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Reformas institucionais do mercado de crédito bancário no Brasil (1999-2006): uma análise jus-sociológica; Institutional reforms of Brazilian credit markets (1999-2006): a socio-legal analysis

Fabiani, Emerson Ribeiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/05/2009 PT
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O crédito bancário é a principal fonte de financiamento de pessoas físicas e jurídicas no Brasil. Ainda assim, comparações internacionais apontam que o mercado de crédito no Brasil é pequeno em volume de empréstimos concedidos, limitado em número de instrumentos e caro nos preços praticados. O propósito desta tese é apreender as expectativas em relação ao direito supostas em documentos oficiais do Banco Central do Brasil (BCB) que sugeriram, entre 1999 e 2006, medidas para a reversão desse quadro. Para tanto, analisa os argumentos apresentados para a implementação de um conjunto específico de medidas de reforma jurídica dos sistemas de insolvência e de cobrança de dívidas, considerados cruciais para o desenvolvimento financeiro. Como resultado da análise, foi possível identificar um continuum discursivo entre as justificativas apresentadas pelos documentos oficiais do BCB para a adoção das medidas de reforma do mercado de crédito e o que se designou de perspectiva da dotação institucional. Segundo essa visão, a clara definição de direitos de propriedade e eficientes mecanismos para o cumprimento de contratos são precondições essenciais para o crescimento econômico.; Bank loans are the main source of financing for individuals and corporations in Brazil. Nevertheless...

Cooperação jurídica internacional em matéria penal e as medidas cautelares patrimoniais; International legal cooperation in criminal matter and the provisional measures

Magliarelli, Filipe Henrique Vergniano
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/05/2014 PT
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No momento em que se mostrou difícil reprimir o crime no âmbito interno dos países, a comunidade internacional passou a perseguir, também, os efeitos e proventos do crime, através do cumprimento de medidas cautelares patrimoniais para bloqueio e confisco de bens do acusado existentes no exterior. Tal intento foi atingido por meio da cooperação jurídica internacional, cujos instrumentos estão sujeitos ao due process of law. Contudo, por haver distintos sistemas processuais, o estranhamento do tratamento dispensado pelo ordenamento jurídico de um Estado em determinada matéria de Direito Processual Penal pode deflagrar, perante outro Estado, argumentos contrários ao atendimento do pedido de assistência jurídica, inviabilizando o fluxo cooperacional. Por isso, várias questões surgem quando se desloca as medidas cautelares patrimoniais penais no contexto da cooperação jurídica. A presente dissertação abordará o tema da cooperação jurídica internacional em matéria penal sob a perspectiva do devido processo legal e, a partir desse enfoque, identificará conflitos que eventualmente surgem dos pedidos de assistência jurídica para cumprimento de medidas cautelares patrimoniais.; Once it became difficult to restrain crime under domestic jurisdiction...

A perda de bens e o novo paradigma para o processo penal brasileiro; Confiscation and the new paradigm of the Brazilian criminal procedure

Essado, Tiago Cintra
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/05/2014 PT
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A perda de bens, como efeito da condenação penal, também referida como confisco, consiste na transferência ao poder público do produto e do proveito derivado da infração penal, ressalvado o direito do lesado e do terceiro de boa-fé. O estudo cuidou de duas espécies de perda de bens no Direito Penal brasileiro: a perda clássica, que atinge os bens, direitos e valores, direta ou indiretamente, derivados da infração penal, ou seja, o patrimônio ilícito do condenado, e a perda subsidiária, que se resume na perda do patrimônio lícito do agente, em parcela equivalente ao patrimônio ilícito. A perda de bens é importante para a prevenção e repressão à criminalidade organizada, cuja atuação volta-se para a busca do lucro. O processo penal brasileiro possui mecanismos importantes para tratar dos efeitos decorrentes da perda e bens, tais como as medidas cautelares reais. Porém, boa parte de sua estrutura é voltada para o acertamento da culpabilidade e com a perspectiva de um crime comum. Convenções internacionais, que inclusive foram ratificadas pelo Brasil, deram um impulso mundial para a valorização dos aspectos patrimoniais oriundos da criminalidade organizada. Isso fez surgir um novo paradigma para o processo penal em todo o globo...

