality is usually more pronounced. Although the literature includes numerous analyses on the links between trade and poverty and between gender inequality and poverty, it seems not to have combined these two sets of studies in a consistent empirical framework. The main objective for the research project documented in this book was to fill, at least in part, this gap in the literature. This report describes the simplest conceptual framework that can be used to analyze the linkages between trade and poverty through gender. It includes two parts. The first, based on standard international trade models, considers the linkages between trade and gender. The second, based mainly on the microeconomic models of household behavior...

Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development

Klasen, Stephan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.62%
Using cross-country and panel regressions, this article investigates how gender inequality in education affects long-term economic growth. Such inequality is found to have an effect on economic growth that is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education directly affects economic growth by lowering the average level of human capital. In addition, growth is indirectly affected through the impact of gender inequality on investment and population growth. Some 0.4-0.9 percentage points of differences in annual per capita growth rates between East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East can be accounted for by differences in gender gaps in education between these regions.

Does Gender Inequality Hinder Development and Economic Growth? Evidence and Policy Implications

Bandiera, Oriana; Natraj, Ashwini
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
Does the existing evidence support policies that foster growth by reducing gender inequality? We argue that the evidence based on differences across countries is of limited use for policy design because it does not identify the causal link from inequality to growth. This, however does not imply that inequality-reducing policies are ineffective. In other words, the lack of evidence of a causal link is not in itself evidence that the causal link does not exist. Detailed micro studies that shed light on the mechanisms through which gender inequality affects development and growth are needed to inform the design of effective policies.

Gender Inequality and Growth : The Case of Rich vs. Poor Countries

Amin, Mohammad; Kuntchev, Veselin; Schmidt, Martin
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.64%
This paper uses cross-section data for 107 countries to explore the relationship between gender inequality and economic growth. The paper departs from the literature by using a broad measure of gender inequality that goes well beyond gender inequality in education, which has been the focus of most studies. Another novelty of the paper lies in exploring heterogeneity in the growth-gender inequality relationship. The results confirm that greater gender inequality is strongly associated with lower economic growth. However, this negative relationship between gender inequality and growth is entirely due to the relatively poor countries, with the relatively rich countries showing no such relationship. The findings have important implications for the design and targeting of gender-specific policies.

Montenegro Gender Diagnostic

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.47%
In 2011, women and girls represented 50.6 percent of the total Montenegrin population (620,029 persons). Different aspects of gender inequality vary by region and ethnicity. The present World Bank country partnership strategy in Montenegro is based on two pillars that include supporting Montenegro s accession to the European Union (EU) through boosting institutions and competitiveness. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of gender inequality in Montenegro. Using a number of data sources, gender differences in various outcomes are analyzed with the intention of highlighting gender inequalities in human wellbeing. Results are used to prioritize possible avenues for future research to better understand such inequalities and or suggest areas that require more focus from policymakers. This report operates under the premise that gender equality is both an issue of human rights and of critical economic consequence. In line with the world development report (WDR) 2012, the nomenclature of gender gaps in endowments...

Bhutan Gender Policy Note

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
Bhutan has undergone a major socio-economic transformation over the past few decades. Today, as a middle-income country guided by the unique development philosophy of Gross National Happiness, it continues to develop rapidly and become more integrated into the global economy. Coinciding with its development, Bhutan has also made considerable strides in closing gaps in gender equality. The analysis of the Gender Policy Note (GPN) focuses on specific issues related to economic empowerment. It analyzes patterns related to specific aspects of the economic empowerment of both men and women by applying the analytical framework of the 2012 World Development Report on Gender and Development to the Bhutan context. For the areas of focus, the report examines overall indicators on gender and identifies areas where gender gaps persist: agricultural land holding and inheritance practices, and gender gaps in labor markets and job quality. In Bhutan, most women acquire land ownership through inheritance, particularly in matrilineal communities. Unlike in other countries...

