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Acolhimento familiar: uma alternativa de proteção para crianças e adolescentes; Family foster care: a protective alternative for children and adolescents

COSTA, Nina Rosa do Amaral; ROSSETTI-FERREIRA, Maria Clotilde
Fonte: Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
O acolhimento de crianças e adolescentes que vivenciam violação de direitos tem sido discutido no âmbito do desenvolvimento de políticas públicas e no meio acadêmico. Tais discussões visam elaborar diretrizes que garantam o direito à convivência familiar e comunitária e evidenciam um campo em reordenamento. Este artigo contextualiza o acolhimento familiar no cenário nacional, considerando-o como uma medida de proteção possível para crianças e adolescentes em situação de vulnerabilidade. Discute-se também o reflexo de algumas perspectivas teóricas que abordam as relações de vínculo afetivo em situações de acolhimento. Argumenta-se que ao fomentar uma nova cultura de acolhimento são necessárias mudanças nas concepções de infância e juventude, nas significações de vinculação afetiva e nas políticas de assistência à infância e juventude.; Foster care of children and adolescents who have had their rights violated is being discussed both in the scientific literature and in agencies involved in the development of public policies. Such discussions, which aim to define some guidelines to guarantee the right to family and community inclusion, expose a field under change. This paper focuses on foster care in the Brazilian context and presents it as one of the possible alternatives for children and adolescents in risk situations. The (mis)leading influences of some theoretical perspectives that deal with affective bonds in foster care are also discussed. It is argued that a new foster culture requires changes in the conceptions of infancy and youth...

Processo de recepção e acolhida da criança em instituições de acolhimento: proteção e/ou (re)vitimização?; Process of entry and reception of young children in foster care institutions: protection and/or (re)victimization?

Almeida, Ivy Gonçalves de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/04/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
Quando acolhida institucionalmente, a criança é abruptamente separada de pessoas de referência e colocada em um ambiente estranho, com pessoas desconhecidas. A vivência inicial da criança na instituição, como é recebida/acolhida, influenciará a maneira como enfrentará essa situação, a construção de novas relações afetivas e a manutenção dos vínculos afetivos anteriormente estabelecidos. Na creche/educação infantil, o processo de recepção/acolhimento tem importância reconhecida. O mesmo não acontece no acolhimento institucional. Com base teórico-metodológica na Rede de Significações, objetivou-se investigar o processo de recepção e acolhimento de crianças com idades até 6 anos, desenvolvido por instituições de acolhimento, a partir da perspectiva de profissionais envolvidos no processo. Participaram quatro instituições de cidade de grande porte do interior do estado de São Paulo. Foram entrevistadas 26 pessoas: três coordenadoras; quatro psicólogas; quatro assistentes sociais; três pedagogos; sete educadoras; um apoiador técnico; quatro conselheiros tutelares. As entrevistas contaram com questões disparadoras, no contexto de uma conversa e os dados foram analisados qualitativamente. Os resultados indicam que investimentos vêm sendo feitos na formação dos profissionais. E que a maioria dos que participaram da pesquisa está envolvida com a causa da criança e/ou com as crianças em si. Foram relatadas algumas práticas e sugestões de melhoria para o processo de acolhimento inicial...

Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes

Iannelli,Andrea M.; Assis,Simone Gonçalves; Pinto,Liana Wernersbach
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

Eliminating Barriers to the Adoption of Children from Foster Care

Kamarck, Elaine; Hansen, Mary Eschelbach; Wilson, Julie Boatright Boatright; Katz, Jeff
Fonte: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University Publicador: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
For children in foster care who cannot be reunified with their families of origin, there is no question that adoption is preferable to “aging out”. Moreover, every dollar spent on adoption for a child from foster care yields three dollars in benefits. Yet, 27,854 youth aged out of foster care in FY2010, and, for each child who was adopted during the year, two children with a goal of adoption continued to wait in foster care. Research shows that there are more than enough families interested in adopting children from foster care, but that only one in 28 people who contacts a child welfare agency actually adopts a child. Today there are more than 100,000 children waiting in foster care in large part because of barriers in the adoption system that could be eliminated through changes in policy and practice. Barriers to adoption from foster care identified by participants in the Executive Session include: • financial disincentives for creating interstate adoptions; • lack of standardized information about families seeking to adopt and about children waiting to be adopted; • insufficient post-adoption support compared to support for youth aging out; and • absence of a robust model for creating adoptions, including effective recruitment of adoptive families; appropriate caseloads...