MiR203 mediates subversion of stem cell properties during mammary epithelial differentiation via repression of ΔNP63α and promotes mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition

DeCastro, A J; Dunphy, K A; Hutchinson, J; Balboni, A L; Cherukuri, P; Jerry, D J; DiRenzo, J
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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During reproductive life, the mammary epithelium undergoes consecutive cycles of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Doing so relies on the retained proliferative capacity, prolonged lifespan and developmental potency of mammary stem cells (MaSCs). ΔNp63α, the predominant TP63 isoform in mammary epithelia, is robustly expressed in MaSCs and is required for preservation of self-renewing capacity in diverse epithelial structures. However, the mechanism(s) underlying subversion of this activity during forfeiture of self-renewing capacity are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) govern critical cellular functions including stem cell maintenance, development, cell cycle regulation and differentiation by disrupting translation of target mRNAs. Data presented here indicate that expression of miR203, a miRNA that targets ΔNp63α and ΔNp63β is activated during luminal epithelial differentiation and that this pattern is observed in the murine mammary hierarchy. In addition, we present evidence that the transcription factor Zeb1 represses miR203 expression, thus enhancing ΔNp63α protein levels. Furthermore, ectopic miR203 suppresses ΔNp63α expression, proliferation and colony formation. The anti-clonogenic effects mediated by miR203 require suppression of ΔNp63α. In addition...

Reciprocal Intraepithelial Interactions Between TP63 and Hedgehog Signaling Regulate Quiescence and Activation of Progenitor Elaboration by Mammary Stem Cells

Li, Na; Singh, Samer; Cherukuri, Pratima; Li, Hua; Yuan, Ziqiang; Ellisen, Leif W.; Wang, Baolin; Robbins, David; DiRenzoa, James
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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TP63 is required for preservation of epithelial regenerative stasis and regulates the activity of diverse genetic pathways; however, specific effector pathways are poorly understood. Data presented here indicate that reciprocal regulatory interactions between hedgehog signaling and TP63 mediate stage-specific effects on proliferation and clonigenicity of separable enriched mammary stem and progenitor fractions. Analysis of ΔN-p63 and TA-p63 indicates segregated expression in mammary stem and progenitor fractions, respectively, demonstrating that differential TP63 promoter selection occurs during elaboration of mammary progenitors by mammary stem cells. This segregation underlies mammary progenitor-specific expression of Indian Hedgehog, identifying it as a binary transcriptional target of TP63. Hedgehog activation in vivo enhances elaboration of mammary progenitors and decreases label retention within mammary stem cell-enriched fractions, suggesting that hedgehog exerts a mitogenic effect on mammary stem cells. Hedgehog signaling promotes differential TP63 promoter usage via disruption of Gli3 or Gli3R accumulation, and shRNA-mediated disruption of Gli3 expression was sufficient to alter TP63 promoter usage and enhance clonigenicity of mammary stem cells. Finally...

New entrant and closure provisions : how do they distort?

Ellerman, A. Denny
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 18 p
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As a person whose life began in England and ended in North America and who maintained academic affiliations in the United Kingdom, Canada and the U.S., Campbell Watkins had a fine appreciation for the subtle differences that mark the two sides of the North Atlantic. He embodied the cross-fertilization that trans-Atlantic exchanges imply and I have no doubt that that was one of the reasons the IAEE received so much of his attention and benefited so grandly from it. This essay concerns one of those trans-Atlantic exchanges and one of which Campbell would have enjoyed the irony: An American innovation that goes to Europe and becomes bigger than anything yet seen in North America. The transplant is the cap-and-trade form of emissions trading and the European application is the European Union CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). More specifically, this paper focuses on a particular feature of the allocation process in the European variant, the endowment of new entrants with allowances and the forfeiture of allowances when facilities are closed.