Gender Disparities in Africa's Labor Market

Arbache, Jorge Saba; Kolev, Alexandre; Filipiak, Ewa
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.47%
The main aim of this book is to help fill the gap in current knowledge about the nature, the extent, and some of the root causes of gender disparities in Africa, showing what can be revealed about the application of standard and less standard tools and methods to existing survey and national account data. The analysis herein is novel in providing in-depth assessments of some of the sources of gender disparities in different labor market outcomes. A part of the book provides results on the basis that data are as comparable as possible for 18 countries. These results were extracted from multi-topic, integrated household surveys conducted in Africa around 2000 and thus may not represent the latest trends, but they have the merit to be comparable. The cross-national perspective provides a benchmark against which other results for individual countries and more recent data presented here may be compared. Additional goals are to demonstrate the possibilities, as well as the challenges, of analysis of gender inequality in labor market outcomes with existing survey data...

Understanding the Dynamics of Gender and Nutrition in Bangladesh : Implications for Policy and Programming

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.44%
During the past two decades, Bangladesh has made considerable progress in development, sustaining high rates of economic growth and reducing poverty rates by nine percent between 2000 and 2005. This report aims to contribute to reducing malnutrition in Bangladesh through a better understanding of gender-nutrition linkages. It is also part of a larger effort on multisectoral approaches to improving nutrition. The report takes as its starting point, the hypothesis that gender inequality in Bangladesh is instrumental in shaping nutrition outcomes. This study has demonstrated that gender and nutrition are intimately associated and that there are strong linkages between women's status and both their own, and their children's nutritional status.

Gender, Growth, and Poverty Reduction; Inegalite des sexes, croissance et reduction de la pauvrete

Blackden, C. Mark
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.41%
This note focuses on the core findings, and recommendations of the 1998 status report on poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), prepared for the Special Program for Assistance for Africa (SPA), a thematic examination of the linkages between gender, growth, and poverty reduction in SSA. Primarily focused on agriculture, and the rural sector, the report argues that one of the factors constraining growth, and poverty in SSA is gender inequality in the access to, and control of a diverse range of assets. The note reviews the determinants of growth, and the interdependence of the market, and household economies, where much of women's productive work is unrecorded, (in Kenya, about sixty percent of female activities are unaccounted for, compared with only twenty four percent of male activities). Furthermore, micro-level analyses portray a consistent picture of gender-based asset inequality, pointing at patterns of disadvantage faced by women, in accessing the basic assets, and resources required for a full participation in SSA's growth potential. In education...

Is It What You Inherited or What You Learnt? Intergenerational Linkage and Interpersonal Inequality in Senegal

Lambert, Sylvie; Ravallion, Martin; van de Walle, Dominique
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.53%
Institutional features of the African setting -- large extended families and imperfect credit and land markets -- matter to the equity and efficiency roles played by intergenerational linkages. Using original survey data on Senegal that include an individualized measure of consumption, this paper studies the role played by land inheritance, other bequests and parental background as influences on an adult's economic welfare and economic activities. Although intergenerational linkages are evident, the analysis finds a seemingly high degree of mobility across generations, associated with the shift from farm to non-farm sectors and the greater economic activity of women. Male-dominated bequests of land and housing bring little gain to mean consumption and play little role in explaining inequality, although they have effects on the sector of activity. Inheritance of non-land assets and the education and occupation of parents (especially the mother) and their choices about children's schooling are more important to adult welfare than property inheritance. Significant gender inequality in consumption is evident...