The Social Networks of Foster Parents

Barbel, Paula A. ; Cote-Arsenault, Denise ; Kitzman, Harriet
Fonte: University of Rochester Publicador: University of Rochester
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.51%
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Rochester. School of Nursing. Dept. of Nursing, 2012.; Children and teens in foster care have higher rates of health, mental health and behavioral problems compared with children not in foster care. Foster parents are faced with the challenge of effectively parenting children in foster care, in order to achieve positive outcomes for these vulnerable children. However, foster parents often report feeling poorly supported in their role as foster parents in terms of resources and necessary systems supports. There is a paucity of studies exploring foster parent social networks and subsequent network supports. The purpose of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to explore the structure and function of the social networks of foster parents caring for children in foster care; and second, to examine the relationship between the dimensions of foster parent social networks, perceived quality of network support, parental competence, and parental representations. The sample consisted of 26 certified foster parents. Results of the study indicated that foster parents had small, fairly dense social networks. Caseworkers were the most important members of the foster parent formal social network system, while foster family members were the most important informal social network members. Findings of the current study indicate that foster parents often had missing ties to the educational...

Abrigar... brincar: um estudo sobre as vivências lúdicas entre educadoras e crianças de um abrigo; Sheltering… playing: a study about recreational life between educators and children in a foster care center

Sousa, Anamaria Rodrigues Resende de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
Considerando-se as inúmeras possibilidades relativas ao brincar, que permitem à criança interagir com o outro, descobrir, estabelecer relações, buscar soluções, criar e recriar a realidade entre outras, muitas pesquisas vêm sendo realizadas com o intuito de investigar como ocorre a brincadeira em instituições infantis. Assim, o presente estudo teve por objetivo conhecer o modo como o brincar se apresenta em uma instituição abrigo, localizada na cidade de Uberlândia/MG, além de avaliar como as educadoras se apropriam ou não desse recurso em suas interações com as crianças. A pesquisa delineou-se sob a perspectiva histórico-cultural, representada por Vygotsky, que considera a brincadeira como atividade social humana, criadora de uma zona de desenvolvimento proximal. Participaram do estudo oito crianças abrigadas, sete educadoras e a coordenadora do abrigo. Foram realizadas filmagens de sessões de brincadeira, entrevistas semi-estruturadas com a coordenadora e educadoras, entrevistas reflexivas a partir de registro de filmagem, observações da rotina e de materiais / brinquedos disponíveis, pesquisa documental e diário de campo. Verificou-se que os temas trazidos pelas crianças referiram-se à representação de situações relacionadas ao seu cotidiano na instituição...

The predictors of unsuccessful transition to foster care

Barber, J.; Delfabbro, P.; Cooper, L.
Fonte: Cambridge Univ Press Publicador: Cambridge Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
The placement movements of 235 children entering foster care over a 12-month period were followed up 4 months after referral into care. Baseline and follow-up measures of the 170 children who were still in care at follow-up were also compared. Results indicated that adolescents with mental health or behavioural problems were the least likely to achieve placement stability or to display improved psychological adjustment in care. In fact, unsatisfactory transition to foster care was found to be so prevalent among these children that conventional foster family care should be considered unsuitable for them. The paper concludes that there is an urgent need for a wider range of alternative care options for the adolescent population.; James G. Barber, Paul H. Delfabbro, and L. L. Cooper; The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com Copyright © 2001 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry

Placement stability and the psychosocial well-being of children in foster care

Barber, J.; Delfabbro, P.
Fonte: Sage Publications Inc Publicador: Sage Publications Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
This article assesses one of the key assumptions underlying the philosophy of permanency planning—that placement instability adversely affects the psychosocial development of children in foster care. Method: The placement movements and psychosocial well-being of foster care were assessed over an 8-month period. Results: Most of the children who remained in care throughout the period could be assigned to one of three groups: 1 (stable throughout), 2 (unstable throughout), 3 (initially unstable, then stable) Results for these 120 children were generally consistent with a linear trend toward improvement in Groups 1 and 2, whereas Group 3 children displayed improvement only while their placements were unstable. Conclusions: Although results for Group 3 permit more than one interpretation, results for Group 2 suggest that placement instability up to at least the 8-month point is not necessarily damaging to the child.; James G. Barber; Paul H. Delfabbro; Copyright © 2003 SAGE Publications

