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Compensação da reserva florestal legal como instrumento da gestão integrada floresta-água: análise jurídica; Compensation paid by the Legal Forestry Reserve as an instrument to promulgate integrated forest/water management: a legal analysis

Pompermayer, Edison Fernando
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/06/2006 PT
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37.27%
O presente estudo propôs analisar a aplicabilidade do Código Florestal, devido à obrigatoriedade da recomposição da Reserva Florestal Legal, tendo como possibilidade de recomposição a compensação da Reserva Florestal Legal em outra propriedade desde que na mesma microbacia, e no máximo na mesma Unidade de Gerenciamento de Recursos Hídricos. O objetivo geral do estudo foi ampliar o debate em torno da Reserva Florestal Legal e da sua compensação, por meio da análise de alguns conceitos considerados importantes para a gestão integrada floresta-água na propriedade rural. Tendo ainda como objetivos específicos: analisar as modificações ocorridas no Código Florestal Brasileiro no que diz respeito à Reserva Florestal Legal; identificar as vantagens técnicas ambientais da compensação; caracterizar os proprietários rurais de uma microbacia sobre a disposição em compensar a Reserva Florestal Legal; averiguar a necessidade de implantação de práticas educacionais e de fornecimento de informações legais voltadas ao proprietário rural, de forma a contribuir com a conservação da floresta e da água e colaborar para a regulamentação da compensação da Reserva Florestal Legal entre propriedades. Foi aplicado um questionário aos responsáveis por doze propriedades rurais localizadas no Município de Analândia...

Integrated Forestry Development in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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37.17%
This Policy Note discusses the status of Forestry in the Middle East and North Africa Region (MNA) of the Bank. The Policy Note is a product of the FAO Investment Center in Rome, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the Bank. Experience in natural resource management shows that to adequately address sustainable development, solutions must go beyond any single sector, and be cross-sectoral. They must also go beyond technical solutions to include legal and policy frameworks. In the MNA Region, a large percentage of the population lives in rural areas on primarily small pieces of land and in the absence of other sources of revenue to supplement their income. Also because many do not own their land, they are without the means to improve their small land areas to increase output and revenues, thus creating a dependence on the natural resources.

Social Accountability Review : Forestry Sector in Moldova

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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37.33%
The forestry sector in Moldova faces significant governance and sustainability challenges. The insufficient level of forest coverage in Moldova has a serious impact on environment and overall economic growth in the country. The situation is exacerbated by the reportedly intense pressure on forest resources exerted by the human factor. Illegal logging and grazing are considered as significant factors that contribute to forest loss. There is a lack of public demand for sustainable forest management. Social accountability (SA) has been recognized as an effective mechanism to improve government service delivery and enhance developmental impact. SA mechanisms entail a broad range of approaches that enable citizens to access governmental information, lodge grievances and receive redress, oversee the provision of governmental services, and take an active part in management and decision-making processes. This report aims to review SA mechanisms that are currently available in the forestry sector in Moldova and identify opportunities for improvement.

The controversy surrounding eucalypts in social forestry programs of Asia

Casson, Anne
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 218493 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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37.21%
Social forestry emerged amidst important changes in thinking about the role of forestry in rural development and a growing need for fuelwood. In an attempt to alleviate the fuelwood crisis, the World Bank encouraged the planting of Eucalyptus species in its social forestry programs in the 1980s. Eucalypts were the chosen tree species for the majority of social forestry projects because they survive on difficult sites and out-perform indigenous species and most other exotics in height and girth increment, producing wood for poles, pulp and fuel more rapidly. But, despite the benefits that eucalypts can bring to developing countries, the introduction of the species in social forestry projects has not been without controversy.

This paper reviews two controversial social forestry projects—one in Karnataka, South India, and the other in Tung Kula Ronghai, North-east Thailand—based on Eucalyptus species that resulted in social protest. In doing so, this paper aims to determine why these projects failed to bring benefits to the communities involved and what it was that caused these communities to protest. In both cases, it was found that criticisms levelled against eucalypts were expressed in ecological terms. Eucalypts do have some adverse ecological impacts on soil nutrients...

