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Importação e implantação do modelo médico-hospitalar no Brasil. Um esboço de história econômica do sistema de saúde 1942-1966; Importation and implamentation of the health care model in Brazilrough draught of Economic History of the health system 1942-1966

Perillo, Eduardo Bueno da Fonseca
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/07/2008 PT
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O atual modelo de atenção à saúde do Brasil tem suas origens no modelo biomédico flexneriano, idealizado e implantado nos Estados Unidos por meio da ação combinada do corporativismo médico local e do grande capital. Sua importação e implantação se insere nas relações gerais de dependência econômica e subordinação política do nosso País aos interesses norte-americanos, desde as últimas décadas do século XIX até as primeiras décadas do século XX. O objetivo desta tese é identificar e analisar como as grandes fundações norte-americanas, financiadoras do modelo de atenção médica originado a partir da publicação do Relatório Flexner em 1910, mais os interesses capitalistas, tanto do grande capital internacional quanto nacionais, e o corporativismo médico brasileiro, construíram o modelo de atenção médico-hospitalar no Brasil e o moldaram à sua conveniência, de sorte a torná-lo hegemônico, preparando o terreno para a implantação da fase seguinte, a do complexo médico-industrial. Para tanto, apropriando-se do discurso dominante da ciência, deverão introduzir-se no Estado ou com ele manter estreito relacionamento, de forma a controlá-lo ou dirigí-lo ainda que parcialmente, privilegiando seus interesses...

Mutations of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 p6Gag Domain Result in Reduced Retention of Pol Proteins during Virus Assembly

Yu, Xiao-Fang; Dawson, Liza; Tian, Chun-Juan; Flexner, Charles; Dettenhofer, Markus
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1998 EN
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One of the crucial steps in the assembly of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other retroviruses is the incorporation and retention of all the key viral enzymes in released virions. The viral enzymes protease, reverse transcriptase, and integrase of HIV-1 are initially synthesized as Gag-Pol fusion polyproteins. It has been shown that the incorporation of Gag-Pol polyproteins during virus assembly requires the Gag domains that are shared by the Gag and Gag-Pol precursors. We now report that truncation of the C-terminal p6 domain of HIV-1 Gag, which is present in the Gag precursor but not in the Gag-Pol precursor, drastically reduced the amount of Pol proteins in the mutant virions. Mutations in the lentivirus conserved motif P(T/S)APP in p6 also drastically reduced the amount of Pol proteins in mutant virions. The steady-state levels of Gag-Pol precursors and cleaved Pol proteins in the transfected cells were not affected by mutations in p6. The incorporation of unprocessed Gag-Pol precursors into p6 mutant virions was detected when the viral protease was mutated, suggesting that the interactions among mutant Gag molecules and Gag-Pol precursors were not significantly affected. These results suggest that the p6 domain of HIV-1 Gag may play an important role in recruiting or retaining cleaved Pol proteins during virus assembly.

Preliminary Report of the Organizing Committee to the President of the Academy

Hale, George E.; Conklin, Edwin G.; Flexner, Simon; Millikan, Robert A.; Noyes, Arthur A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1916 EN
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The necessary future of chiropractic education: a North American perspective

Wyatt, Lawrence H; Perle, Stephen M; Murphy, Donald R; Hyde, Thomas E
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/07/2005 EN
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The chiropractic educational system in North America is currently in a state of flux. The attempted conversion of some chiropractic schools into "universities" and the want of university affiliation for chiropractic schools suggests that we are searching for a better alternative to the present system. In the early 20th century, the Flexner Report helped transform modern medical education into a discipline that relies on scientific and clinical knowledge. Some have wondered if it is time for a Flexner-type report regarding the education of doctors of chiropractic. This article outlines the current challenges within the chiropractic educational system and proposes positive changes for that system.