Violent Conflict and Gender Inequality : An Overview

Buvinic, Mayra; Das Gupta, Monica; Casabonne, Ursula; Verwimp, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
Violent conflict is a pervasive feature of the recent global landscape which has lasting impacts on human capital and these impacts are seldom gender neutral. Death and destruction alter the structure and dynamics of households, including their demographic profiles and traditional gender roles. To date, attention to the gender impacts of conflict has focused almost exclusively on sexual and gender-based violence. The authors show that a far wider set of gender issues must be considered to better document the human consequences of war and to design effective postconflict policies. The emerging empirical evidence is organized using a framework that identifies both the differential impacts of violent conflict on males and females (first-round impacts) and the role of gender inequality in framing adaptive responses to conflict (second-round impacts). War's mortality burden is disproportionately borne by males, whereas women and children constitute a majority of refugees and the displaced. Indirect war impacts on health are more equally distributed between the genders. Conflicts create households headed by widows who can be especially vulnerable to intergenerational poverty. Second-round impacts can provide opportunities for women in work and politics triggered by the absence of men. Households adapt to conflict with changes in marriage and fertility...

Gender and Development in the Middle East and North Africa : Women in the Public Sphere

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.41%
Gender inequality-the differential access to opportunity and security for women and girls-has become an important and visible issue for the economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Gender equality issues in MENA are usually approached from a social, anthropological, or political angle. But the costs of inequality are also borne at the economic level. This book seeks to advance the gender equality discussion in the region by framing the issues in terms of economic necessity. It analyzes the potential for women's greater economic contribution to the region's new development model, which is further discussed in three parallel books on trade, employment, and governance. It identifies key economic and sociopolitical impediments to women's increased labor force participation and empowerment, and it suggests a way forward in developing an agenda for change. MENA's achievements in many areas of women's well-being compare favorably with those of other regions. Indicators such as female education, fertility...

Gender Inequality in Multidimensional Welfare Deprivation in West Africa : The Case of Burkina Faso and Togo

Agbodji, Akoété Ega; Batana, Yélé Maweki; Ouedraogo, Dénis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.58%
The importance of gender equality is reflected not only in the Millennium Development Goals, but also in the World Bank's Gender Action Plan launched in 2007 as well as in other treaties and actions undertaken at regional and international levels. Unlike other work on gender and poverty, which is mostly based on monetary measurement, the present study makes use of a counting approach to examine gender issues in Burkina Faso and Togo using household surveys. Focusing on six dimensions (housing, basic utilities, assets, education, employment, and access to credit) largely recognized as Millennium Development Goal targets, the main findings of the study indicate that overall individuals are the most deprived in education in Burkina Faso, while the reverse situation is true in Togo. Gender inequality is observed in all dimensions since women always seem to be more deprived than men. The situation is also marked by regional disparities. Moreover, the assessment of dimensional contributions shows different patterns for each country. While employment proves to be the main contributor of gender inequality in Burkina Faso...

Gender and Poverty : A Life Cycle Approach to the Analysis of the Differences in Gender Outcomes

Lokshin, Michael; Mroz, Thomas A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
The authors study complex interactions between gender and poverty in postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina. The goal of their analysis is to uncover how a spectrum of gender differentials at different parts of the life cycle varies across income groups. Using the data from the 2001 Bosnia and Herzegovina Living Standards Measurement Study, the authors find strong gender-poverty interaction in the patterns of labor force participation, gender gap in earnings, individuals' school finances, and school attendance. The main source of gender inequality seems to come from differences in investments in girls' and boys' educations that increase with declines in income levels. Short-term income shocks could lead to long-term increases in gender inequality in households with school age children, unless there is ready access to credit markets. The authors also find that the magnitude of the impact of economic development on gender differences in Bosnia will depend on where the growth is concentrated. If the poor capture at least some benefits of economic growth...

Changing Norms about Gender Inequality in Education : Evidence from Bangladesh

Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Das, Maitreyi Bordia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.45%
Using a recent household survey for two cohorts of married women, this paper examines norms about gender equality in education for children and adults. Among the main findings are that gender education gap norms have changed: younger generations of women are more positive about female vs. male education, both as pertaining to child and adult education outcomes. Perhaps the strongest result is that Bangladeshi women are more likely to espouse attitudes of gender equality in education for their children and less so about gender equality among spouses. It is also easier to explain norms regarding children's education and more difficult to explain norms about equality in marriages. The authors believe that question on relative education of boys and girls captures the value of education per se, while the question on educational equality in marriage captures the norms regarding marriage and the relative worth of husbands and wives. The effect of education in determining norms is significant though complex...

