O presente trabalho objetivou pesquisar e caracterizar Escherichia coli patogênica (E. coli produtora de toxina Shiga STEC; E. coli aviária patogênica - APEC) em fragatas (Fregata magnificens) da costa do Estado de São Paulo e, desta forma, contribuir para a compreensão de aspectos epidemiológicos deste importante grupo de enfermidades zoonóticas bacterianas, as colibaciloses. Para tanto, foram realizadas três expedições científicas aos dois sítios de nidificação de fragatas no estado de São Paulo, Ilha Principal do Arquipélago de Alcatrazes (24°06´S 45°41´W) e Ilha de Castilho (25°16´S 47°57´W), nas quais foi colhido um total de 42 amostras de "swabs", sendo 21 cloacais e 21 de coanas, oriundos de 18 filhotes de sexo indeterminado, 2 fêmeas adultas e 1 macho adulto de fragatas. Das 42 amostras clinicas estudadas, foram identificadas 18 com crescimento de E.coli. Destas, foram isoladas 67 cepas, que foram então submetidas à pesquisa de genes de virulência e caracterização de grupos filogenéticos através da técnica de PCR. Em seguida, as cepas que exibiram fatores de virulência foram analisadas através de sorotipagem. Para investigar os padrões de resistência e sensibilidade a antimicrobianos...
José Moreira de Araújo; Luís Miguel Bernardo; Marisa Monteiro
Fonte: Universidade do PortoPublicador: Universidade do Porto
Relevância na Pesquisa
A Nautical Class was created in Porto through royal charter, in the 30th of July of 1762, with the purpose of preparing navigation officers to steer war frigates and merchant ships. The Board of Directors of the General Company of Agriculture of the Upper Douro#8217;s Vineyards was responsible for the maintenance of the Nautical Class and for charging the supporting taxes.Pilots coming out of the Nautical Class were part of the crews of the merchant ships that headed towards Brazil or the Baltic Sea. The commercial activity of the latter has enhanced the establishment, in 1787, of a treaty of friendship and commerce between Portugal and Russia. José Monteiro Salazar was, at the time, lecturer of the Nautical Class, also a pilot and a cartographer.Documents related to the Nautical Class are put on display in this exhibition, as well as several nautical instruments, two valuable and unique globes, and a collection of nautical charts first edited in the 17th and 18th centuries.; A Aula de Náutica do Porto foi criada por alvará régio de 30 de Julho de 1762. Esta Aula tinha como objetivo preparar marinheiros para as fragatas e os navios comerciais. A Junta Administrativa da Companhia Geral de Agricultura das Vinhas do Alto Douro era responsável pela funcionamento da Aula e pela cobrança dos impostos que a sustentavam. Pilotos formados na Aula Náutica integraram as tripulações dos navios mercantes que saíam do Porto e rumavam ao Brasil e ao Mar Báltico...
The gas turbine exhaust uptakes in the HALIFAX class frigates of the Canadian Navy have experienced thermally-induced fatigue cracking since soon after the commissioning of these ships. The uptake structure is heavily stiffened in order to meet shock resistance requirements. Unfortunately, the result has been that thermal expansion of the uptake shell is constrained, thus every flash-up and shut-down of a gas turbine results in a fatigue cycle of its uptake with extremely high stresses. Among the methods proposed to address the problem is the structural redesign of the uptakes within the constraints of the original mounting arrangements. Any such redesign would be required to reduce thermal stresses while still meeting the shock resistance requirements. This work presents the redesign of the uptakes such that they continue to meet shock requirements while incorporating design aspects, developed in the literature, which are anticipated to reduce thermal stresses. The original intention was to use the modal-based design response spectrum method to assess shock resistance. However, due to excessive stresses in the original model and in all subsequent modifications using this method, the less-rigorous base acceleration method was primarily used.; by Simon A. Summers.; Thesis (S.M. in Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; This project was conducted with the sponsorship and assistance of Commander Naval Surface Forces (COMNAVSURFOR). The purpose of this project was to analyze the Continuous Monitoring Program (CMP) and the data reported therein as compared to the Budget Operating Target Report (BOR). The analysis focused on the Ticonderoga Class Cruisers and Oliver Hazard Perry Class Frigates. The analysis was designed to provide COMNAVSURFOR with the possible reasons for differences in financial reporting between the CMP and BOR and provide COMNAVSURFOR the opportunity to increase financial reporting timeliness, accuracy, and completeness of the surface fleet. A methodology was developed to analyze financial reporting within the cruiser and frigate classes at five different levels: timeliness of BOR submissions, timeliness of and CMP submissions, grant accuracy, balance accuracy, and fund code use and accuracy. The cruisers and frigates were classified into groups based on their hull type, fleet, and homeport to see if there were relationships within the different groupings. A Beta Test was run on six ships for two months, which tested the recommended alternatives to financial reporting and evaluated the effectiveness of these changes. The results were that the Beta Test ships experienced a 42.78 percent increase in reporting accuracy by using these alternatives. The potential benefits of implementing these alternatives to COMNAVSURFOR should provide the opportunity to increase financial reporting timeliness...
