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Migração forçada : uma abordagem conceitual a partir da imigração de angolanos para os estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, Brasil (1970-2006); Forced migration : a conceptual approach considering the immigration of angolans to the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1970-2006)

Mariana Recena Aydos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/01/2010 PT
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Abordamos neste estudo a temática dos deslocamentos forçados em suas configurações jurídicas e analíticas. Apresentamos os deslocamentos forçados enquanto fenômeno social que ultrapassa os limites do estatuto jurídico de refugiado, envolve diversos atores e vincula-se a outros processos migratórios, e por nós incorporado no conceito analítico de migração forçada. Isso implica incluir a violência como um fator migratório importante, ressaltando que os movimentos populacionais não ocorrem apenas no terreno da economia e da liberdade das escolhas individuais, e sim em um território com forte presença de aparatos estatais de dominação e coerção. O debate conceitual é pautado por uma reflexão sobre o fluxo de imigrantes angolanos para o Brasil, da década de 1970 até os dias atuais. Apresentamos o contexto de origem da imigração de angolanos através de um breve histórico da Angola com ênfase na conjuntura de conflitos que marcaram a história do país e que forçaram parte de sua população a migrar. Utilizamos como fonte de dados os Censos Demográficos de 1980, 1991 e 2000 e a pesquisa amostral Condições de Vida da População Refugiada (CVPR, NEPO/UNICAMP-SDH, 2007). A partir dos resultados propomos uma análise das transformações que a imigração angolana no Brasil sofreu ao longo das últimas quatro décadas...

Desterritorialização e resistências : viajantes forçados colombianos em São Paulo e Barcelona; Deterritorialization and resistances : Colombian forced travelers in São Paulo and Barcelona

Rafael Ignacio Estrada Mejía
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/12/2010 PT
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46.22%
Esta tese visa analisar o processo de desterritorialização geográfico e existencial, experimentado por viajantes forçados colombianos refugiados nas cidades de São Paulo e Barcelona. A minha hipótese é que este fenômeno obedece a estados de guerra prolongados que na Colômbia se manifestam por meio da existência de domínios territoriais, contra-estatais e paraestatais, que disputam a soberania do Estado e conformam ordens de fato com ambições soberanas. Neles se luta por uma dominação territorial, por uma ordem justa, pela submissão de seus moradores e por uma representação soberana, características que levam a concluir que se trata de guerras pela construção da nação. Desse modo, o encontro com a guerra implica um devir-estrangeiro que emerge ao traspassar as fronteiras nacionais, ao ser submetido a controles migratórios, ao ser contrastado com os cidadãos, ao ser alvo de dispositivos discriminatórios como é caso do uso de estigmas ou estereótipos negativos. Não obstante, a desterritorialização tem provocado as mais variadas resistências, desde as reivindicações ao rebusque. As resistências se expressam de forma impetuosa, sutil, visível ou oculta, configurando o que Scott chama de infrapolítica...

Leveraging Migration for Africa : Remittances, Skills, and Investments

Ratha, Dilip; Mohapatra, Sanket; Ozden, Caglar; Plaza, Sonia; Shaw, William; Shimeles, Abebe
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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International migration has profound implications for human welfare, and African governments have had only a limited influence on welfare outcomes, for good or ill. Improved efforts to manage migration will require information on the nature and impact of migratory patterns. This book seeks to contribute toward this goal, by reviewing previous research and providing new analyses (including surveys and case studies) as well as by formulating policy recommendations that can improve the migration experience for migrants, origin countries, and destination countries. The book comprises this introduction and summary and four chapters. Chapter one reviews the data on African migration and considers the challenges African governments face in managing migration. Chapter two discusses the importance of remittances, the most tangible link between migration and development; it also identifies policies that can facilitate remittance flows to Africa and increase their development impact. Chapter three analyzes high-skilled emigration and analyzes policies that can limit adverse implications and maximize positive implications for development. Chapter four considers ways in which Africa can leverage its diaspora resources to increase trade...

