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Preliminary Findings for Two New Measures of Social and Role Functioning in the Prodromal Phase of Schizophrenia

Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Auther, Andrea M.; Niendam, Tara; Smith, Christopher W.; Zinberg, Jamie; Bearden, Carrie E.; Cannon, Tyrone D.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Introduction: Research on prediction and prevention of schizophrenia has increasingly focused on prodromal (prepsychosis) social and role dysfunction as developmentally early, stable, and treatment-resistant illness components. In this report, 2 new measures, Global Functioning: Social and Global Functioning: Role, are presented, along with preliminary findings about psychometric properties and course of social and role (academic/work) functioning in the prodromal phase of psychosis. Methods: Subjects included 69 participants from the Recognition and Prevention program and 52 from the Center for the Assessment and Prevention of Prodromal States. Ages ranged from 12 to 29 years, and all met criteria for Attenuated Positive Symptom syndrome. Retrospective (past year) and baseline data are reported for all 121 prodromal subjects and for 44 normal controls (NCs). Prospective follow-up data are reported for a subsample of patients reevaluated at both 6 and 12 months (N = 44). Results: For both scales, interrater reliability was high, and preliminary data supported construct validity. Relative to NCs, prodromal individuals displayed impaired social and role functioning at baseline. Analyses of change over time indicated that role functioning declined over the year before ascertainment and improved over 12-month follow-up...

Disturbances of Time Consciousness From a Phenomenological and a Neuroscientific Perspective

Vogeley, Kai; Kupke, Christian
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The subjective experience of time is a fundamental constituent of human consciousness and can be disturbed under conditions of mental disorders such as schizophrenia or affective disorders. Besides the scientific domain of psychiatry, time consciousness is a topic that has been extensively studied both by theoretical philosophy and cognitive neuroscience. It can be shown that both approaches exemplified by the philosophical analysis of time consciousness (Husserl) and the neuroscientific theory of cross-temporal contingencies (binding of cognitive processes over time) as the neurophysiological basis of human consciousness implemented in the prefrontal cortex (Fuster) converge in 2 respects. Firstly, a tripartite conception of consciousness divides human cognition in 3 different temporal domains comprising retention, presentation, and protention (Husserl) and the past, the present, and the future corresponding to working memory, interference control, and preparatory set (Fuster). Secondly, both concepts refer to the present as an extended duration that integrates information from the recent past and the future. We propose that the integration of phenomenological and neuroscientific approaches can stimulate the development of enriched pathophysiological concepts of mental disorders. This approach appears to be particularly fruitful with respect to schizophrenia that is interpreted as a structural disturbance of time consciousness.

Introduction to special issue on Eye and Zoonosis - from the guest editors

ORSONI, Jelka G.; MORA, Paolo
Fonte: Ivyspring International Publisher Publicador: Ivyspring International Publisher
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/03/2009 EN
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Papers of this special issue are based on the presentations given in the Congress “Eye and Zoonosis” - October 10-11th 2008, Parma (Italy). This issue aims to provide researchers with timely update on a number of important topics on Zoonosis in Ophthalmology.

Unmet Need for Mental Health Care in Schizophrenia: An Overview of Literature and New Data From a First-Admission Study

Mojtabai, Ramin; Fochtmann, Laura; Chang, Su-Wei; Kotov, Roman; Craig, Thomas J.; Bromet, Evelyn
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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We present an overview of the literature on the patterns of mental health service use and the unmet need for care in individuals with schizophrenia with a focus on studies in the United States. We also present new data on the longitudinal course of treatments from a study of first-admission patients with schizophrenia. In epidemiological surveys, approximately 40% of the respondents with schizophrenia report that they have not received any mental health treatments in the preceding 6–12 months. Clinical epidemiological studies also find that many patients virtually drop out of treatment after their index contact with services and receive little mental health care in subsequent years. Clinical studies of patients in routine treatment settings indicate that the treatment patterns of these patients often fall short of the benchmarks set by evidence-based practice guidelines, while at least half of these patients continue to experience significant symptoms. The divergence from the guidelines is more pronounced with regard to psychosocial than medication treatments and in outpatient than in inpatient settings. The expansion of managed care has led to further reduction in the use of psychosocial treatments and, in some settings, continuity of care. In conclusion...