IV. A Case of Actinomycosis Hominis, involving the Tissues of the Back and the Lungs: with Pathological Report

Hudson, W. H.; Flexner, Simon
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1897 EN
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How did it happen? A comment on health manpower, the Flexner report and society.

Dillon, J B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1970 EN
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A "Flexner Report" for professional nursing?

De Tornyay, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1970 EN
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Modernizing medical education in Milwaukee in 1914. Contributions of a sensational scandal, the Flexner Report, and student uprising.

Cushman, P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1985 EN
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THE RESULTS OF THE SERUM TREATMENT IN THIRTEEN HUNDRED CASES OF EPIDEMIC MENINGITIS

Flexner, Simon
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/05/1913 EN
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26.07%
The data brought together in this report have been gathered from a wide territory and for a period extending over several years. The antimeningitis serum was first employed in 1906 and the latest figures relating to its use included in this report were furnished in 1912. There is no longer doubt that the serum has come to be applied under conditions fairly representing all known manifestations of epidemic meningitis. Hence the test of the serum treatment may be regarded as having been a rigorous one. The initial difficulties surrounding the administration by direct subdural injection have been largely overcome and doubtless will be still further mastered. Already the serum is being successfully applied in private as well as in hospital practice. This gain will probably be reflected in a still further diminution of the mortality since early injection plays such a large part in determining the results achieved. The 1,300 cases studied in this report are a part only of a far greater number of cases actually treated with the serum supplied by the Rockefeller Institute. It was not found possible to secure histories of all the cases treated; but there is no reason to suppose that the results of the analysis would have been essentially different if reports of a still larger number of cases had been returned. The decision arrived at is not based upon statistical computations alone...

After Flexner: the challenge.

Moseley, Kathryn L.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2006 EN
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In his article, "Abraham Flexner and the Black Medical Schools," Todd Savitt, MD critically describes how the Flexner Report effectively decimated African-American medical education as it existed at the beginning of the 20th century. We are now in the 21st century, and there are still few black physicians and medical students.

Abraham Flexner and the Development of the Yale School of Medicine

Prutkin, Jordan M.
Fonte: YJBM Publicador: YJBM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.53%
Abraham Flexner first toured the Yale University School of Medicine in preparation for his report of 1910, but it was just the beginning of his relationship with the school. While his review of Yale in his report was generally favorable, he mentioned several shortfalls that needed to be improved to make the school acceptable. Throughout the next twenty-five years, Flexner worked with Deans George Blumer and Milton C. Winternitz to improve the school’s finances, infrastructure, and quality of education through his work with the Carnegie Foundation and General Education Board. Flexner has been given great accolades for his work on medical education for the country, but little mention is made of him at Yale, even though he was one of the most influential figures in the development of Yale in the last century.

How do we Define a Medical School?: Reflections on the occasion of the centennial of the Flexner Report

Karle, Hans
Fonte: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine & Health Sciences Publicador: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine & Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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A century after the Flexner Report on medical education in North America, which revolutionised the training of medical doctors all over the world, it is time to revisit this famous document and analyse symptoms and signs of a return to pre-Flexnerian conditions. With the ongoing mushroom growth over the last decades of small, proprietary educational institutions of low quality and driven by for-profit purposes, medical education is in a threatened position. This trend is of general international interest because of the increasing migration of medical doctors. There is a need for discussion of what should be the rational criteria and basic requirements for establishing new medical schools.

The Flexner Report ― 100 Years Later

Duffy, Thomas P.
Fonte: YJBM Publicador: YJBM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.35%
The Flexner Report of 1910 transformed the nature and process of medical education in America with a resulting elimination of proprietary schools and the establishment of the biomedical model as the gold standard of medical training. This transformation occurred in the aftermath of the report, which embraced scientific knowledge and its advancement as the defining ethos of a modern physician. Such an orientation had its origins in the enchantment with German medical education that was spurred by the exposure of American educators and physicians at the turn of the century to the university medical schools of Europe. American medicine profited immeasurably from the scientific advances that this system allowed, but the hyper-rational system of German science created an imbalance in the art and science of medicine. A catching-up is under way to realign the professional commitment of the physician with a revision of medical education to achieve that purpose.