Impact of Migration on Economic and Social Development : A Review of Evidence and Emerging Issues

Ratha, Dilip; Mohapatra, Sanket; Scheja, Elina
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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This paper provides a review of the literature on the development impact of migration and remittances on origin countries and on destination countries in the South. International migration is an ever-growing phenomenon that has important development implications for both sending and receiving countries. For a sending country, migration and the resulting remittances lead to increased incomes and poverty reduction, and improved health and educational outcomes, and promote economic development. Yet these gains might come at substantial social costs to the migrants and their families. Since many developing countries are also large recipients of international migrants, they face challenges of integration of immigrants, job competition between migrant and native workers, and fiscal costs associated with provision of social services to the migrants. This paper also summarizes incipient discussions on the impacts of migration on climate change, democratic values, demographics, national identity, and security. In conclusion...

International Migration, Economic Development and Policy

Özden, Çağlar; Schiff, Maurice
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
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This volume reflects the expansion of the World Bank Research Program on International Migration and Development into new substantive and geographic areas. It presents a new global migration database and includes studies of the determinants and impact of return and circular migration, the impact of the flow of ideas on fertility, host country policies and their impact on immigrants, and the impact of international migration and remittances on poverty and other development indicators. The studies cover countries from Latin America, North Africa, South Asia, the South Pacific, and Western Europe, and show that the impact of migration on education and health tends to benefit girls more than boys, that its impact on labor force participation tends to be stronger for women than men, that return migrants tend to do better than non-migrants, and that fertility has tended to decline in countries whose migration has been to the West and has failed to do so in countries whose migration has been to the Gulf. The purpose of the case studies is to illustrate and clarify many theoretical mechanisms and to advance understanding of the impact of different migration policies...

Assessing the Impacts and Costs of Forced Displacement : Volume 1. A Mixed Methods Approach

Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, Elena; Ruiz, Isabel; Vargas-Silva, Carlos; Zetter, Roger
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Globally, over 40 million people have been forced to leave or flee their homes due to conflict, violence, and human rights violations either as refugees outside their country of origin or Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). A substantial number live in protracted displacement where return has not been possible.Forced displacement is a humanitarian crisis: but it also produces developmental impacts - short and longer term, negative and positive - affecting human and social capital, economic growth, poverty reduction efforts, environmental sustainability and societal fragility. A prevailing view is that refugees are a burden on the development aspirations of host countries and populations and that negative socio-economic and environmental impacts and costs outweigh the positive contributions (actual or potential) that forcibly displaced people might make. The losses incurred by the displaced populations themselves reinforce perceptions of vulnerability and dependency and thus assumptions of the burden they might impose. This study provides such a methodology. The development and drafting of the methodology and the state of the art literature review was conducted by the refugee studies centre...

Informing Migration Policies : A Data Primer

Carletto, Calogero; Larrison, Jennica; Ozden, Caglar
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Researchers in many fields, such as demography, economics, and sociology, have established various data collection methodologies and principles to answer a range of academic and policy questions on migration. Although the progress has been impressive, some basic challenges remain. This paper addresses some basic, yet fundamental, questions on identification of international migrants and how their various demographic, personal, and human capital characteristics are captured via different data sources. The critical issues are the construction of proper sampling frames in censuses, registers, and surveys and the design of questionnaires in household, labor market, and other relevant surveys. The paper discusses how these data sources can be used to answer policy questions in areas such as labor markets, education, or poverty. The focus is on how some of the existing shortcomings in availability, quality, and relevance of migration data can be overcome via improvements in data collection methods.

Forced Displacement and Mixed Migration in the Horn of Africa

World Bank Group; UNHCR
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC and UNHCR, Geneva Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC and UNHCR, Geneva
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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The Horn of Africa (HOA) covers Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda. Despite its rich endowment in human, social, and natural capital, the region is plagued by a complex history of weak governance, insecurity, increasing environmental degradation, entrenched poverty, and a range of persistent development challenges. Conflict remains endemic in the region. The complex cultural, social, and political nature of these conflicts is compounded by demographic shifts due both to population growth and the movement of people, as well as imbalanced service provision, inaccessibility, the growing threat of pandemic diseases, increasing conflicts over scarce natural resources, and harsh climatic conditions including frequent droughts and floods. There are four major protracted displacement situations in the HOA, each with its own characteristics but also with similarities: (1) Eritrea, with significant mixed migration; (2) Somalia, with conflict and violence in areas of origin and food insecurity and destruction of shelter due to floods and droughts; (3) South Sudan...