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Naval spending has always involved large amounts of resources, research and technology, money, and the attention of civilian and military leadership. In 1794 the Congress authorized $800,000 (1794 dollars) to construct six frigates. Today, an attack submarine costs more than $2 billion, an aircraft carrier more than $5 billion, and its air wing $5 billion more. These ships are the only current American clients for nuclear power plants. The Navy must balance these large capital expenditures with other procurements and maintain an industrial base capable of producing these unique warships. The Navy currently manages these complex interplays via the integrated Warfare Architecture Assessment Planning Process (IWARS). Force Structure, an IWARS component, views a 25-year horizon at the platform level using the Extended Planning Annex/Total Obligated Authority Model (a spreadsheet that estimates the financial impact of any complete future plan). This thesis presents an integer-linear program, the Capital Investment Planning Aid (CIPA), that extends EPA/TOA with optimization. CIPA explores all alternatives while considering budget restrictions, industrial base requirements and restrictions...
The missions and roles of the Turkish Navy have changed because of changing world conditions over the last fifteen years. The frequency and length of deployments and missions have increased, while pay level has decreased. The new frigates with complex technology introduced into the fleet recently have required a more knowledgeable and skillful work force, including petty officers. As petty officers have become more competent and knowledgeable, their needs for recognition, choice, and meaningfulness, as well as their needs for rewards and benefits, also have increased. As a result of all these changes, Turkish petty officers seemed to have become less motivated. The U.S. Navy has faced similar difficulties over the last twenty years. A 1993 military personnel research study in the U.S. revealed that keeping capable and energetic personnel in the service is going to become even more difficult in the future, as petty officers expect their work and quality of life to improve and as civilian employment alternatives become more appealing Ref. 2. This thesis examines the factors, extrinsic and intrinsic, that motivate and demotivate petty officers in the Turkish and U.S. Navies. The study utilizes a survey questionnaire to determine common areas of concern and recommends...
Approved for public release; distribution unlimited,; This thesis is the application of the concept of
design-to-cost to the project of the FFG frigates. Using the
available data relative to the major escort programs since
1950, a curve of force effectiveness vs. number of ships,
similar to that presented by Vice Admiral Price in his congressional
testimony on design of the patrol-frigate or
FFG-7, was constructed and the results discussed.
Four ship classes were analyzed as candidates for Naval Reserve training assignments. They are FF-1040 and FF-1052 Class frigates, DD-931 Class destroyers, and LST-1179 Class tank landing ships. Reserve crew billets proposed for each alternative were compared to FY 1980 Naval Reserve manpower availability in seventeen seaport localities to identify training ship assignment options. For each option, the possibility of a second reserve training crew was investigated. Operating and upkeep costs for each alternative were analyzed to provide other information relevant to training ship assignments. Costs included were direct costs regularly incurred, exclusive of extraordinary items. Two conclusions were drawn from the findings. First, the mission of the training ship program could be accomplished with fewer ships than now assigned. Second, the cost advantage of LST-1179 Class tank landing ships is offset by its lesser ability to train critical ratings for the fleet
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Prior to 1987, the U.S. was the major supplier of ground, air, and naval weapons, and other military equipment to Thailand. Since 1987, Thailand has turned to the PRC for the purchase of weapons and equipment required for many of its armed forces modernization and force restructuring programs. In addition to the acquisition of large quantities of ground forces equipment for the Royal Thai Army (RTA), Thailand has also investigated the acquisition of PRC fighter aircraft for the Royal Thai Air Force (RTAF) and is in the process of acquiring six frigates for the Royal Thai Navy (RTN) from the PR. The objective of this thesis will be to examine the improved and improving Sino-Thai military relationship and analyze the key variables responsible for changing Thai political and military attitudes towards the PRC. The thesis also examines Thai willingness to actively pursue supplier diversification strategies with respect to major arms acquisition contracts. Finally, the thesis will also consider the impact of the Sino-Thai military relationship on current and short term U.S. policy objectives in Thailand.