Sentido e função do instituto da perda de vantagens relacionadas com o crime no confronto com outros meios de prevenção da criminalidade reditícia (em especial, os procedimentos de confisco in rem e a criminalização do enriquecimento “ilícito”) = The meaning and purpose of forfeiture of crime proceeds as compared to other means of preventing profitable crime (in particular, confiscation in rem and the criminalization of unlawful enrichment)

Caeiro, Pedro
Fonte: Superior Tribunal de Justiça do Brasil Publicador: Superior Tribunal de Justiça do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
PT
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Publicado na Revista Portuguesa de Ciência Criminal, n. 2, ano 21, p. 267-321, abr./jun. 2011. Além de escassas modificações de pormenor, adicionaram-se à versão original algumas notas de actualização, devidamente assinaladas.

O confisco penal de honorários advocatícios nos Estados Unidos da América e seu impacto no sistema jurídico-penal acusatório = The forfeiture of attorney1s fees in the United States legal system and its impact on the adversarial system of criminal justice

Lucchesi, Guilherme Brenner
Fonte: Superior Tribunal de Justiça do Brasil Publicador: Superior Tribunal de Justiça do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
PT_BR
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The confiscation of criminal assets: tackling organised crime through a ‘middleground’ system of justice

King, Colin
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: Doctoral thesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
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peer-reviewed; ―The Innocent Have Nothing To Fear‖Over the past quarter of a century, conventional criminal procedure has often been perceived as inadequate in the face of increasing levels of (and concern surrounding) organised crime. Against this backdrop, the criminal justice system has undergone significant substantive, institutional and procedural reform, with a demonstrative shift in the direction towards a crime control model at the expense of due process norms. This is particularly evident in the adoption of civil forfeiture as a tool of law enforcement, which sees criminal law objectives being pursued in the civil process. While this might be attractive to police and prosecution authorities in terms of enhanced efficiency and expediency, it does raise a number of serious concerns as to the rights of the individual – not least that a person can be ―punished‖ in ―civil‖ proceedings stripped of the benefit of enhanced procedural protections inherent in the criminal process. Civil forfeiture was adopted in Ireland primarily through the Proceeds of Crime Act. Even in the absence of a criminal conviction, a person may be restrained in dealing with specified property where the courts are satisfied that that property constitutes...

Asset Recovery Handbook : A Guide for Practitioners

Brun, Jean-Pierre; Gray, Larissa; Scott, Clive; Stephenson, Kevin M.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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The handbook is organized into nine chapters, a glossary, and ten appendixes of additional resources. Chapter one provides a general overview of the asset recovery process and legal avenues for recovery, along with practical case examples. Chapter two presents a host of strategic considerations for developing and managing an asset recovery case, including gathering initial sources of facts and information, assembling a team, and establishing a relationship with foreign counterparts for international cooperation. Chapter three introduces the techniques that practitioners may use to trace assets and analyze financial data, as well as to secure reliable and admissible evidence for asset confiscation cases. The provisional measures and planning necessary to secure the assets prior to confiscation are discussed in chapter four; and chapter five introduces some of the management issues that practitioners will need to consider during this phase. Confiscation systems are the focus of chapter six, including a review of the different systems and how they operate and the procedural enhancements that are available in some jurisdictions. On the issue of international cooperation...

