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Transformações no espaço doméstico: o fogão a gás e a cozinha paulistana, 1870-1930

Silva,João Luiz Maximo da
Fonte: Museu Paulista, Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Museu Paulista, Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
Este artigo estuda algumas das transformações na cozinha paulistana, produzidas entre o último quartel do século XIX e as três primeiras décadas do século XX, pela introdução de novas premissas sanitárias, levadas a cabo por autoridades médicas e pela municipalidade. Além disso, procuramos discutir o papel das principais empresas de energia, como a The San Paulo Gas Company e, mais tarde, a The São Paulo Tramway Light and Power Company, na promoção da tecnologia do gás, e principalmente do fogão a gás - que elas oporão aos fogões a lenha e carvão. Estas empresas tiveram um importante papel na circulação de novas idéias de racionalização e higiene, contribuindo para a renovação do espaço doméstico que, pela tecnologia, passa a depender de um "sistema" de infra-estrutura destinado a articular, de uma forma inédita, o espaço privado ao espaço público.

Output-Based Aid in Armenia : Connecting Poor Urban Households to Gas Service

Balabanyan, Ani; Kochnakyan, Arthur
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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46.15%
Gas-based heating offers a clean, efficient, low-cost heating solution for poor urban households in Armenia, a country with severe winters. But many low-income households cannot afford the cost of connecting to gas networks and heating facilities or the cost of heating equipment. To help these families benefit from gas-based heating, Global Partnership on Output Based Aid (GPOBA) and the World Bank are funding a scheme that provides grants to eligible poor households for individual heating solutions, based on a gas heater, or local heating solutions, based on a boiler. Disbursement of the funds is tied to the delivery of preagreed outputs, creating incentives for the service providers to ensure timely completion of the installation work and early delivery of gas or heat supply. Up to 10,000 poor urban households (4,600 through the GPOBA funds) are expected to benefit.

International Gas Trade : The Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline

Law, Peter L.; de Franco, Nelson
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
The Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline, which will transport natural gas more than 3,000 kilometers, will cost US$2.1 billion to construct. Despite the substantial benefits for both Bolivia and Brazil and the involvement of reputable private partners, the perceived risks and complexities of this large project made financing it a major challenge. The pipeline will link supply in one country to a potential market is another. Neither of these countries has a tradition of independent regulation or economic pricing of fuels. And the pipeline will be the first major gas infrastructure project involving the private sector in Brazil, where the natural gas market is underdeveloped and the gas distribution infrastructure still very limited. This Note explains the historical factors that shaped the project, how the financing package came together, and the role the pipeline will play in liberalizing the Brazilian hydrocarbon sector.

Natural Gas Markets in the U.K. : Competition, Industry Structure, and Market Power of the Incumbent

Juris, Andrej
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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46.2%
The deregulation of the U.K. natural gas industry has facilitated new entry and competition in almost all segments of the industry except pipeline transportation. The new regulatory framework, developed largely by the Office of Gas Regulation (Ofgas), has allowed market forces to stimulate a variety of specialized services and market transactions to meet customer needs. But the entire process has been difficult because of a flaw in the initial industry structure: the government privatized British Gas as a vertically integrated company. The U. K. experience shows that leaving gas supply integrated with pipeline transportation and tying up gas in long-term contracts impede competition. This Note reviews the U.K. reform and the development of new spot, on-system, and "Flexibility Mechanism" markets.

Vietnam : Framework for Thermal BOT Tenders and Strategy for Gas Coordination and Harmonization with Market Roadmap, Volume 1

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.33%
The purpose of this Volume 1 report is to explore how development of the gas andelectricity sectors can be better coordinated within this dynamic environment. In particular,this report aims to: Briefly outline the gas resources and developments in Vietnam, and describe the current institutional arrangements for the gas sector and how they relate to overall gas and electricity planning; Identify key gas sector issues as they relate to gas and electricity sector planning in general and BOT electricity generation project development, and in particular identify the development and operating risks for a BOT electricity generation project developer and suggest mitigation measures for these risks ;Suggest mechanisms to improve gas and electricity planning coordination. Present a case study that illustrates some of the gas and electricity planning issues and how these would be addressed if the suggested planning changes were implemented. This assignment has been undertaken during a period of unprecedented change in Vietnam. The electricity sector is part way through the complex process of introducing a market. In global world energy markets...

Pakistan : Oil and Gas Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.29%
Substantial progess has been made in Pakistan in the restructuring and reform of the oil and gas sectors, deregulation of prices, and privatization of selected assets. The reforms have enhanced transparency, making decisionmakers aware of the various aspects of the business. This review documents the accomplishments to date, and attempts to identify measures that merit priority attention with respect to natural gas, petroleum downstream, and macroeconomic management. The report concludes that Pakistan would benefit greatly from pursuing the reform program it initiated in 2000. The remaining measures will enable the government to unlock the full indigenous resource potential to accelerate growth and improve the welfare of the population. It would release scarce public resources from the hydrocarbon sector, which could then be mobilized for other priority needs like health and education. The reform process would be greatly facilitated through consultations with stakeholders, and using international experience in oil and gas sector reform. A competitive...

