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O custo do alimento seguro: um estudo de caso da produção de salgados; The cost of food safety: case study of finger food production line

Von Simson, Maria de Lourdes Ruivo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/10/2011 PT
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56.16%
Com o objetivo de estudar o custo da produção segura, de salgados, em uma fábrica localizada no munícipio de Jundiaí, São Paulo, foi realizado um estudo de caso por observação de processos e registros, em planilhas de Excel, dos custos da produção do alimento seguro com a execução das Boas Práticas de Fabricação referente ao período de agosto de 2010 a julho de 2011 e posteriormente retirados os custos pertinentes as Boas Práticas de Fabricação para comparação entre ambas às situações. Também foram levantados os custos das obrigações legais e sua influência no resultado final do preço unitário. Para identificar os custos diretos de uma produção que assegura a qualidade do alimento, mantendo-o inócuo, foram utilizados os conceitos de custos variáveis. As contas foram agrupadas segundo seu destino de utilização. Foram estudadas também as mudanças de hábitos alimentares devido à mudança de comportamento, especialmente das mulheres que tem crescente participação nas atividades remuneradas, fora do lar. O perfil de consumo das famílias está mudando e com este o aumento de ocorrências de doenças causadas por contaminação alimentar, que segundo os autores estudados acontece com maior frequência do que se tem registrado de fato. Para entender melhor esta relação foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica sobre a evolução do consumo...

Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa

Palm, Cheryl A.; Smukler, Sean M.; Sullivan, Clare C.; Mutuo, Patrick K.; Nyadzi, Gerson I.; Walsh, Markus G.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover crops—green manures—and agroforestry—legume improved tree fallows) are compared to baseline food production, land requirements to meet basic caloric requirements, and greenhouse gas emissions. At low population densities and high land availability, food security and climate mitigation goals are met with all intensification scenarios, resulting in surplus crop area for reforestation. In contrast, for high population density and small farm sizes, attaining food security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions require mineral fertilizers to make land available for reforestation; green manure or improved tree fallows do not provide sufficient increases in yields to permit reforestation. Tree fallows sequester significant carbon on cropland, but green manures result in net carbon dioxide equivalent emissions because of nitrogen additions. Although these results are encouraging, agricultural intensification in sub-Saharan Africa with mineral fertilizers...

Food production & availability - Essential prerequisites for sustainable food security

Swaminathan, M.S.; Bhavani, R.V.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2013 EN
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Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this.

Condos, Lettuce, and Tomatoes: Factors Influencing the Provision of Food Production Spaces in New Multi-Unit Residential Developments in Toronto and Vancouver

Huang, Dilys
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
EN
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There are a number of societal benefits associated with urban agriculture, such as increasing the sense of community and promoting improved access to fresh produce. Despite its growing popularity, one of the key barriers, especially for apartment or condominium dwellers, is the lack of access to open space or backyards. While certain municipalities are encouraging urban food production in multi-unit residential projects through policy, there is generally a lack of understanding around the factors that influence the provision of food production spaces from the developers’ perspective. Therefore, the study’s key objective is to identify ways of enhancing urban agriculture initiatives as well as better understand the enabling and hindering factors for developers. In order to investigate this topic, the study was focused around these three research questions: (1) What are the policies that address the integration of food production spaces within new multi-unit residential developments? (2) What factors and elements of policies encourage or discourage developers from incorporating urban agriculture amenities into their development projects? (3) How can planners and developers further enhance the availability of food production spaces for residents of these multi-unit dwellings? A qualitative case study approach was used by conducting a literature review...