Developmentalism and the rhetoric of best interest of the child: challenging heteronormative constructions of families and parenting in foster care

Riggs, D.
Fonte: Haworth Press, Inc. Publicador: Haworth Press, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
The foster care system in Australia has recently recognised the importance of encouraging lesbians and gay men to become foster carers. Whilst this may be seen as an important step towards overcoming social stereotypes that position lesbians and gay men as unfit parents, I propose that foster care public policy in Australia is shaped by a number of key assumptions that effectively exclude lesbian and gay foster parents. In particular, I focus on how the logic of developmentalism [where children are assumed to follow a (hetero)normative developmental pathway] and the rhetoric of best interests of the child (within which a particular moral framework is employed to judge who can, and who cannot protect children) work to recenter a normative understanding of families and parenting that encourages lesbians and gay parents to adopt a heterosexual model of parenting.; Damien W Riggs; © Haworth Press

The health-related quality of life of children and adolescents in home-based foster care

Carbone, J.; Sawyer, M.; Searle, A.; Robinson, P.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
Objective To compare the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of 326 children and adolescents aged 6–17 years living in home-based foster care in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia with the HRQL of a random sample of 3,582 children aged 6–17 years living in the community in Australia. Method In both groups, HRQL was assessed using the 50-item version of the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50) completed by caregivers/parents, and the 87-item self-report version of the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-CF87) completed by 13–17 year olds. Results Young people in home-based foster care had significantly poorer HRQL in a wide range of different domains than those in the general community. Furthermore, among children in home-based foster care, those with mental health problems had significantly poorer HRQL in many domains than those without mental health problems. Demographic and placement characteristics of the children in home-based foster care were not significantly associated with differences in HRQL. Conclusion The findings highlight the importance of providing services and resources to improve the quality of life of children living in home-based foster care.; Josephine A. Carbone, Michael G. Sawyer, Amelia K. Searle and Philip J. Robinson; The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com

"Children out of place". Representations of foster care in the Australian news media

Riggs, D.; King, D.; Delfabbro, P.; Augoustinos, M.
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
The provision of foster care in Australia has a long and contested history. These histories, along with current media representations of foster care, shape the ways in which the general public understand foster care. Importantly, and where such representations are primarily negative, it is likely that foster care will not be considered a viable option for many people seeking to engage in community work or to care for children. This paper provides an analysis of a sample of representations of foster care in the Australian news media, with a specific focus on the depiction of (1) foster children as “lost children” who are “damaged goods”, (2) foster care systems and social workers as inherently damaging to children, (3) foster carers as primarily either inadequate parents, or good parents only in comparison with “bad social workers”. The paper concludes by highlighting suggestions for future directions within media reporting of foster care in Australia.; Damien W. Riggs, Daniel King, Paul H. Delfabbro and Martha Augoustinos

The mental health and well-being of children and adolescents in home-based foster care in South Australia.

Carbone, Josephine A.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
Despite attempts to keep families together and investment in family preservation and reunification services, the number of children in foster care has been increasing across Western jurisdictions during recent decades. Furthermore, use of home-based foster care as the preferred placement option, as opposed to residential or community group care, is now at record levels (Barber & Gilbertson, 2001). Although there is growing evidence that children in alternative care systems and state custody experience elevated rates of mental health problems, little is known about the mental health of children residing in home-based care, and almost nothing is known about their broader well-being and quality of life. Furthermore, most studies have been conducted overseas and have not been tested for their applicability to children in care in Australia. This is the first study to provide comprehensive information about the mental health and broader well-being of a representative sample of children and adolescents living in homebased foster care in Australia. Participants were 326 children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) residing in home-based foster care in metropolitan Adelaide, Australia, who were under a Guardianship of the Minister court order between August 2004 and January 2006. Information about children’s mental health...