Greenfield Gas Distribution : Cross-country Experience

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
The study aims to present information about specific countries which have initiated gas distribution projects rather than suggestions. However, by drawing on the experience of a large number of countries, it also aims to provide practical lessons about issues which could potentially foster or impede gas distribution projects. The study emphasizes how countries vary in terms of the level of development of gas distribution networks. Chapter 3 outlines the major factors contributing to such diversity. These factors fall into three categories which form the basis for analyzing gas distribution in the countries selected in the study : supply-side factors, demand-side factors and policy choices of governments

Export Restraints on Russian Natural Gas and Raw Timber : What Are the Economic Impacts?

Tarr, David G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Export restraints by the Russian Federation on natural gas and timber have been the source of major controversy between the European Union and the Russian Federation. The analysis of this paper suggests that the export restraints in natural gas very substantially benefit Russia. On the other hand, in raw timber the analysis suggests that a substantial reduction of Russian export taxes would increase Russian welfare. The paper explains that Gazprom has failed to invest adequately, resulting in little development of new gas supplies. The result has been progressively increasing use by Gazprom of Central Asian gas supplies, at progressively higher prices for Russia. The increased prices of gas for Russian consumers have shown that it is crucial for Russia to allow new entrants and to introduce competition in the Russian domestic market. Without export restraints, however, competition among multiple gas suppliers from Russia would erode or eliminate the monopoly profits of the Russian Federation on gas exports. Thus...

Leveraging Oil and Gas Industry for the Development of a Competitive Private Sector in Uganda

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
The study represents a background study for the proposed Uganda Country Economic Memorandum (CEM), which seeks to address the issue of efficient use of oil resources and examine synergies between the oil industry and the rest of the economy, through growth poles or linkages. The oil industry can help Uganda to promote robust growth in the economy. However, it is important to keep in mind that it will take a number of years until oil revenues start flowing into Uganda s economy. After the Final Investment Decision (FID) is reached, it will take time to develop the oil fields and start oil production. In the meantime, there are immediate opportunities opening up for Uganda s businesses to supply the oil industry with goods and services. In most cases, Uganda s suppliers, especially micro, small and medium enterpises (MSMEs), are not expected to become first tier contractors to the International Oil Company (IOCs). The main objective of this study is to provide recommendations to the Government of Uganda (GoU) on policies and strategies of leveraging the oil discoveries for the development of the national economy in order to transform the oil resources into sustained growth. The study reviews the typology of policies for local sourcing used in the world. It includes ample examples of other countries experiences with developing their local content policies and providing support to priority sectors to boost local content which could be useful for Uganda from the standpoint of lessons learned. The study conducts a detailed analysis of the binding constraints faced by domestic oil and gas suppliers in Uganda...

Investment in Natural Gas Pipelines in the Southern Cone of Latin America

Jadresic, Alejandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Increasing demand for clean energy sources is expanding investment in natural gas infrastructure around the world. Many international projects involve pipelines connecting energy markets in two or more countries. A key feature of investment taking place in Latin America is the convergence of gas and electricity markets. Many projects are being developed to supply gas to new power generation plants needed to meet electricity demand. Construction of a pipeline over the Andes mountains to supply gas from Argentina to energy markets in central Chile was an idea long unfulfilled for political, economic, and technical reasons. Great changes have now taken place in a very short time. The author discusses both the achievements and the challenges to be faced by pipeline developers and Chiles energy sector. He details the benefits of the cooperative effort to consumers in terms of lower energy prices, higher environmental standards, and a more reliable energy system. The experience in Latin Americas southern cone shows how technological innovation...

Proration of natural gas in Kansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas

Dowd, George Gordon
Fonte: Southern Methodist University Publicador: Southern Methodist University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
This thesis document was issued under the authority of another institution, not NPS. At the time it was written, a copy was added to the NPS Library collection for reasons not now known. It has been included in the digital archive for its historical value to NPS. Not believed to be a CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) title.; In 1963, the United States Supreme Court handed down its decision in the case of Northern Natural Gas Company v. State Corporation Commission, 372 U.S. 84. This decision impaired the ability of the states to protect the correlative rights of natural gas producers by invalidating an order entered by the Kansas Corporation Commission requiring an interstate pipe tine purchaser to take ratably from all producers in a common source of supply. The state administrative order was held unconstitutional on the ground that state control over interstate purchasers had been preempted by the 1938 Natural Gas Act 15 U.S.C. H 7l7-7l7w. Ratable take and common purchaser orders which had been the principal regulatory controls employed by the states to prevent discrimination in the production of natural gas were thus invalidated if directed to interstate purchasers. This paper seeks to evaluate the extent of the damage which the Northern Natural Gas Company decision inflicted upon the conservation machinery of the various producing states. The natural gas proration systems of four such states - Texas...