Progress and prospects of community forestry in developing and developed countries

Harrison, S.; Suh, J.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
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37.15%
Community forestry is practiced in various countries throughout the world, with respect to both native forests and plantations, for livelihood and forest protection purposes and also for urban amenity values. While forests have been managed to some extent by communities for thousands of years, modern models of community forestry have been practiced widely for only about 30 years. Community forestry takes many forms; there is no unique definition or categorisation, although a number of characteristics are frequently present. There is in general, involvement of a local community in forest planning as well as management, for a form of forestry which is usually relatively small-scale, motivated by multiple objectives, and receiving some financial support and organisational assistance by government and non-government organisations. Where plantations are established, these may be managed as common property, individual property rights may apply, or there may be a combination of both. Analysis of the specific research studies included in this issue reveals that community forestry systems have been refined over time as experience is gained in program designs, and notable successes have been achieved. However, ‘the jury is still out’ on whether community forestry has lived up to the optimistic expectations of its proponents.; Steve Harrison and Jungho Suh; The original publication can be found at www.springerlink.com

Community forestry for poverty alleviation in China with reference to Huoshan County, Anhui Province

Xu, J.; Zhao, Y.; Suh, J.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
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37.23%
Increasing attention has been paid to the question of whether and how community forestry links with poverty reduction in the mountainous regions in developing countries. Household-based community forestry was first implemented in Yunnan and spread over other parts of China in the 1980s. In this forestry management system, rural households are the main actors. Household forestry is a form of small-scale community forestry and suits the rural areas of China, where social overhead capital and skilled human resources are lacking. Community forestry has played a remarkable role in guiding and facilitating rural poverty alleviation in Huoshan County, Anhui Province. This paper describes how the community forestry project in Huoshan County has helped the farmers improve their livelihoods through the creation of a forestry model involving science and technology demonstration households and independent farmers’ organisations. The sustainable poverty alleviation model developed in Huoshan has proved to be effective in poverty alleviation and environmental protection, featuring the participatory forestry components of the project, namely household forestry, science and technology demonstration households, and independent farmers’ organisations. With technological and financial aid from government...

The role of the forestry industry for the success of community forestry: a comparative input-output analysis across India and the Philippines

Suh, J.
Fonte: Southern African Institute of Forestry Publicador: Southern African Institute of Forestry
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
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47.19%
This paper uses the 'input–output analysis' technique to investigate why the Joint Forest Management program in India has expanded while the uptake of the Community-based Forest Management program in the Philippines has been relatively slow. The forward linkage of the forestry sector with downstream industries in the Philippines was found to be weak when compared with India. In contrast, the wood and wood-products industry in the Philippines has strong forward linkage in contrast to that of India. These findings indicate that further research into the supply chain of forest products in the Philippines is needed. Such research may then inform policy to bridge the gap between industrial demand for timber and national forestry production. The paper suggests that while rights-based institutional reforms are essential for promoting community forestry, the long-term success of community forestry may depend on the performance of the forestry sector within the context of the whole economy. An additional finding is that input–output analysis may provide important insights concerning the economic context for the uptake and long-term sustainability of community forestry programs.; Jungho Suh

Romania - Functional Review : Environment, Water and Forestry, Volume 2. Forestry

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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37.27%
The objective of the Functional Review of the Environment, Water and Forestry sector (FR-EWF) is to help the Government of Romania (GoR) develop an action plan for implementation over the short- and medium-term to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the sector administration, and provide input to the Government National Reform Program (NRP 2011- 2013) and beyond, especially in relation to those functions that support Romania's implementation of key EU directives, help speed up convergence with the environmental Acquis, remove constraints to EU structural funds absorption, and manage the country's natural assets sustainably. The report is presented in two volumes, with the first volume providing an integrated view of the sector as currently configured around environmental management, water, and forestry, and the second volume dedicated to a detailed review of the forestry sector. Volume 1 is organized as follows: Part I provides an overall introduction, objectives and context of the review; Part II summarizes the key challenges facing the sector...