Are Low Food Prices Pro-Poor? Net Food Buyers and Sellers in Low-Income Countries

Aksoy, M. Ataman; Isik-Dikmelik, Aylin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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There is a general consensus that most of the poor in developing countries are net food buyers and food price increases are bad for the poor. This could be expected of urban poor, but it is also often attributed to the rural poor. Recent food price increases have increased the importance of this issue, and the possible policy responses to these price increases. This paper examines the characteristics of net food sellers and buyers in nine low-income countries. Although the largest share of poor households are found to be net food buyers, almost 50 percent of net food buyers are marginal net food buyers who would not be significantly affected by food price increases. Only three of the nine countries examined exhibited a substantial proportion of vulnerable households. The average incomes (as measured by expenditure) of net food buyers were found to be higher than net food sellers in eight of the nine countries examined. Thus, food price increases, ceteris paribus, would transfer income from generally higher income net food buyers to poorer net food sellers. The analysis also finds that the occupations and income sources of net sellers and buyers in rural areas are significantly different. In rural areas where food production is the main activity and where there are limited non-food activities...

A Note on Rising Food Prices

Mitchell, Donald
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The rapid rise in food prices has been a burden on the poor in developing countries, who spend roughly half of their household incomes on food. This paper examines the factors behind the rapid increase in internationally traded food prices since 2002 and estimates the contribution of various factors such as the increased production of biofuels from food grains and oilseeds, the weak dollar, and the increase in food production costs due to higher energy prices. It concludes that the most important factor was the large increase in biofuels production in the U.S. and the EU. Without these increases, global wheat and maize stocks would not have declined appreciably, oilseed prices would not have tripled, and price increases due to other factors, such as droughts, would have been more moderate. Recent export bans and speculative activities would probably not have occurred because they were largely responses to rising prices. While it is difficult to compare the results of this study with those of other studies due to differences in methodologies...

Responding to Higher and More Volatile World Food Prices

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Following the world food price spike in 2008 and again in 2011, there has been increased attention on better understanding the drivers of food prices, their impacts on the poor, and policy response options. This paper provides a simple model that closely simulates actual historical food price behavior around which the analysis of the drivers of food price levels, volatility, and the associated response options is derived. Future food prices are likely to remain higher than pre-2007 levels and recent price uncertainty is likely to continue for the foreseeable future. Accelerated use of food crops for industrial purposes (biofuels) continues to offset the slowing population growth effect on food demand. World food stocks remain at relatively low levels where the likelihood of price spikes is higher. Production gains may be harder to achieve in the future than in the past, with more limited space for area expansion, declining yield growth, and increases in weather variability. Suggested responses to reduce average food price levels are to (i) raise food crop yields...

The Inter-linkages between Rapid Growth in Livestock Production, Climate Change, and the Impacts on Water Resources, Land Use, and Deforestation

Thornton, Philip K.; Herrero, Mario
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Livestock systems globally are changing rapidly in response to human population growth, urbanization, and growing incomes. This paper discusses the linkages between burgeoning demand for livestock products, growth in livestock production, and the impacts this may have on natural resources, and how these may both affect and be affected by climate change in the coming decades. Water and land scarcity will increasingly have the potential to constrain food production growth, with adverse impacts on food security and human well-being. Climate change will exacerbate many of these trends, with direct effects on agricultural yields, water availability, and production risk. In the transition to a carbon-constrained economy, livestock systems will have a key role to play in mitigating future emissions. At the same time, appropriate pricing of greenhouse gas emissions will modify livestock production costs and patterns. Health and ethical considerations can also be expected to play an increasing role in modifying consumption patterns of livestock products...

Future of Food; Shaping a Climate-Smart Global Food System

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The report aims to help improve the productivity and resilience of the current food system, and to make agriculture part of the solution to climate change. It presents compelling evidence and new tools for policymakers, serving as a guide to better address the impacts of a warming climate on agriculture and food production. This report argues that climate-smart agriculture is central to efforts to end extreme poverty by 2030 and boost shared prosperity. The growing body of operational experience implementing Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) points to a large spectrum of approaches that deliver productivity and resilience gains alongside lower emissions. This paper advocates for an increasing shift toward securing a triple win by implementing agriculture and food production practices that not only boost productivity but also enhance resilience and lower greenhouse gas emissions (GHG)—the three pillars that form the basis of CSA.