Local Content in the Oil and Gas Sector

Tordo, Silvana; Warner, Michael; Manzano, Osmel E.; Anouti, Yahya
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
A number of countries have recently discovered and are developing oil and gas reserves. Policy makers in such countries are anxious to obtain the greatest benefits for their economies from the extraction of these exhaustible resources by designing appropriate policies to achieve desired goals. One important theme of such policies is the so-called local content created by the sector- the extent to which the output of the extractive industry sector generates further benefits to the economy beyond the direct contribution of its value-added, through its links to other sectors. Local Content Policies (LCPs) were first introduced in the North sea in the early 1970s and ranged from restrictions on imports to direct state intervention in the oil sector. While LCPs have the potential to stimulate broad-based economic development, which is necessary to alleviate poverty and achieve the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), their application in petroleum-rich countries has achieved mixed results. This paper serves to introduce the topic by describing policies and practices meant to foster the development of economic links from the petroleum sector, as adopted by a number of petroleum-producing countries both in and outside the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The paper is organized as follows: chapter one defines local content and briefly illustrates the links between the petroleum sector and other economic sectors (where policies may be able to increase the economic benefits of the petroleum sector). An attempt is made to measure local content levels in a wide sample of petroleum-producing countries including net importers and net exporters...

Yemen : A Natural Gas Incentive Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Mining/Oil and Gas; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Yemen is planning to export gas through Yemen Liquefied Natural Gas (YLNG) starting from 2009. Yemen is also aiming to develop the domestic gas market, in particular gas-to-power. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) export revenue and domestic gas sales are expected to partially offset the decline in crude oil revenue from currently producing fields. The development of a gas sector has the potential to substantially contribute to Yemen's economic growth and fiscal revenue generation. Because of the high risk and considerable investment involved in developing a gas sector, attracting foreign capital and expertise will be essential. To this end, in addressing the public interest and developing the preferred policies, Yemen should ensure that decisions on project development and technologies will be based on their economic merits, and gas will be allowed to find its highest value market.

Bulgaria : Options to Improve Security of Gas Supply

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
This report presents the findings of a study aiming to define the least cost short (up to 2015) and medium term (up to 2020) measures that the Government of Bulgaria (GoB) can implement to meet gas security of supply requirements seen in the light of Bulgaria's vulnerability to gas supply disruptions and its increasingly important role for regional gas cross-border transmission and trade. Bulgarian gas demand is of modest size (3.0 bcm in 2011) and natural gas only plays a small role in Bulgaria's energy mix (14 percent of the total primary energy supply). Over the next ten years gas demand patterns are likely to change, however, and consumption levels are expected to grow steadily. The growth rate of gas demand and its importance in the supply mix will be driven by choices of electricity generation strategy and the rate of household gasification. There is a significant risk that a gas-focused electricity strategy would reduce Bulgaria's overall security of supply. However, this would only be the case if the new gas supply was contracted from the same sources and routes as the existing contracts (from Russia via Ukraine) and if the gas-fired power plants did not have back-up fuels. Conversely...

Regional Gas Trade Projects in Arab Countries, Volumes 1 and 2

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Mining/Oil and Gas; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
Arab countries hold about 29 percent of the world's proven gas reserves, but every country (except Qatar and Algeria) is short of the gas supply needed to meet its current and projected demand. The rapid growth in gas demand is mostly a consequence of a sharp increase in electricity consumption. Gas trade in the Arab world has been dominated by the objective of exporting gas in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to points in Asia, Europe, and North America. Gas trade within the region is limited to rather small volumes, moved from Algeria to Tunisia and Morocco; from Egypt to Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon; and from Qatar to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) - all through pipelines. The shortage of gas in the Arab countries has become more pronounced, justifying the higher gas prices needed to secure imported gas or to encourage domestic gas production. Such changes in the landscape provide an impetus for the Arab world to optimize the region's gas resources, at least partly on the basis of meeting growing regional demand. The objective of this study is to assist the attempt by: (i) identifying the opportunities for gas trade through cross-border gas pipelines and LNG; (ii) assessing the economic and political aspects of the identified projects; (iii) presenting financing and implementation schemes that utilize the synergy between the public and private sector in project formulation and development; and (iv) reviewing the legal...