Burma: The Changing Nature of Displacement Crises

South, Ashley
Fonte: Refugee Studies Centre, Oxford University Publicador: Refugee Studies Centre, Oxford University
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper
EN
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Patterns of forced migration in Burma (Myanmar1) have been structured by the changing nature of conflict in the country. Since independence in 1948, Burma has been subject to armed conflict, in the form of a communist insurgency – which came close to seizing state power in the late 1940s and early 1950s (Taylor 1987) – and a series of inter-linked ethnic rebellions (Smith 1999). Following a turbulent decade of parliamentary politics, the Burma Army (or Tatmadaw) temporarily assumed state power between 1958–60, before consolidating its control, following a coup d’etat in 1962 (Callahan 2003). Since the 1960s, above-ground politics and state-society relations in Burma have been dominated by the military, in the form of a state-socialist polity (1962–88: Taylor 1987) and – since the military coup of September 1988 – in a more market-oriented, but still highly authoritarian form of military rule (South 2005). ¶ In 1989 the once-powerful Communist Party of Burma (CPB) collapsed, allowing the Tatmadaw to concentrate its forces on the ethnic insurgencies, which by this time were mostly confined to the northern and eastern border areas. Between 1989-95, some two dozen ceasefires were agreed between the military regime, and the majority of armed ethnic groups (Smith 1999...

Forced migration in Indonesia: Historical perspectives

Hugo, G.
Fonte: Scalabrini Migration Center Publicador: Scalabrini Migration Center
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
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This paper argues that an historical perspective is important in the understanding of contemporary forced migration in Indonesia. It demonstrates this through an analysis of the major pre 1965 forced migrations in the country. It shows that many contemporary population flows both forced and unforced have their origins in historical forced migration. For example, urbanization in Indonesia in the immediate post independence decades was in a major way a function of forced migration. Forced migration also has created chain migration linkages between origin and destination along which later non-forced movements occur. It is also shown that historical forces are often responsible for the political, economic and social inequalities which are an important influence on contemporary patterns of migration.; http://www.smc.org.ph/apmj15-1.htm; Graeme Hugo; Copyright © 2006 Scalabrini Migration Center

Refugee movement and development - Afghan refugees in Iran

Hugo, G.; Abbasi-Shavazi, M.; Sadeghi, R.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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The increasing discussion of the relationship between migration and development attention is focused almost entirely on voluntary migration. Little attention is given to the development of consequences and potential of forced migration. Yet, forced migration, especially refugees, makes up a significant proportion of international moves, most of it being south-south in nature. While the raison d’etre of forced migration is fleeing persecution and seeking refuge from it, the migration can have important economic outcomes. This paper addresses this issue by examining the educational and occupational outcomes of Afghan refugees in Iran. There is significant upward mobility among the refugees, especially between the first and second generations. It is argued that this represents potential for facilitating development.; Graeme Hugo, Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi and Rasoul Sadeghi

Regional responses to forced migration : the case of Libya

NITA, Sonja
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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The 2011 Libyan civil war, part of the wider Arab Spring, triggered considerable population displacements. These displacements included both Libyans and third-country nationals fleeing the country by land, air and sea. Data available for spring/summer 2011 shows that an estimated 1,128,985 people left Libya to seek shelter in Tunisia, Egypt, Niger, Algeria, Chad and Sudan as well as in Malta and Italy. Research has, thus far, mainly focused on the response of the international community (UNHCR and IOM, above all), the European Union and individual countries in dealing with large numbers of displaced persons (Kelly and Wadud 2012, Fargues and Fandrich 2012, Tucci 2012, Forced Migration Review 2012). Less attention has been given to those regional entities of which Libya has been a member. These include: the African Union (AU), the League of Arab States (LAS), the Community of Sahel Saharan States (CEN-SAD), the Arab Maghreb Union (AMU), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the Organization for the Islamic Conference (OIC). The aim of this paper is, therefore, to shed light on the (actual and potential) role of these regional organizations in alleviating those fleeing from Libya.; Migration Policy Centre; The MPC is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union

Sustainable Refugee Return; Triggers, Constraints, and Lessons on Addressing the Development Challenges of Forced Displacement