Structural Violence and Child Health: A Multi-Level Analysis of Development, Gender Inequality, and Democracy in Developing Countries

Burroway, Rebekah Ann
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%

More than 26,000 children under the age of 5 die every day on average, mostly in the developing world. Malnutrition accounts for up to half of those deaths, and diarrheal diseases account for another 17 per cent. The concentration of child malnutrition and diarrhea in developing countries should be of particular interest to sociologists because of the potential role of macro, structural and institutional forces in accounting for such cross-national disparities. This study focuses on country-level development, gender inequality, and democracy as three dimensions of structural violence that have important effects on child health in developing countries. In addition, the analysis also incorporates household and maternal characteristics that have already been shown to affect child health at the individual level. Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys and several other archival sources, I conduct a multi-level analysis of young children nested in a sample of approximately 50 developing countries. Specifically, I estimate a series of hierarchical generalized linear logit models (HGLM) that predict the likelihood that a child is stunted, wasted, underweight, or has had a recent episode of diarrhea, based on a set of country- and individual-level explanatory variables.

The introduction in Chapter 1 describes the concept of "structural violence...

Distribuição espacial da desigualdade de gênero no Brasil; Spatial distribution of gender inequality in Brazil; Distribución espacial de la desigualdad de género en Brasil

Lima, Patrícia Verônica Pinheiro Sales; Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE; Sousa, Marina Rocha de; Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE; Khan, Ahmad Saeed; Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE; Rocha, Leonardo Andrade; Univ
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Pesquisa exploratória; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/07/2015 POR
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66.4%
http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2015v12n1p292O artigo tem como objetivo analisar como a desigualdade de gênero encontra-se distribuída entre as unidades federativas do Brasil. Para tanto, optou-se pela construção de um índice sintético nomeado de Índice Multidimensional de Desigualdade de Gênero (IMDG). Os principais resultados apontaram que a desigualdade entre homens e mulheres se manifesta com diferentes graus nas unidades federativas, mas é determinada por fatores comuns. As assimetrias são observadas, principalmente, nas dimensões política, trabalho e renda. ; The purpose of this article was to analyze how gender inequality is distributed all over the Brazil. To that end, it has been built the Multidimensional Gender Inequality Index (MGII), a synthetic index. The main findings underlined that inequality between men and women manifests itself at different degrees in the federal units, but it is determined by a variety of common factors. The asymmetries are observed, mainly, in the political, labor and income dimensions. ; El artículo pretende analizar cómo la desigualdad de género se distribuye entre las unidades federales de Brasil. Para ello, se optó por elaborar un índice sintético llamado Índice Multidimensional de Desigualdad de Género (IMDG). Los principales resultados muestran que la desigualdad entre hombres y mujeres se manifiesta con diferentes grados en las unidades federativas...

Structural interaction between gender and race inequality in Brazil

Santos,José Alcides Figueiredo
Fonte: Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais Publicador: Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.51%
This paper is guided by the theoretical notion that social divisions generate effects derived from its structural interaction. Having in mind this theoretical motivation, it estimates the gender earnings gap among white e non white (black and mixed color) groups in Brazil. All the eight Generalized Linear Models estimated, whose variables are successively included, show that the gender gap is big across both racial groups but it is bigger among whites. The investigation explores the role of the underlying context of class inequality, as well as others factors, on understanding the racial variation of the gender inequality. The study considers that the characteristics of the racial inequality in Brazil, as well as the intersection between class and race, explain the bigger gender advantage for the white man. The racial hierarchy establishes limits of variation on the gender hierarchy for the non white.