Income and Asset Disclosure : Case Study Illustrations

World Bank; UNODC
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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The requirement that public officials declare their income and assets can help deter the use of public office for private gain. Income and asset disclosure (IAD) systems can provide a means to detect and manage potential conflicts of interest, and can assist in the prevention, detection, and prosecution of illicit enrichment by public officials. Growing attention to anticorruption policies, institutions, and practices has led to increased interest in financial disclosure systems and the role they can play in supporting national anticorruption strategies and in helping to instill an expectation of ethical conduct for individuals in public office. IAD systems are also a key element in the implementation and enforcement of provisions of the United Nations Convention against Corruption and other international anticorruption agreements. This attention has sparked interest among policy makers and practitioners in the design features and implementation practices that make for effective financial disclosure administration. The case studies collected in this volume are intended to profile a range of systems and practices to help respond to this growing interest.

Die Regelung des Verfalls nach geltendem Recht und nach dem Reformentwurf unter Berücksichtigung von Ausgleichsansprüchen Verletzter; Forfeiture according to law in force and according to the reform bill with respect to equalized claims of the injured

Dollmann, Michael
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
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Die Abschöpfung rechtswidrig erlangter Vermögensvorteile durch das strafrechtliche Rechtsinstitut des Verfalls tritt oftmals in Konkurrenz zu - meist zivilrechtlichen - Ausgleichsansprüchen von Verletzten gegen den Straftäter. Dieses Konkurrenzverhältnis soll nach geltendem Recht mittels der Ausschlußregelung des § 73 I 2 StGB gelöst werden. Ergänzt wird das Rechtsinstitut des Verfalls durch die strafprozessuale Möglichkeit der Sicherstellung von Tätervermögen. Soweit lediglich die Ausschlußregelung einer Verfallsanordnung entgegenstehen würde, ist im Rahmen der sogenannten Zurückgewinnungshilfe gleichwohl eine Sicherstellung möglich. Der noch nicht in Kraft getretene Entwurf eines Gesetzes zur verbesserten Abschöpfung von Vermögensvorteilen aus Straftaten vom 03.02.1998 will ohne eine Ausschlußregelung auskommen. Er unterscheidet sich auch im Hinblick auf die Regelung der Zurückgewinnungshilfe vom geltenden Recht. Das Fehlen einer Ausschlußklausel erfordert ein abweichend ausgestaltetes strafprozessuales Instrumentarium. Diese Arbeit beleuchtet die Stärken und Schwächen des geltenden Rechts beziehungsweise des Reformentwurfes. Beide Regelungswerke werden im Hinblick auf die Effektivität der staatlichen Gewinnabschöpfung und die Lösung des Konkurrenzverhältnisses von dieser zu Ausgleichsansprüchen Verletzter erörtert.; Levy of pecuniary gain obtained unlawfully by forfeiture based upon criminal law often competes with - mostly civil - equalized claims by the injured against the criminal offender. This competitive condition is planned to be solved according to law in force by means of estoppel based upon § 73 I 2 StGB [German Penal Code]. The legal institute of forfeiture is supplemented by the possibility of securing property of the offender based upon criminal proceedings. In so far merely the estoppel would be an obstacle to an order of forfeiture...

Stolen Asset Recovery : A Good Practices Guide for Non-conviction Based Asset Forfeiture; Recuperacion de activos robados : guia de buenas practicas para el decomisode activos sin condena

Greenberg, Theodore S.; Samuel, Linda M.; Grant, Wingate; Gray, Larissa
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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The guide is organized into three major parts: Part A first provides an overview of the problem of stolen assets and the problem of recovering the assets once they are transferred abroad. Second, it describes how the international community has taken steps to respond to the problem through United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) and the Stolen Asset Recovery (StAR) Initiative. UNCAC introduced a new framework to facilitate the tracing, freezing, seizing, forfeiture, and return of assets stolen through corrupt practices and hidden in foreign jurisdictions. The StAR Initiative developed an action plan to support the domestication and implementation of asset recovery provisions under UNCAC, to facilitate countries' efforts to recover stolen assets that have been hidden in foreign jurisdictions, and ultimately, to help deter such flows and eliminate safe havens for hiding corruption proceeds. Third and finally, Part A introduces non-conviction based (NCB) asset forfeiture as one of the critical tools to combat corruption...