Potential environmental and population health impacts of local urban food systems under climate change: a life cycle analysis case study of lettuce and chicken

Friel, Sharon; Hall, Gillian; Rothwell, Alison; Grant, Tim; Isaacs, Bronwyn; Ford, Laura; Dixon, Jane; Kirk, Martyn
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 13 pages
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Background: Climate change is expected to have an impact on food production, processing and transport systems. While food systems have become globalized in recent decades, interest has re-emerged for local production and consumption to contribute to sustainable and secure food systems in an era of increasing urbanization and climate change. To explore environmental health issues related to the production of local food in an urban setting, a life cycle analysis screening study of two food commodities, chicken meat and lettuce, produced at industrial and civic scales was conducted in Sydney, Australia, as well as interviews with consumers and producers to explore their potential motivation to change. Methods: Determination of environmental impacts was performed using life cycle assessment (LCA) of two civic and one industrial scale producer for each commodity using SimaPro version 7.3.3. Impacts of global warming potential (GWP), land use and water use from the production of these commodities are reported. With a view to producing holistic insights to sustainable practices in Sydney, interviews with producers and consumers were undertaken to assess sociocultural outcomes including views on environmental food sustainability and other motivators of behavioral change. Results: Local industrial production of chicken meat was found to have a lower carbon footprint than small scale civic production. Small scale civic production of lettuce had a similar carbon footprint to local industrial production. Other environmental health benefits and risks varied across the production scales. Environmental sustainability was not generally a key concern of producers or consumers. Conclusions: Action can be taken to retain and promote food production in urban settings as a future means of assisting food security. The scale of production can be an important variable in assessing the environmental health impacts of food production in an urban setting. Currently neither producers nor consumers appear motivated to change practices to promote environmental sustainability.

Guinea - Moving Towards Food Security; Guinee - Vers la securite alimentaire

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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The Guinea National Agricultural Services Project's overall development objective is to improve nationwide agricultural productivity and production, incomes of farmers and food security. Initiated in 1996, the food security component of this project was undertaken in conjunction with the Food and Agriculture Organization's Special Program for Food Security (SPFS). SPFS, approved by the FAO Board in June 1994, had the objective of helping countries with low revenues and a food deficit to rapidly increase their food production in order to contribute to food security. The SPFS strategy is based on pilot projects to identify existing technical assistance packages and the intensification of their application while eliminating the institutional obstacles to their adoption. The pilot phase will be followed by an extension of five years during which technical solutions, policies and investment programs will be implemented to strengthen the national capacity necessary for increased food security.

Regional Trade in Food Staples : Prospects for Stimulating Agricultural Growth and Moderation Food Security Crises in Eastern and Southern Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report focuses on growing trade in food staples in the Southern and Eastern African region of Africa as one of the largest growth opportunities available to African farmers. This paper examines the impact of regional trade in food staples, both for maintaining farmer incentives in surplus food production zones and for moderating price spikes in deficit areas. The paper begins by identifying the geographic extent of major maize market sheds in Eastern and Southern Africa. It then focuses on the South Eastern Africa market shed, the one centered in Malawi, Northern Mozambique and Zambia. This analysis concentrates on the regions two most important food staples, maize and cassava. Given the volatility of the region's rainfed maize production, this section aims to empirically evaluate the impact of maize production shocks on staple food prices, production incentives, consumption and trade. To do so, the paper develops a spatially disaggregated model o f maize and cassava markets in order to evaluate the impact of supply shocks...

Estimating the Short-Run Poverty Impacts of the 2010–11 Surge in Food Prices

Ivanic, Maros; Martin, Will; Zaman, Hassan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
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Global food prices have increased substantially since mid-2010, as have prices in many developing countries. In this study we assess the poverty impact of the price changes between June and December 2010 in twenty-eight low and middle income countries. This is done by gathering detailed information on individual households' food production and consumption levels for thirty-eight agricultural and food commodities to assess the impacts on household welfare. This study estimates that this sudden food price surge increased the number of poor people globally, but with considerably different impacts in different countries. The heterogeneity of these impacts is partly related to the wide variation in the transmission of global prices to local prices and partly to differences in households' patterns of production and consumption. On balance, the adverse welfare impact on net buyers outweighs the benefits to net sellers resulting in an increase in the number of poor and in the depth of poverty. We estimate that the average poverty change was 1.1 percentage points in low income countries and 0.7 percentage points in middle income countries with a net increase of 44 million people falling below the $1.25 per day extreme poverty line.