The profile and progress of neglected and abused children in long-term foster care

Barber, J.; Delfabbro, P.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
OBJECTIVES: This study compared the profile of neglected and abused children in the Australian foster care system as well as differences between maltreatment types in relation to parental contact, reunification and psychosocial progress in care. METHOD: The case files of 235 children entering foster care were examined and their social workers were administered standardised questionnaires at the point of intake. All measures were repeated for those remaining in care 1 year and then again 2 years later. RESULTS: Neglected children were younger than non-neglected children, more likely to have a physical or mental disability, more likely to experience multiple forms of maltreatment and less likely to pose conduct problems for carers. Neglected children were more likely than non-neglected children to experience a decline in parental contact over time, and were less likely to be reunified with their families of origin. There was minimal difference between neglected and non-neglected in their psychosocial progress while in care. Aboriginal children were more likely to be reunified than non-Aboriginal children when neglect was attributable to transient factors (parental incapacity) but the reverse was true for non-neglected children. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that neglected children more often require a second form of maltreatment before being removed from home suggests that children's services workers are less inclined to remove children for neglect than for other forms of maltreatment. As a consequence...

A Perspectiva Ecológica: Referências para a Preparação e a Cessação da Estadia em Acolhimento Familiar de Crianças; Ecological Perspective: Guidelines for Planning Child’s Foster Care Placement

Delgado, Paulo
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico do Porto Publicador: Instituto Politécnico do Porto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
A colocação em Acolhimento Familiar e a cessação da estadia constituem transições ecológicas, pelas alterações que acarretam e pelos papéis que atribuem aos seus protagonistas. A preparação destas transições visa não eliminar os obstáculos, uma utopia que o grau de mudança não permite, mas diminui-los, para um nível que facilite o desenvolvimento da criança e a integração na fase seguinte da sua vida. Este artigo revê o trabalho de alguns autores que, no Reino Unido, se têm debruçado sobre a preparação da colocação e da cessação do Acolhimento Familiar. O modelo ecológico é utilizado como quadro teórico orientador daquela medida de protecção e identifica um conjunto de factores que potencializam o sucesso das transições.; The placement in foster care and its ceasing are ecological transitions due to the changes they bring and because of the roles assigned to their protagonists. The preparation of such transitions aims to not diminish the obstacles, a utopia that the degree of change does not allow, but to diminish them to a degree that makes the child integration in his/her next phase of life easier. This article reviews the work of some British authors who have taken a special interest in the preparation and closure of children’s foster care. It also intends to legitimize...

O acolhimento familiar em Portugal: Conceitos, práticas e desafios; Foster care in Portugal: Concepts, practices and challenges

Delgado, Paulo
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico do Porto Publicador: Instituto Politécnico do Porto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
O Acolhimento Familiar assume em Portugal uma expressão reduzida, num sistema de protecção das crianças excessivamente centrado na colocação em instituições, não obstante o discurso político mais recente, defensor da desinstitucionalização, e a evolução de outros sistemas sociais em diversos países europeus. Este artigo pretende caracterizar o modelo de Acolhimento Familiar português, destacando, nomeadamente, a sua evolução histórica mais recente, os conceitos e tipologias que mobiliza, as práticas que manifesta e os desafios que se colocam ao seu desenvolvimento.; The Foster Care in Portugal takes a reduced expression, in a system of protection of children excessively focused on institutional placements, despite the political discourse more recent, advocate of deinstitutionalization, and the development of other social systems in several European countries. This paper aims to analyze the Portuguese Foster Care model, highlighting in particular its historical evolution latest concepts and typologies that mobilize the practices that expresses, and challenges to its development.

Crescer em família: A permanência no acolhimento familiar; Growing-up in family: The permanence in foster care; Crecer en familia: La permanencia en acogimiento familiar