Lao PDR - Production Forestry Policy : Status and Issues for Dialogue, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
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37.24%
Forestry contributes 7-10 percent of Lao Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 15-20 percent of non-agricultural GDP. In rural areas forest exploitation is one of the few available economic activities, and non-timber products provide more than half of family income. The sector contributes 34 percent of total export value, and even more of net foreign exchange. Forestry royalties as a share of government revenues have decreased from 20 percent in the mid-1990s to 6 percent of tax revenues and 5 percent of all revenues last year. Collection rates are low, around 50 percent, and royalty revenues have been declining since mid-1990s. Over the last five years, Treasury has realized only about one-third of the estimated market value of the timber harvested. Current wood industries' capacity exceeds long-term sustainable AAC, and despite heavy investment, their performance has not met expectations. There is no evidence that wood production has had a positive impact on rural poverty; rather it has had a negative one by destroying the environment on which the poor depend. This report concludes that fundamental problems in the forest policy framework can...

Lao PDR - Production Forestry Policy : Status and Issues for Dialogue, Volume 2. Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
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37.19%
Forestry contributes 7-10 percent of Lao Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 15-20 percent of non-agricultural GDP. In rural areas forest exploitation is one of the few available economic activities, and non-timber products provide more than half of family income. The sector contributes 34 percent of total export value, and even more of net foreign exchange. Forestry royalties as a share of government revenues have decreased from 20 percent in the mid-1990s to 6 percent of tax revenues and 5 percent of all revenues last year. Collection rates are low, around 50 percent, and royalty revenues have been declining since mid-1990s. Over the last five years, Treasury has realized only about one-third of the estimated market value of the timber harvested. Current wood industries' capacity exceeds long-term sustainable AAC, and despite heavy investment, their performance has not met expectations. There is no evidence that wood production has had a positive impact on rural poverty; rather it has had a negative one by destroying the environment on which the poor depend. This report concludes that fundamental problems in the forest policy framework can...

Andean Countries : A Strategy for Forestry, Volume 1. Executive Summary; Los paIses andinos - una estrategia para la silvicultura : programas y proyectos

FAO; World Bank
Fonte: FAO, Rome Publicador: FAO, Rome
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.31%
The World Bank's revised forest policy came into being in 2002 and covers all types of forests. It has the following key objectives: (i) harnessing the potential of forests to reduce poverty in a sustainable manner; (ii) integrating forests effectively into sustainable development; and (iii) protecting vital local and global environmental services and values. The policy enables the bank to fully engage in forestry throughout the developing world, while ensuring that it complies with such safe guard policies such as OP 4.01 (Environmental Assessment), OP 4.04 (Natural Habitats) and OD 4.20 (Indigenous Peoples). On the other hand, the policy provides only a general framework for its lending operations in forestry and cannot take account of the individual socio-economic and environmental needs of regions and sub regions. To carry out the work, experienced local consultants were recruited to prepare country level reports following guidelines provided by the FAO Investment Centre, the aim being to gain a strong local perspective on the main issues and potential for sustainable and equitable growth in the sector. These reports were complimented by reference to an extensive literature base to produce individual country reports and the summary which follows. Given the complexity of forestry in the region...

Andean Countries : A Strategy for Forestry, Volume 2. Bolivia; Los paIses andinos - una estrategia para la silvicultura : programas y proyectos

FAO; World Bank
Fonte: FAO, Rome Publicador: FAO, Rome
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.31%
The World Bank's revised forest policy came into being in 2002 and covers all types of forests. It has the following key objectives: (i) harnessing the potential of forests to reduce poverty in a sustainable manner; (ii) integrating forests effectively into sustainable development; and (iii) protecting vital local and global environmental services and values. The policy enables the bank to fully engage in forestry throughout the developing world, while ensuring that it complies with such safe guard policies such as OP 4.01 (Environmental Assessment), OP 4.04 (Natural Habitats) and OD 4.20 (Indigenous Peoples). On the other hand, the policy provides only a general framework for its lending operations in forestry and cannot take account of the individual socio-economic and environmental needs of regions and sub regions. To carry out the work, experienced local consultants were recruited to prepare country level reports following guidelines provided by the FAO Investment Centre, the aim being to gain a strong local perspective on the main issues and potential for sustainable and equitable growth in the sector. These reports were complimented by reference to an extensive literature base to produce individual country reports and the summary which follows. Given the complexity of forestry in the region...