High Food Prices, Latin American and the Caribbean Responses to a New Normal; El alto precio de los alimentos, respuestas de ALC a una nueva normalidad

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Yet the current situation differs from 2007-2008 in critical respects. First, recent international price increases are more widespread across agricultural commodities than in 2008, when price spikes were led by few grains such as wheat and rice. Second, natural resources are affecting food production: land and water constraints are more binding than in the past and weather induced production shortfalls are more of a factor now than it was 2008. Climate change also adds to this uncertainty, particularly since a larger share of grain exports are being produced in areas more exposed to climate variability. Third, long term structural changes in the markets are more clearly a major factor this time, as demand for feed and income-elastic foods under sustained and widespread income growth in emerging countries is increasing steadily. Fourth, the global stocks/use ratio for major cereals, which used to hover in the range of 30-35 percent in the 1980s and 1990s, has been around 20 percent after 2003 due largely to long-term policy changes in high-income countries; and stocks of some critical players are now at all-time lows. Global markets are currently experiencing the second sharp spike in food prices in the last four years. While no one has a crystal ball to predict with confidence the future prices of food products...

Food Production or Food Aid? An African Challenge; Production alimentaire ou aide alimentaire ? Un defi africain

Verheye, Willy H.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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66.15%
Food production is not keeping pace with Africa's rapidly growing needs. Aid programs in the 1970s and 1980s were considered a temporary solution to the most appalling famines, but Africa's food shortage appears to be worsening. This paper discusses the reasons for this situation and ways to address it. African policymakers should consider intensifying and diversifying local production and establishing systems for marketing and setting prices. Individual farmers or farmers' communities must take the initiative for the farmers while governments must take responsibility for developing and maintaining total networks.

Food Production during the Transition to Capitalism: A Comparative Political Economy of Russia and China

Hamm, Patrick
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
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The principal analytical objective of this dissertation is the assessment of changes in the political economy of food production during the transition from socialism to capitalism in Russia and China. The dissertation is equally interested in the consequences of this transition for human welfare resulting from changes in the availability of food. As a conditio sine qua non for human survival, food serves as an objective yardstick for human welfare. By studying changes in the political economy of food production it is therefore possible to draw general inferences regarding the welfare implications of the transition to capitalism in Russia and China. This dissertation uses a combination of classical political economy and comparative institutional analysis: The three empirical chapters show how changes in state objectives result in the formulation of economic policies that in turn shape the organization of food production - with momentous consequences for the Russian and Chinese people. Both countries achieved a significant increase in the output and variety of food, yet new problems concerning the availability, quality, and safety of food products have resulted from the introduction of markets. These problems are not externalities, but rather constitute a necessary consequence of the establishment of a market economy in which profit-oriented actors engage in competitive exchange without regard for human welfare. As a result...

Resolving differing stakeholder perceptions of urban rooftop farming in Mediterranean cities : promoting food production as a driver for innovative forms of urban agriculture

Sanyé Mengual, Esther; Anguelovski, Isabelle; Oliver-Solà, Jordi; Montero, Juan Ignacio; Rieradevall, Joan
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion
Publicado em //2015 ENG
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Published online 1 March 2015; Urban agriculture (UA) is spreading within the Global North, largely for food production, ranging from household individual gardens to community gardens that boost neighborhood regeneration. Additionally, UA is also being integrated into buildings, such as Urban Rooftop Farming (URF). Some URF experiences succeed in North America both as private and community initiatives. To date, little attention has been paid to how stakeholders perceive UA and URF in the Mediterranean or to the role of food production in these initiatives. This study examines the promotion and inclusion of new forms of UA through the practice of URF and contributes to the nascent literature on the stakeholder and public perceptions of UA. It seeks to understand how those perceptions shape the development of new urban agriculture practices and projects. Barcelona (Spain) was used as a Mediterranean case study where UA and URF projects are growing in popularity. Through semi-structured interviews with 25 core stakeholders, we show that UA is largely perceived as a social activity rather than a food production initiative, because the planning of urban gardens in Barcelona was traditionally done to achieve leisure and other social goals. However...