This thesis perpetuates research aimed at deploying a diagnostic expert system for the MK 92 Mod 2 Fire Control System to 28 Oliver Hazard Perry class fast frigates. Referred to as the Maintenance Advisor Expert System (MAES) , this expert system is being jointly developed by the Naval Postgraduate School and Port Hueneme Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC PHD). This thesis focuses on the long-term implementation issues related to deploying MAES to the fleet, integrating MAES into the formal training pipeline, and transitioning life cycle Support for MAES to NSWC PHD. MAES long-term implementation issues, which include hardware, software, documentation, and training requirements, are examined within the context of implementation factors and risks historically associated with deploying expert systems. Plans for deploying MAES to the fleet and integrating MAES into the formal training pipeline are provided. As part of the documentation necessary to transition life cycle support of MAES to NSWC, a System Level Description document is also provided
The Turkish Navy frigates have a challenging mission, which encompasses tactical, operational and administrative tasks. Lacking an automated information infrastructure hinders the ships' ability to efficiently perform the administrative activities, to generate the required reports quickly and to make effective decisions based on this information. The objective of this thesis is to design and implement the Personnel, Operations, Equipment, and Training (POET) Database and Application Program for the Turkish Navy frigates and to analyze the potential benefits that will be obtained by using this system. The POET database system will provide the Turkish Navy frigates with an automated information system that will support the administrative activities, release manpower to perform other duties and reduce the productive power loss by increasing the availability, accuracy, and consistency of the data. The thesis covers the analysis of requirements, conceptual database design using Semantic Data Model, logical database design on Microsoft Access DBMS, and implementation of the application program using Java and JDBC API. The result of this study is a functional application that will eliminate most of the current problems onboard the frigates and result in considerable savings of personnel power and time while providing the required information to the command quickly.; Turkish Navy author.
This thesis analyzes the process used to transfer U.S. Navy Perry class frigates to Turkey and issues raised during this transfer process. Up to the final step, this transfer was representative of most U.S. military equipment transfers. The relations between allied countries depend heavily on the mutual support they provide to each other. Strong relations create strong mutual support, or vice versa. Although the FMS/FML process is a very effective process for ship transfers, political issues must never be underestimated. As the Cold War came to an end, the mutual threat had changed, affecting alliances and rephrasing the causes of their existence. The effect of this change has caused more domestic oriented policies to predominate within a country's political system. Although this policy change didn't cause procedural changes in regulations and rules, the application of the decisions given and approved by the highest executive and legislative branch authorities are now more subjective and seem unpredictable. Long term and continuous repetition of this behavior could cause negative impact on alliance; http://archive.org/details/analysisoftransf00cime; NA
The Naval Postgraduate School In conjunction with Port Hueneme Division (PHD), Naval Surface Warfare Center is developing a diagnostic expert system for troubleshooting casualties in the MK 92 MOD 2 fire control system deployed in US Navy Oliver Hazard class (FFG-7) guided missile frigates. The high turnover rate of student developers and the frequency with which changes are made to the expert system have highlighted a need for controlling the change process and the management of resources applied to implementing those changes to the expert system's knowledge base and software. This thesis develops a configuration management plan for the MK92 Maintenance Advisor Expert System (MK92 MAES) to assist object members in the management of changes to software and domain knowledge. The concept of configuration management is examined in detail with specific emphasis on the challenges of its implementation to expert systems. Two automated configuration management tools, CCC/Manager and PVCS Version Control, are evaluated for suitability for application in an expert system development environment. Finally, specific recommendations are presented for establishing a configuration management process for MK92 MAES project.; U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author.
This thesis analyses the Naval Reserve Force Oliver Hazard Perry class (FFG-7) guided missile frigates. It assesses the cost-effectiveness of operating these ships in the Naval Reserve fleet vice the Active fleet. The study begins with a brief history of the Naval Reserve Force (NRF) and outlines its current role and mission. A cost identification and comparison of operating the FFGs in each fleet follows. To capture all of the relevant costs, this comparison is based on a model developed by the RAND Corporation and modified to meet the needs of this study. The analysis then assesses the ship's operational readiness by comparing the ships' performance on Combat System Assessments and the major engineering exams. Following this, the quality of life on board the NRF FFGs is qualitatively evaluated. This analysis concludes that using FFGs in the NRF is not the most cost-effective option. Alternative recommendations are then provided for their more efficient use.; NA; NA; U.S. Naval Reserve (U.S.N.R.) author.