Turkey : Forestry Sector Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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37.26%
The report identifies the challenges, and opportunities the forestry sector faces in Turkey, where twenty five percent of the country's land area is covered by forests, with significant economic, environmental, and cultural functions. The challenges identified in the review include poverty, land tenure, the need to establish multi-purpose, participatory forest management planning, and, to control soil erosion in degraded areas, including the need to restore the sector's financial viability. Following an introductory review on economic growth, urbanization, and new demands on forest resources, the study analyzes the liberalization of the policy framework, the reform of state-owned enterprises, and the public expenditure restraints. The sustained realization of forestry development goals in the context of strengthened economic discipline, should lead to the planning, and management of forest resources at both the national, and local levels; to a decrease in forest areas managed primarily for wood production; to an expansion of protected areas...

Forestry in the Middle East and North Africa : An Implementation Review

Pswarayi-Riddihough, Idah
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.3%
In the Middle East and North Africa Region, forest resources are generally limited, as is their contribution to GDP, and it is for this reason their importance is often overlooked. However, forestry's contribution to natural resource and environmental management, is significant, which should not be underestimated. The report, implemented as an input to the development of a Bank Forestry Strategy in guiding its work in the sector, reviews the Bank-assisted forestry projects in the region over the last ten years, defines the regional forests, and describes its current status, and related policy and economic issues, including the need of civil society, and private sector involvement in forestry related issues. It is highlighted that ultimately, the decisions taken on the directions to be followed by the Bank, would be based on sound knowledge of the overall regional aspects, proposing Economic and Sector Work for the future. The report outlines appropriate policy formulation and technical solutions, but emphasizes that local communities must be directly involved in the planning...

Vietnam - Aligning Public Spending with Strategic Priorities in the Forestry Sector

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
Vietnam's forests remain dependent on public resources, including international development assistance, for the delivery of public and private services that include timber production, state forest management, forest protection and biodiversity conservation, and extension and research. Public subsidies are also provided to smallholder forest owners to stimulate investments into the sector. For the Government it is important to efficiently manage public resources as well as secure adequate resource flows from private actors to achieve the sector's development objectives. This study provides an overview of the more recent developments in the forestry sector as well as basic analytical support to the Government, in particular policy makers in the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, the Ministry of Finance, and the Ministry of Planning and Investment, with regard to structure, trends, and main functions of public and other expenditure in the forestry sector. The study assesses resource adequacy and whether public spending is appropriately prioritized and aligned with sector objectives. Given the constraints of limited availability and quality of data...

Fuelwood Consumption and Participation in Community Forestry in India

Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit; Shyamsundar, Priya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
Decentralized forest management is an important policy issue in India and elsewhere. Yet there are few careful studies of the impacts of community forestry. The authors try to fill this gap by analyzing National Sample Survey data from 524 villages in five states in India. Their analysis seeks to answer two key questions: (1) Who participates in community forestry and what are the determinants of participation? (2) What is the impact of participation on household fuelwood consumption? The authors find that proximity to forests, leadership, and fuelwood dependence are significant factors in explaining village participation in community forestry. Household participation is strongly correlated with scarcity, a result that has implications for a recent policy to expand community forestry from degraded to less degraded forests. The authors' most important findings are that fuelwood consumption and participation are linked, and household participation has a significant positive impact on consumption. However...