The effect of environmental change on food production, human nutrition and health

McMichael, Anthony; Butler, Colin
Fonte: Blackwell Science Asia Publicador: Blackwell Science Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Worldwide degradation of arable land, freshwater depletion and the loss of biodiversity are three of several ongoing 'global environmental changes' that endanger the biosphere's human utility - including food supplies, an essential, 'utility'. The degradation of local and regional food-producing environmental assets is a familiar story historically. Today, however, pressures and stresses on food production are becoming global in scale, reflecting (in addition to the above three) a range of large-scale human-induced environmental changes, such as global climate change and environmental nitrification. Human-induced biodiversity loss reflects land-use changes, other aspects of the over-exploitation of productive terrestrial and marine ecosystems, climate change, and the trans-boundary migration of pollutants and exotic species. Indeed, biodiversity loss has, for long, been an inevitable trade-off against the increased capacity to produce food for larger human populations - as occurs in agrarian societies when forests are replaced by crops. More recently, trade, technology, knowledge dissemination, and the worldwide transformation of ecosystems have further boosted food supplies for the increasing human population. (That this abundance often fails to improve health...

Relevance and feasibility of women's involvement in promoting sustainable food production and security in Southern Africa

Assan, Never
Fonte: Editora de Livros IABS Publicador: Editora de Livros IABS
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/09/2014 ENG
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Harnessing women’s potential for food production and security has been a challenge in Southern Africa. The face of food production in Southern Africa is often female, but more often than not, their roles are generally undervalued and constrained by gender inequalities and limitations on their access to resources, services, and market opportunities. This chapter explores how women involvement in food production can have a positive impact on food security in Southern Africa. The gender aspect of food security assume significance, as it is widely recognized that women are the custodian of food production in many communities in Southern Africa. There is a tendency of men and women participating unevenly in food production, have unequal access to productive resources and exhibit different levels of engagement in rural, urban and home-based food production. Despite this anomaly, there is still a common understanding that food production needs to be increased in order to cope with the increased human population and achieving food security in the region. With this in mind, food production and security have emerged as key development targets in Southern Africa. This has propelled the urgent need for promoting food production, reducing food insecurity and poverty reduction in its totality. One of the factors contributing to perpetual low food production and insecurity has been gender discrimination and/or lack of participation of women in agricultural programs and projects. In this chapter there is an attempt to describe the impact of gender-based discrimination on food production and its implication on food security. The indispensable role and challenges faced by women in food production are highlighted. The need to invest in education and training of women to support food production systems in order to accrue maximum benefit is acknowledged. In this regard...

Poor hunger versus agrofuel production another inequality with negative impact in Colombian population

Del Castillo-Matamorros,Sara Eloisa; Gordillo Motato,Ángela Marcela
Fonte: Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Publicador: Revista de la Facultad de Medicina
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
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Colombia has problems regarding the availability of food, as accepted by the Colombian Ministry of Agriculture itself. Increased food prices resulting from agrofuel production which is beginning to compete with the supply of food for human consumption is a situation which has even been recognised by World Bank spokespeople. This organisation once promoted agrofuel production as an alternative for rescuing the countryside from the oblivion to which Latin-American economies had been condemned during the last few decades. Abundant evidence has now shown that encouraging agrofuel production has promoted the spread of monocrops, in turn leading to soil deterioration, thereby producing greater difficulty in ensuring national food production which would guarantee availability as an essential component of food and nutritional safety. The corn needed to produce the ethanol required by a first-world car to cover 32,000 km/year could supply a normal person's daily calorie needs for 62 years. For example, most Colombian regions and departments forming part of current large agrofuel production megaprojects are well above the average national chronic malnutrition rate (12% for children aged under five and 12.6% for schoolchildren, according to 2005 Colombian Nutritional Survey results. Healthcare professionals must be aware of and analyse such policy putting the food safety of Colombia's most disadvantaged population at risk.