Human Systems Integration (HSI) is a process designed to reduce life-cycle costs and improve system performance by considering human-related domains. Acquisition specialists lack objective, quantitative research findings on which to base trade-off analyses. This thesis used eight fiscal years of historical safety (mishaps), manpower (manning levels) and system performance (SORTS) data on the U.S. Navy's Frigates, collected from computer databases of routine reports, to explore relationships in an existing notional model of HSI. Three hypotheses were tested: there is a negative relationship between manning and SORTS levels; there is a negative relationship between manning and mishaps; and there is a positive relationship between mishaps and SORTS levels. No significant relationships were found between SORTS levels and manning or mishaps. When all of the ships were ranked for each month based on percent of total manning and number of reportable mishaps, a positive correlation (Spearman's rho = 0.4194, p-value = 0.0294) was found corresponding to a negative relationship between manning levels and mishap rates. More detailed research is needed to isolate the relationship between manning levels and mishap rates from numerous other influences and any noise that may be present in the data set.; US Navy (USN) author.
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited.; Asymmetric threats pose increasing challenges to combatant commanders in Stability, Security, Transition, and Reconstruction (SSTR) Operations. Threats once confined to littoral waters now extend out to the green water theater. Many NATO countries operate their post Falkland war built frigates in these missions, in which lightly armed small, agile and fast craft are often encountered. This study uses freely available real-world data to build a simulation using an agent-based modeling platform called MANA. The simulation is exercised over a broad range of factor settings that are determined by an efficient experimental design. Using linear regression and partition trees, a robust analysis is performed on the resulting dataset to create statistical models. Conclusions gained through these models suggest that a swarm of small craft, armed with handheld weapons, could attack and achieve a mission kill on a typical NATO FFH operating in a SSTR mission. It further implies that the FFH's mission survival is dependent on the sophistication of installed weapons, and that a mix of advanced, automated weapons is best suited for close-in defense against multiple small seaborne attackers. Therefore...
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; This thesis compares the performance of the Freedom Class Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) with five similar international frigates and corvettes in a littoral combat environment. The alternative ships are: Formidable class frigate, Singapore Navy; MILGEM (Milli Gemi) class corvette, Turkish Navy; Steregushchiy class frigate, Russian Navy; Sigma class corvette, Indonesian Navy; and Visby class corvette, Swedish Navy. The study is conducted within a fictitious scenario in the Strait of Hormuz, countering Iran's naval capabilities. Hughes's Salvo Equations Model is used to evaluate a variable number of friendly combatants versus a fixed opposing force. The results identify the number of ships required to dominate the threat in the scenario. Based on the comprehensive results, including changes by adding hardkill and introducing countermeasure effectiveness, an optimum design suggestion is made. In the end, optimum design is a relative subject because the issues of sustainment and cost play a significant role in the decision. LCS is shown to be the most combat-effective performer, but its cost detracts from its operational advantages. MILGEM is a medium size ship with high performance and lower cost...
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; Crew fatigue is a major factor in mishaps aboard ships. Despite empirical evidence that fewer personnel and longer working hours are primary factors of crew fatigue, U.S. Navy budgeting constraints and increased automation on ships has resulted in reduced manning onboard Navy vessels. This study expands research by Haynes (2007) and Mason (2009) comparing the Navy Standard Workweek (NSWW) Model to Sailors' self-reported activities onboard U.S. Navy destroyers and cruisers. Research by both Haynes (2007) and Mason (2009) showed that a majority of Sailors worked longer hours and received less sleep than allotted in the NSWW model. The objective of this study was to determine if similar patterns would exist onboard U.S. Navy frigates. Results indicated that 61% of the participants exceeded the 81 hours of Available Time (work) allotted by the NSWW. On average, Sailors in this current study, excluding officers, worked 20.24 hours more per week than in the NSWW, while sleeping 8.98 fewer hours per week than in the NSWW. Results suggest that the NSWW does not accurately reflect Sailors' work/rest patterns onboard ships.; US Navy (USN) author.