Preface to Special Topic: Papers from the 82nd American Chemical Society Colloid and Surface Science Symposium, Raleigh, North Carolina, 2008

Petsev, Dimiter N.; Doyle, Patrick S.
Fonte: American Institute of Physics Publicador: American Institute of Physics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/03/2009 EN
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This Special Topic section of Biomicrofluidics contains original contributions that were presented at the 82nd Colloid and Surface Science Symposium, which took place on 15–18 June 2008 at North Carolina State University. The Symposium covered a wide range of topics that are relevant to the fundamentals of fluidics and their application to biological systems.

Extracting the hydrodynamic resistance of droplets from their behavior in microchannel networks

Labrot, Vincent; Schindler, Michael; Guillot, Pierre; Colin, Annie; Joanicot, Mathieu
Fonte: American Institute of Physics Publicador: American Institute of Physics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/03/2009 EN
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The overall traffic of droplets in a network of microfluidic channels is strongly influenced by the liquid properties of the moving droplets. In particular, the effective hydrodynamic resistance of individual droplets plays a key role in their global behavior. Here we propose two simple and low-cost experimental methods for measuring this parameter by analyzing the dynamics of a regular sequence of droplets injected into an “asymmetric loop” network. The choice of a droplet taking either route through the loop is influenced by the presence of previous droplets that modulate the hydrodynamic resistance of the branches they are sitting in. We propose to extract the effective resistance of a droplet from easily observable time series, namely, from the choices the droplets make at junctions and from the interdroplet distances. This becomes possible when utilizing a recently proposed theoretical model based on a number of simplifying assumptions. Here we present several sets of measurements of the hydrodynamic resistance of droplets, expressed in terms of a “resistance length.” The aim is twofold: (1) to reveal its dependence on a number of parameters, such as the viscosity, the volume of droplets, their velocity as well as the spacing between them. At the same time (2)...

In This Issue

Philibert, Ingrid
Fonte: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Publicador: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2009 EN
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Sharpening the Focus on Systems-Based Practice

Batalden, Paul B.; Leach, David C.
Fonte: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Publicador: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2009 EN
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The Revolution in Medical Education—The Role of Simulation

Satava, Richard M.
Fonte: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Publicador: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2009 EN
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The last major change in medical education was the Flexner Report, over a century ago. Since that time, iterative improvements have occurred to the question-and-answer and “see one, do one, teach one” educational environment. However, multiple external forces—from the 80-hour work week to the emphasis on patient safety to competing demands on student and faculty time—have raised calls for a fundamental revamping of the entire medical educational process. Fortunately, new methods, curricula, and processes, such as Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies or Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills, as well as innovative technologies such as web-based learning and simulation, have provided opportunities to support the revolution in medical education that will be responsive to national priorities, the public concern, and, most of all, to patient safety.

Investigations on the melting and bending modulus of polymer grafted bilayers using dissipative particle dynamics

Thakkar, Foram M.; Ayappa, K. G.
Fonte: American Institute of Physics Publicador: American Institute of Physics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/09/2010 EN
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Understanding the influence of polymer grafted bilayers on the physicomechanical properties of lipid membranes is important while developing liposomal based drug delivery systems. The melting characteristics and bending moduli of polymer grafted bilayers are investigated using dissipative particle dynamics simulations as a function of the amount of grafted polymer and lipid tail length. Simulations are carried out using a modified Andersen barostat, whereby the membrane is maintained in a tensionless state. For lipids made up of four to six tail beads, the transition from the low temperature Lβ phase to the Lα phase is lowered only above a grafting fraction of Gf=0.12 for polymers made up of 20 beads. Below Gf=0.12 small changes are observed only for the HT4 bilayer. The bending modulus of the bilayers is obtained as a function of Gf from a Fourier analysis of the height fluctuations. Using the theory developed by Marsh et al. [Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1615, 33 (2003)] for polymer grafted membranes, the contributions to the bending modulus due to changes arising from the grafted polymer and bilayer thinning are partitioned. The contributions to the changes in κ from bilayer thinning were found to lie within 11% for the lipids with four to six tail beads...