The Feasibility of Forestry Operations Within the Asheville, NC, Municipal Watershed

Stober, Cy
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' Project Formato: 3296207 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2007 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
Asheville is a rapidly growing city in western North Carolina, nestled in the Blue Ridge Mountains. Asheville draws drinking water from two artificial reservoirs, Bee Tree and North Fork, located northeast of the city. The reservoirs collectively hold of 6.5 billion gallons of water. The two watersheds total 22,000 acres, and are almost entirely covered by hardwood forests. The watershed lands have recently come under jurisdiction of a conservation easement held by the Conservation Trust of North Carolina, as a steward for the City of Asheville. The easement ensures that the public traveling along the Blue Ridge Parkway will have an unaffected viewshed, and that the city’s populace will have clean water supply. However, the easement technically permits forestry operations within the watershed, if such management benefits Asheville. There is some interest by the city to pursue such management. This master’s project qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes Appalachian municipal watershed forestry management for Galax, VA, Spartanburg, SC, Altoona, PA, and Greenville, SC. A review of these municipalities’ management experience, their history, water quality, and current management emphasizes the importance of developing Best Management Practices specifically for municipal watershed management. If these are used in forestry operations...

Forestry education in a changing landscape

Kanowski, Peter
Fonte: Commonwealth Forestry Association Publicador: Commonwealth Forestry Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.15%
Both forestry and tertiary education are undergoing profound change. Critical changes in forestry include: The conceptualization of forests and forestry as complex soft systems; the changing roles of public and private sectors, and of civil society; the changing social, economic and environmental values of different sorts of forests; and the globalization and commoditization of many forest products and services. Critical changes in tertiary education include: the broadening of access at undergraduate and postgraduate levels; the parallel widespread diminution of resources on a per-student basis; the shift from teacher-centered to student-centered learning; rapid technological developments, particularly but not only in information technologies; and globalization and commoditization. These changes define both strategic and practical challenges, and constraints and opportunities, for forestry education. There are advocates of both radical and more cautious reforms of forestry education. This paper describes how some of those engaged in forestry education have responded to these challenges and opportunities, and reflects on some personal experiences and current issues.

Forestry Out-Grower Schemes: A Review from Selected Countries.

Race, Digby; Desmond, Helen
Fonte: The Haworth Press Publicador: The Haworth Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
The trade relationship between suppliers (e.g., growers) and processors often plays an important role in determining the nature and extent of benefits derived from commercial forestry, and the distribution of these benefits. Those interested in forestry development-whether in industrialized or non-industrialized countries-are becoming increasingly aware that positive partnerships between forest companies and growers can provide a means of encouraging forest management which is environmentally sustainable, cost-efficient and equitable. Forestry out-grower schemes describe one type of partnership emerging between growers and processing companies, as the companies with inadequate forest holdings or access to public forests seek to secure additional supplies to meet the increasing global demand for wood products. However, existing out-grower arrangements vary considerably in their ability to be mutually beneficial, achieve sustainable forest management, and meet the social, technical or economic goals of the partners. This paper reports on recent research in which the authors undertook a survey and analysis of 17 forestry out-grower schemes in 11 countries to assess the extent and location of out-grower schemes world-wide and identify key parameters for successful out-growers schemes to provide guidance to forestry developers...

Community forestry initiatives in Myanmar: an analysis from a social perspective

Lin, H
Fonte: Commonwealth Forestry Association Publicador: Commonwealth Forestry Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.03%
Community Forestry (CF) initiatives took place in Myanmar after a series of forest policy reforms and decentralisation arrangements during the 1990s. The Forest Department has been instrumental in the introduction of CF in degraded areas with primary objectives of afforestation and meeting the local consumption of forest products. Despite the policy reforms and initiatives by the Forest Department, the Myanmar CF program suffers from serious setbacks due to lack of social skills and professional attitude among local forest staff, the uncertainty of land tenure policy and lack of a community empowerment approach. A local empowerment approach supplemented with transparent and accountable land tenure and a viable common property regime is recommended to overcome the growing constraints. The empowerment approach should emphasize promoting a local voice and representation within the local socio-economic context, developing local networks towards federalised institution and honouring local decisions.