Análisis del caso de asignación de tierras a familias desplazadas y campesinos sin tierra beneficiarios de predios de extinción de dominio y proyectos productivos en el municipio de Pacho Cundinamarca - Finca Santa Rosa

Pardo Rincón, Nelson Alfonso
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Tipo: masterThesis; Trabajo de Grado Maestría Formato: application/pdf
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El presente trabajo se realizó con 30 familias desplazadas y campesinos sin tierra beneficiarios del programa de entrega de tierras de extinción de dominio y proyectos productivos en el municipio de Pacho Cundinamarca. El marco referencial del presente trabajo muestra temas como: aspectos de reforma Agraria en Colombia, concentración de la tierra por el narcotráfico, desplazamiento forzado, tipo de tenencia de la tierra, algunos casos de reasentamiento rural, ley de víctimas y restitución de tierras. Dichas familias de la finca Santa Rosa fueron caracterizadas en sus aspectos productivo, económico, organizativo, social y cultural. Se aplicaron encuestas a todas las familias de la finca Santa Rosa, se entrevistaron y organizó un taller participante, además de contar con la experiencia del investigador el cual acompaño el proceso durante 3 años. Durante este proceso se caracterizó y analizó temas como la comercialización de productos, financiación de proyectos, condiciones agroclimáticas de procedencia, convivencia, confianza, estigmatización por su condición de desplazamiento, organización al interior de la familia, visión de los jóvenes sobre dicho proceso y aspectos que favorecen la sostenibilidad de las familias en este programa. Como conclusiones se encuentra alto grado de arraigo con los productos destinados para autoconsumo...

O crime tributário de descaminho

Scandelari, Gustavo Britta
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tipo: Teses e Dissertações Formato: application/pdf
PORTUGUêS
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Abstract: The main objective is to demonstrate the legal viability of assuring, to the defendant charged with smuggling, the same rights that are already available to the defendant charged with tax evasion in general. This effort takes in special account, here. the requirement of previous judgement of the administrative matters and the possibilíty of extinction of the punshability by repairing the damage. Contrary literature generally indicates as the main obstacle the absence of legal basis - what allows its classifícation as posilivist. The globalized reality of today recommends the study of the problem by an interdisciplinary approach. attentive to tributary and customs legal details, which implies the coherent understanding of the system, the respect to the possibility of judicial review and the overcome of this formalistic impediment. In this context, it is convenient to review specific criminal principies and to adopt them as safe criteria to contain and to reduce the administrativization of the criminal law based on tax, phenomenon that, in fact, is the very reason for the criminalization of tax evasion. Still, because it translates greater guarantee to the defendant, it is recommended the understanding of the previous end of the fiscal proceedings not as a punshability condition...

Rethinking in Rem: The Supreme Court's New (And Misguided) Approach to Civil Forfeiture

Harrington, Matthew P.
Fonte: Yale Law & Policy Review Publicador: Yale Law & Policy Review
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 5627798 bytes; application/pdf
EN
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Heresy and Forfeiture in Marian England

Cavill, P. R.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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This is the accepted manuscript. The final published version is available from CUP at http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9059660&fileId=S0018246X13000277.; The work of the martyrologist John Foxe ensures that the burnings dominate modern accounts of the campaign waged again Protestantism in the reign of Mary I (1553?8). Drawing on other sources, this article examines forfeiture of property, a less noticed but more common penalty imposed upon Protestants. It describes the types of forfeiture that occurred and analyses their legal basis; it considers the impact of the penalty and highlights means of evasion. By examining forfeiture, the article extends and enhances the debate about the effectiveness of Marian religious policy and about the degree of support that the regime could command. Forfeiture, it is shown, could be a powerful form of coercion, but depended upon popular politics to be effective. Subsequent efforts in Elizabeth I?s reign to obtain restitution substantiate the article?s thesis that a deep-rooted belief in the rule of law constrained the penal religious policies of early modern England.; I acknowledge the support of the Arts and Humanities Research Council through the award of a research fellowship.