Turkey : Gas Sector Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
The purpose of this note is to assist policymakers by proposing a pragmatic and flexible program of change which will enable Turkey to develop a modernized gas market structure. The note is supportive of the objectives of the natural gas market law and does not call for fundamental changes in it. Rather, it suggests some modification of the law's present rigidities. The context for the note includes several implementation concerns and questions raised by the incumbent gas monopoly, Turkish National Gas Company, government institutions and the private sector.

Indonesia : Oil and Gas Sector Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
This study attempts to provide a broad, first cut review of the most pressing issues facing the sector, and to recommend ways to ameliorate or eliminate the problems. The main problems are: 1) petroleum product prices are heavily subsidized at the aggregate level and distorted at relative levels, and thus need to be rationalized within an economic framework; 2) the functions and role of the state oil and gas company (Pertamina) are problematic, and therefore Pertamina must be fundamentally restructured to eliminate the conflicts of interest and inefficiencies; 3) some of the provisions of the production sharing contracts are relatively regressive and need to be re-evaluated with a view to maximize the contribution of the sector to the economy, and to increase upstream investment by the private sector; 4) existing laws and regulations are inadequate and must be replaced; 5) petroleum products are of poor quality and must be improved, particularly by phasing out the lead from gasoline; and 6) energy sector institutions are weak and must be strengthened. Although the issues are complex and sweeping changes are needed...

Risk Shifting and Long-Term Contracts : Evidence from the Ras Gas Project

Dailami, Mansoor; Hauswald, Robert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Risk shifting and incomplete contracting lie at the heart of the agency relationship inherent in the procurement and financing of large-scale projects such as power plants, oil and gas pipelines, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities. Resolving this agency problem is critical in structuring the nexus of long-term contracts--construction, operating, output sale, and financial contracts--commensurate with the project's underlying tehcnological and market organization. By investigating the Ras Gas bonds--the largest and most liquid global project bonds ever issued in an emerging market economy--the authors provide empirical evidence of the risk-shifting consequences of contractual incompleteness. They relate the credit spreads of Ras Gas bonds to the bond spreads of the Korea Electric Power Company (Kepco), the major customer, in the context of a 25-year supply agreement, the oil price index used to price the LNG, emerging debt market returns, and various systematic and unsystematic risk variables. Consistent with theoretical predictions...

Galp Energia S.G.P.S. : Portugal's Leading Oil and Gas Company : equity valuation

Ferreira, Cátia Maria Sousa
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 01/02/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Nowadays, companies are involved in a fiercely competitive environment and are more complex than they ever were. As a consequence, the need to more accurately access the value of an asset or an opportunity is essential, when the overall goal is to grow and to prosper. Furthermore, the recurrent instability in the financial markets has been unveiling irregular company‟s stock variations, which are no longer reliable indicators of firm´s performance evolution and ability to create future value. In this context, corporate valuation emerges as a leading-edge instrument for managers and investors that want to assess the real underlying value of their companies in order to make wiser business and investment decisions. Considering this, the main goal of the present dissertation is to value Galp Energia S.G.P.S, Portugal‟s leading oil and gas company, which is currently quoted in the Lisbon Stock Exchange Market and integrates the PSI-20 Index. After a review of the fundamental academic literature existing, the company‟s three main businesses segments as well as the debt tax shield were valued separately and the overall valuation was accomplished, considering the sum of the different parts. Subsequently, a sensitivity analysis was made and the methodology and results were compared with the ones used by two Investment Banks – Millennium IB and Caixa IB – in their recent equity researchs. The main conclusion is that each share of Galp Energia S.G.P.S. is currently being traded in the stock market at a discount to its intrinsic value. The future developments of its E&P projects – mainly in Brazil – and the evolution of macro variables such as the oil price...

Transformações no espaço doméstico: o fogão a gás e a cozinha paulistana, 1870-1930

Silva, João Luiz Maximo da
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu Paulista Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu Paulista
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2007 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Este artigo estuda algumas das transformações na cozinha paulistana, produzidas entre o último quartel do século XIX e as três primeiras décadas do século XX, pela introdução de novas premissas sanitárias, levadas a cabo por autoridades médicas e pela municipalidade. Além disso, procuramos discutir o papel das principais empresas de energia, como a The San Paulo Gas Company e, mais tarde, a The São Paulo Tramway Light and Power Company, na promoção da tecnologia do gás, e principalmente do fogão a gás - que elas oporão aos fogões a lenha e carvão. Estas empresas tiveram um importante papel na circulação de novas idéias de racionalização e higiene, contribuindo para a renovação do espaço doméstico que, pela tecnologia, passa a depender de um "sistema" de infra-estrutura destinado a articular, de uma forma inédita, o espaço privado ao espaço público.; This article examines some of the transformations in the kitchens of São Paulo brought about by the introduction of new sanitary concepts that were put into effect by medical and local government authorities in the last quarter of the 19th century and in the first three decades of the 20th century. In addition, we discuss the role played by the main energy companies...