Variables Influencing Drug Release from Layered Matrix System Comprising Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose

Phaechamud, Thawatchai
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/05/2008 EN
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The purpose of this study was to prepare and evaluate layered matrix tablets of propranolol HCl containing HPMC and phytowax as matrix component using direct compression technique. Layering with this polymeric matrix could prolong the release of drug and shift the release pattern approach to zero order as described from the least square curve fitting. Increasing the amount of coating layer could apparently prolong the drug release. The longer lag time of drug release from one planar apparently when the amount of coating layer was increased. HPMC concentration and compression force did not affect the drug release from this three-layer tablet. The drug release from this three-layer tablet was influenced by hydrodynamic force. An increase in stirring rate was a corresponding increasing in the release rate. From photoimage and SEM, gel mass of HPMC was increased with time during dissolution and covered the core surface, therefore dissolved drug molecules were allowed to diffuse out from the core through the polymer network of gel layer containing the porous structure. This suggested that HPMC and phytowax could be fabricated into the layered matrix tablet exhibiting sustained drug release.

Prevention and Schizophrenia—The Role of Dietary Factors

McGrath, John; Brown, Alan; St Clair, David
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Adequate prenatal nutrition is essential for optimal brain development. There is a growing body of evidence from epidemiology linking exposure to nutritional deprivation and increased risk of schizophrenia. Based on studies from the Netherlands and China, those exposed to macronutrient deficiencies during famine have an increased risk of schizophrenia. With respect to micronutrients, we focus on 3 candidates where there is biological plausibility for a role in this disorder and at least 1 study of an association with schizophrenia. These nutrients include vitamin D, folic acid, and iron. While the current evidence is incomplete, we discuss the potential implications of these findings for the prevention of schizophrenia. We argue that schizophrenia can draw inspiration from public health interventions related to prenatal nutrition and other outcomes and speculate on relevant factors that bear on the nature, risks, impact, and logistics of various nutritional strategies that may be employed to prevent this disorder.

From the Guest Editors

Belanus, Betty; Hansen, Gregory
Fonte: Department of Folklore and Ethnomusicology, Indiana University Publicador: Department of Folklore and Ethnomusicology, Indiana University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 133921 bytes; application/pdf
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From the Guest Editors

Rudy, Jill Terry; Bell, Kristi
Fonte: Department of Folklore and Ethnomusicology, Indiana University Publicador: Department of Folklore and Ethnomusicology, Indiana University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 135569 bytes; application/pdf
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From the Guest Editors

Kolovos, Andy; Levy, Elinor; Hartwig, Kurt
Fonte: Department of Folklore and Ethnomusicology, Indiana University Publicador: Department of Folklore and Ethnomusicology, Indiana University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 70259 bytes; application/pdf
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Peer-Professional First-Person Account: Schizophrenia From the Inside—Phenomenology and the Integration of Causes and Meanings

Chadwick, Peter K.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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An autobiographical account of the author's psychotic crisis blends his own insights with relevant extant research on schizophrenia. As an investigator in the fields of paranoia and schizophrenia research, who has himself been psychotic, this may help to link the narratives of professionals and patients. The episode is interpreted as having been precipitated by abuse of a person with susceptibilities to psychosis in terms of his attentional style, poor context apprehension, high emotional intensity, and poor emotion and arousal modulation. The most effective therapies proved to be a blend of haloperidol medication, cognitive and psychodynamic insight, and a total change of social scenario to an ambience less abusive of feminine men (the author used to be a transvestite). Throughout the narrative presented, it is clear that qualities of experiential life were not merely causally impotent responses to brain processes but themselves inducing of critical decisions and of outlook on life that played a large part in the eventuation of, and recovery from, the psychotic state.