Delgado, Paulo; Carvalho, João; Pinto, Vânia
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico do Porto Publicador: Instituto Politécnico do Porto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.49%
O acolhimento familiar oferece um contexto de vida à criança retirada da sua família biológica, por um período de tempo indeterminado que se pode prolongar, no limite, até à maioridade ou independência. Um contexto familiar estável permite desenvolver sentimentos de segurança e de permanência associados à possibilidade de manutenção dos contactos com a sua família biológica. A criança pode e deve, em muitas circunstâncias, permanecer com os seus acolhedores e o reconhecimento deste papel parental é um passo que pode contribuir para afastar ambiguidades e indefinições que são prejudiciais para o sistema e para as práticas que ele vai configurando. Em Portugal, todavia, o acolhimento familiar é umamedida de carácter temporário, cuja aplicação depende da previsibilidade do retorno da criança ou do jovem à família de origem. O objetivo deste artigo é, após uma breve caracterização do sistema de proteção de crianças e jovens português, analisar a permanência no acolhimento familiar de 2006 a 2011, a partir dos relatórios de caracterização das crianças e jovens emsituação de acolhimento. De seguida procedemos à apresentação e discussão de dados recolhidos num estudo desenvolvido no distrito do Porto...

POLICY SOLUTIONS TO ADDRESS THE BARRIERS TO MEDICAID RE-ENROLLMENT FOR YOUTH AGING OUT OF FOSTER CARE

Pharr, Sarah
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 25/04/2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY POLICY QUESTION What are the Federal and State policy solutions to the barriers for youth re-enrolling into Medicaid once they have left care? RECOMMENDATIONS I recommend three solutions that the Children’s Bureau should consider to address the barriers of Medicaid re-enrollment for youth aging out of foster care. The Children’s Bureau should: • Support states in making the transitions onto Medicaid after foster care a seamless process. • Encourage restructuring of the independent living programs. • Study the possibility of a change in institutional mechanisms. IDENTIFIED ISSUES Nationally about 30,000 of the half million youth in state custody will age out of care this year . Youth aging out of care are at greater risk of unemployment, homelessness, dropping out of school, and unplanned parenthood . These transition age youth report more health problems and mental health diagnoses, than their peers who have not been in the child welfare system . Unfortunately many recently emancipated young adults do not have health insurance; this makes swift and appropriate interventions much harder to achieve. I have identified four barriers to youth re-enrolling into Medicaid once they have left care. First...

“Aging Out” of Foster Care – Background and Resources Brief

O’Hanlon, Julia; Sherretz, Kelly L.; Wessel, Evan
Fonte: Universidade de Delaware Publicador: Universidade de Delaware
Tipo: Outros
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
This issue brief provides an overview and assessment of current data resources and general trends related to the national and statewide population who are “aging out” of foster care. It is designed to provide information to state officials, community leaders, members of the Delaware Youth Opportunities Initiative (DYOI), and other stakeholders involved in the development of strategies and policy recommendations for improved service and program delivery for those who are aging out of foster care in Delaware. Future briefs and reports may expand on the information presented and identify additional opportunities for resource expansion and comprehensive data-collection efforts.; Delaware Department of Services for Children, Youth, and Their Families’ Division of Family Services and the Delaware Family Court

Beyond 18: Ready by 21 Services for Delaware's Youth Who Have Experienced Foster Care

Delaware Department of Services for Children, Youth, and Their Families
Fonte: Universidade de Delaware Publicador: Universidade de Delaware
Tipo: Outros
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
In response to House Joint Resolution (HJR) No. 18, this report serves as an analysis and provides recommendations for creating a developmentally appropriate, fully integrated system of independent-living services, housing and financial assistance for youth who have experienced foster care in Delaware. This system shall be referred to as “Ready by 21.”; In cooperation with Delaware Youth Advisory Council (YAC), Delaware Youth Opportunities Initiative (DYOI), University of Delaware’s Institute for Public Administration On behalf of the HJR 18 Committee and the DYOI Community Partnership Board’s Policy Working Group

Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: an alternative to residential treatment for high risk children and adolescents

Fisher,Philip A.; Gilliam,Kathryn S.
Fonte: Psychosocial Intervention Publicador: Psychosocial Intervention
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
This paper describes the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care program (MTFC), an evidence based approach for providing psychotherapeutic treatment for very troubled children and adolescents that is an alternative to residential care. Versions of the MTFC program have been developed and validated for young children with a history of maltreatment as well as for older children and adolescents who are involved with the youth justice system. In the paper we describe the development of the MTFC program and its foundations in the social learning model that originated at the Oregon Social Learning Center in the 1960's and 70's. We present information about program elements. We then review the research that has been conducted on MTFC.