Harild, Niels; Christensen, Asger; Zetter, Roger
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Refugee return is one of the three so-called durable solutions to refugee displacement envisaged by United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the international community. The objective of this study is to identify the conditions that influence the decisions by refugees in protracted displacement regarding return to their home country - when, why, and by whom are decisions on return or other coping strategies made, and how are they affected both by life in exile and by the situation in the country of origin. The primary purpose of the study is to inform the World Bank’s country and regional strategies, as well as its operational approaches on ways to address forced displacement by showing that well thought out development actions that are responsive to the circumstances of specific displacement situations can contribute to the sustainable return and reintegration for displaced. Using a desk study method, the analysis has drawn on the existing literature on refugee decision-making regarding return together with eight country return cases. The study assesses both the conditions of life in asylum and those in the country of origin including activities to support reconstruction and development by governments and development actors including the World Bank...

The demographic and economic framework of migration in Kuwait

DE BEL-AIR, Françoise
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
EN
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GLMM - Gulf Labour Markets and Migration; As of December 2012, 68 percent of residents in Kuwait were expatriates. Most come from Asia and especially from India (30 percent of all foreign residents). Three-quarters of expatriates are active. They account for 83 percent of the total active population and 93 percent of the private sector's workforce. Asians are mainly involved in the services and craft sectors, while Arabs more often fill managerial posts. Recent flows suggest a shift in recruitment policies towards upgrading the workforce's level of qualifications and occupations. Data also show the extent of forced migration from Kuwait: 400,000 Arabs, most of them of Palestinian origin, were forced to flee the country after the First Gulf War. Also, Kuwait's stateless residents (the Bidun) have been compelled to emigrate since 1985, while those still in the country are considered illegal residents.; The GLMM programme is conducted by the Gulf Research Centre (GRC) and the Migration Policy Centre (MPC) and financed by the Open Society Foundations (OSF).

Displacement and Dispossession: Forced Migration and Land Rights in Burma

South, Ashley
Fonte: The Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE), Geneva, Switzerland Publicador: The Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE), Geneva, Switzerland
Tipo: Outros
EN
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Burma today is experiencing a crisis in security of land tenure, which includes the widespread abuse of human, economic, social, cultural, and political rights. This report, 'Displacement and Dispossession: Forced Migration and Land Rights in Burma' focuses on land confiscation by Government forces, responsible for Burma’s most acute Housing, Land and Property (HLP) rights abuses. Among the most vulnerable populations are more than one million internally displaced people in Burma, most from ethnic nationality communities. These include at least 500 000 people in the armed conflict-affected border regions of eastern Burma. ¶ This report focuses on the ongoing abuses of HLP rights occurring under military rule today, particularly in areas populated by non-Burman peoples. In recent years, the peoples living in these areas have been the most severely affected by large-scale displacement. These abuses occur during military counter-insurgency operations; for the construction and support of new army battalions; to make way for infrastructure development projects; in the context of natural resource extraction; and to provide vested interests with business opportunities. ¶ When addressing land rights issues, it is important to recognise that indigenous peoples such as Burma’s ethnic nationalities enjoy a special relationship with the land. In Burma...

Forced Displacement of and Potential Solutions for IDPs and Refugees in the Sahel : Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The Sahel region has seen the forcible displacement of more than million persons as a result of conflict. Tackling displacement in the Sahel is critical for both poverty alleviation and stabilization, and only a development response will be adequate to the task. A development response to forced displacement in the Sahel requires a regional approach. Such an approach would have the benefits of being able to overcome challenges relating to cross-border movements, obtain commitments by host governments to support the prospects of displaced from neighboring countries, and facilitate common approaches, shared conceptualization and learning. The purpose of this scoping study on forced displacement is to contribute towards the formulation of a regional policy framework for sustainable solutions to displacement and towards the substantiation of a development response. The main challenges for the displaced populations include: i) livelihoods; ii) relations with host communities; iii) cohesion; iv) depletion of services; and v) governance. Measures to be taken to address the needs of these communities are: 1) improving the monitoring of population movement and knowledge on the locations...