Testing the Hypothesis That Formal Thought Disorders Are Severe Mood Disorders

Cuesta, Manuel J.; Peralta, Victor
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Background: It was recently hypothesized by Lake (Schizophrenia Bulletin 2008; 34: 109-117) that Formal Thought Disorder (FTD) can be accounted for by a single disorder that is currently diagnosed as bipolar disorder. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the underlying dimensions of FTD and to examine to what extent FTD factors can be accounted for by clinical distractibility, attentional impairment, severity of mania, and familial liability of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Methods: Six hundred and sixty inpatients were assessed using a semistructured interview, and FTDs were assessed with the Thought, Language, and Communication scale. “Inattentiveness during Mental Status Testing” item of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms scale and a composite mania score were used. The Family History-Research Diagnostic Criteria was used. Results: FTD is a multidimensional construct comprised at least 5 dimensions: disorganization, verbosity, poverty of speech, idiosyncratic thinking, and blocking. Clinical distractibility loadings split in 2 factors, disorganization and blocking, but it did not load on the mania-related (verbosity) factor. Attentional disturbance was significantly associated with each FTD factor except for idiosyncratic thinking...

fMRI Activity Correlated With Auditory Hallucinations During Performance of a Working Memory Task: Data From the FBIRN Consortium Study

Wible, C.G.; Lee, K.; Molina, I.; Hashimoto, R.; Preus, A.P.; Roach, B.J.; Ford, J.M.; Mathalon, D.H.; McCarthey, G.; Turner, J.A.; Potkin, S.G.; O'Leary, D.; Belger, A.; Diaz, M.; Voyvodic, J.; Brown, G.G.; Notestine, R.; Greve, D.; Lauriello, J.;
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Introduction: Auditory hallucinations are a hallmark symptom of schizophrenia. The neural basis of auditory hallucinations was examined using data from a working memory task. Data were acquired within a multisite consortium and this unique dataset provided the opportunity to analyze data from a large number of subjects who had been tested on the same procedures across sites. We hypothesized that regions involved in verbal working memory and language processing would show activity that was associated with levels of hallucinations during a condition where subjects were rehearsing the stimuli. Methods: Data from the Sternberg Item Recognition Paradigm, a working memory task, were acquired during functional magnetic resonance imaging procedures. The data were collected and preprocessed by the functional imaging biomedical informatics research network consortium. Schizophrenic subjects were split into nonhallucinating and hallucinating subgroups and activity during the probe condition (in which subjects rehearsed stimuli) was examined. Levels of activation from contrast images for the probe phase (collapsed over levels of memory load) of the working memory task were also correlated with levels of auditory hallucinations from the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms scores. Results: Patients with auditory hallucinations (relative to nonhallucinating subjects) showed decreased activity during the probe condition in verbal working memory/language processing regions...

DSM and the Death of Phenomenology in America: An Example of Unintended Consequences

Andreasen, Nancy C.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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During the 19th century and early 20th century, American psychiatry shared many intellectual traditions and values with Great Britain and Europe. These include principles derived from the Enlightenment concerning the dignity of the individual and the value of careful observation. During the 20th century, however, American psychiatry began to diverge, initially due to a much stronger emphasis on psychoanalytic principles, particularly in comparison with Great Britain. By the 1960s and 1970s, studies such as the US-UK study and the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia demonstrated that the psychodynamic emphasis had gone too far, leading to diagnostic imprecision and inadequate evaluation of traditional evaluations of signs and symptoms of psychopathology. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III) was developed in this context, under the leadership of representatives from institutions that had retained the more traditional British-European approaches (eg, Washington University, Iowa). The goal of DSM-III was to create a comprehensive system for diagnosing and evaluating psychiatric patients that would be more reliable, more valid, and more consistent with international approaches. This goal was realized in many respects...

An Intergenerational Reflection on the First Night on Call—plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose? (The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same?)

Inui, Tazo S.; Inui, Thomas S.
Fonte: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Publicador: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2010 EN
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