A (in)constitucionalidade da pena de perdimento aduaneira

Zanellato Filho, Paulo José
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 143 p.; application/pdf
PORTUGUêS
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Orientador : Profª. Drª Betina Treiger Grupenmacher; Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Jurídicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito. Defesa: Curitiba, 02/04/2015; Inclui referências : f. 133-143; Resumo: Muito embora seja uma das penalidades aduaneiras mais aplicadas na atualidade, poucos são os trabalhos dedicados ao estudo sistematizado da pena de perdimento. Muito pouco se falou até o momento a respeito da sua natureza jurídica, conceituação, pressupostos e balizas para sua aplicação. Não obstante a falta de estudos sistematizados, há tempos a doutrina vem travando um embate a respeito da (in)constitucionalidade da pena de perdimento aduaneira, porém, sem que fossem apresentados argumentos que, a nosso ver, fossem sólidos o suficiente para afirmar ou infirmar a sua constitucionalidade. O que pretendemos neste trabalho é justamente determinar se a pena de perdimento aduaneira se apresenta, sob a perspectiva da Constituição de 1988, como uma sanção constitucional ou inconstitucional. Para tanto, posicionaremos a pena de perdimento como penalidade aduaneira e a partir da óptica da teoria da complexidade, determinaremos sua natureza jurídica, princípios aplicáveis e pressupostos materiais. Ato contínuo...

The law and practice of criminal asset forfeiture in South African criminal procedure: A constitutional dilemma

Basdeo,V
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
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The deprivation of the proceeds of crime has been a feature of criminal law for many years. The original rationale for the confiscation of criminal assets at international level was the fight against organised crime, a feature of society described by the European Court of Human Rights as a "scourge" so that the draconian powers which are a feature of confiscation regimes around the world have been approved in circumstances which otherwise might have caused governments considerable difficulties before the international human rights tribunals. The primary objective of this article is to determine if the asset forfeiture measures employed in the South African criminal justice system are in need of any reform and/or augmentation in accordance with the "spirit, purport and object" of the South African Constitution. This article attempts to answer three questions. Firstly, why is criminal asset forfeiture important to law enforcement? Secondly, in which circumstances can property be forfeited and what types of property are subject to forfeiture? Thirdly, how is forfeiture accomplished, and what are its constitutional ramifications?

Arbitrary deprivation of an unregistered credit provider's right to claim restitution of performance rendered Opperman v Boonzaaier (24887/2010) 2012 ZAWCHC 27 (17 April 2012) and National Credit Regulator v Opperman 2013 2 SA 1 (CC)

Brits,R
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 EN
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The Constitutional Court in National Credit Regulator v Opperman confirmed the Cape High Court's decision in Opperman v Boonzaaier to declare section 89(5)(c) of the National Credit Act unconstitutional. Therefore, the forfeiture to the state of an unregistered creditor provider's right to claim restitution of monies advanced in terms of an unlawful (and void) credit agreement, was held to amount to an arbitrary deprivation of property in contravention of section 25(1) of the Constitution - the property clause. The provision in effect prohibited courts from deviating from the common law's strict par delictum rule in as far as the effects of unlawful contracts are concerned, the result being that creditors could not retrieve any of the amounts extended to the debtor, despite there being no turpitude or bad faith present. The purpose of this provision was to discourage the concluding of unlawful credit agreements - for instance, agreements concluded by unregistered credit providers - so as to protect consumers against unscrupulous behaviour. Although the broad purposes of the Act are undeniably valid, the Court held that there was no "sufficient reason" for the effects that the Act had in this case, since the credit provider in question was not guilty of the behaviour that the Act tried to combat. In other words...