Contemporary Migration to South Africa : A Regional Development Issue

Segatti, Aurelia; Landau, Loren B.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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This book is a call to rethink migration regimes in Southern Africa in ways that are more explicitly developmental and focused on poverty. Current policy debates are devoted almost exclusively to border control and policing; they pay only lip service to local and regional developmental strategies. This volume takes a different approach. Its contributors are scholars who are convinced that empirically based policy making stands a better chance of succeeding than untested preconceptions that risk reproducing recipes that have failed elsewhere. The book is therefore strong on empirics, providing a wealth of original data. It also reframes existing approaches and reexamines secondary data from fresh perspectives. Although the focus remains South Africa, the book reflects South Africa's regional role and draws on data from across the Southern African Development Community (SADC). This book broadens the 'migration' agenda beyond the boundaries of migration studies and migration policy silos. This book is intended to become a resource for a range of audiences in Southern Africa and the continent.

Territory and border crossing for livelihoods among (voluntary and forced) migrants from DRC to Swaziland: the re-imagining of a borderless spatial system

Tati, Gabriel
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em 06/02/2013 ENG
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In people’s livelihoods, migration across international borders represents an important strategy for asset accumulation (Moser and Dani, 2008). On the continent, men and women have always migrated to neighbouring countries or further afield in search of opportunities. Taking the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as a case study for the generation of cross-border migration, this paper examines ways in which, through the spatial trajectories of migrants from Democratic Republic of Congo, different meanings are assigned to bordered territories. It interrogates the extent to which (voluntary and forced) migrants create a borderless spatial system that circumvents the geographically defined state. I make use of an interpretive approach to demonstrate the extent to which migrants' experiences with border crossing are a livelihood and asset accumulation strategy within a somewhat borderless spatial system. My core argument is that the interplay of weak institutional policy apparatus along the inter-state borders makes it easy for migrants to create their own rules for free movement to fit their social aspirations and in this process a meaning to cross-border mobility is socially assigned and values are developed over time across geographical boundaries. To empirically substantiate this argument...

La necesidad de establecer una condición jurídica para quienes deben migrar por causa de los desastres naturales : una realidad que atender desde la perspectiva de los derechos humanos

Torres villarreal, María Lucía
Fonte: Facultad de Jurisprudencia Publicador: Facultad de Jurisprudencia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/02/2014 SPA
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El incremento desmedido en el número de desastres naturales, sumado a la frecuencia con que estos ocurren a lo largo del mundo entero, ha evidenciado una de las mayores preocupaciones de los Estados: el desplazamiento forzado de la población por esta causa y la delicada situación de derechos humanos que esto implica, por lo cual los Organismos Internacionales han instado en reiteradas oportunidades a los Estados para actuar conjunta y prontamente para evitar que esta siga siendo una de las causas más altas de desplazamiento. Esta migración forzada pone de presente una problemática al no existir una posición universalmente aceptada sobre cuál es la condición jurídica de las personas que, por causa de los desastres naturales, deben dejarlo todo; la ausencia de esta categorización conlleva a la inexistencia de un marco legal internacional aplicable y con ello, a un vacío en la regulación interna de los Estados. Esta investigación pretende analizar los conceptos de migración existentes en el derecho internacional y establecer si la condición jurídica de quienes deben dejarlo todo por causa de los desastres naturales encaja dentro de alguna de estas categorías o si se hace necesario crear una nueva categoría que atienda las particularidades del contexto de este fenómeno migratorio...

Forced migration and child health and mortality in Angola

Avogo, Winfred Aweyire; Agadjanian, Victor
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This study investigates the effects of forced migration on child survival and health in Angola. Using survey data collected in Luanda, Angola, in 2004, just two years after the end of that country's prolonged civil war, we compare three groups: migrants who moved primarily due to war, migrants whose moves were not directly related to war, and non-migrants. First, we examine the differences among the three groups in under-five mortality. Using an event-history approach, we find that hazards of child death in any given year were higher in families that experienced war-related migration in the same year or in the previous year, net of other factors. To assess longer-term effects of forced migration, we examine hazards of death of children who were born in Luanda, i.e., after migrants had reached their destinations. We again observe a disadvantage of forced migrants, but this disadvantage is explained by other characteristics. When looking at the place of delivery, number of antenatal consultations, and age-adequate immunization of children born in Luanda, we again detect a disadvantage of forced migrants relative to non-migrants, but now this disadvantage also extends to migrants who came to Luanda for reasons other than war. Finally...