Science in the Service of Patients: Lessons from the Past in the Moral Battle for the Future of Medical Education

Weisberg, Daniel F.
Fonte: YJBM Publicador: YJBM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/03/2014 EN
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Medical schools instill a classic moral standoff in which the responsibility for the betterment of the patient stands at odds with the responsibility for the betterment of society. In critical ways, the latter, in the form of a robust research and technology-driven enterprise, has taken precedence over the former, resulting in harm to patients and individual dignity. This tradeoff can be traced to Abraham Flexner, the father of American medical education. In the wake of the Flexner report, American medicine set out on a course of exponential scientific advancement, but the mistreatment of research subjects and the erosion of the doctor-patient relationship in a health care system that is increasingly unaffordable, complex, and impersonal suggest that such progress has come at a price. Recent efforts by medical schools to emphasize humanism in their curricula and admissions processes have shown promise in orienting the values of academic medicine toward the individual patient’s well-being.

Colombian Medical Education System: A Hundred Years Behind; El Sistema de Educación Médica en Colombia: cien años de atraso

Argüello Ospina, Arturo; Sandoval García, Carolina
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/05/2010 SPA
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Almost one hundred years ago the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching authorized a study and report about the medical education of the United States and Canada directed by Mr. Abraham Flexner an education expert of the time. This report turned out to be one of the most important documents of the medical education revolution that took place by that time in North America and that led it to become what it is today. Almost a century after that, Colombian medical education has reached an outstanding similarity to the system described in the Flexner report. The present article highlights the parallel between North America’s medical education situation a hundred years ago and Colombia’s actual medical education situation. We present here some notions about the actual education system based on what was described on 1910 and which we consider, constitutes the current medical education situation on our country and possibly on many Latin American countries.; Hace casi 100 años, la Carnegie Foundation para el avance de la enseñanza le encargó a Abraham Flexner, experto en educación, realizar un estudio sobre la situación de la educación médica en Estados Unidos y Canadá. Este estudio resultó ser uno de los documentos más influyentes en la revolución de la educación médica de Norteamérica...

Abe Flexner, Where Are You? We Need You!

Arky, Ronald A.
Fonte: American Clinical and Climatological Association Publicador: American Clinical and Climatological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
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It is just a century since Abraham Flexner was invited by the Carnegie Foundation to evaluate medical education in the U.S. and Canada. After a visit to all of the existing medical schools at that time, Flexner issued a report in 1910 that revolutionized American and Canadian medical schools. The demise of proprietary schools, the solidification of ties between medical schools and universities and the introduction of the laboratory into the curriculum were outcomes that inaugurated the Flexnerian era in medical education. American and Canadian schools became the world's leaders. The educational patterns that emanated from the report dominated medical school curricula for the remainder of the 20th century. But as science and medicine changed drastically during the past 50 years, medical education has floundered and changed little. Although the environs of clinical education (hospitals and clinics) are dramatically different than 50 years ago, the process of clinical training has barely changed. That education is a science has yet to be fully acknowledged by medicine—witness the lack of continuity of undergraduate, post-graduate and continuing education. Medical education remains an ‘orphan’ supported by clinical practice and research in the same fashion that medical educators are ‘orphans’ in the academic promotions process. There is need for a modern day Abe Flexner—someone to pull the disparate parts together...

Abraham Flexner and the development of the Yale School of Medicine.

Prutkin, J. M.
Fonte: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine Publicador: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.53%
Abraham Flexner first toured the Yale University School of Medicine in preparation for his report of 1910, but it was just the beginning of his relationship with the school. While his review of Yale in his report was generally favorable, he mentioned several shortfalls that needed to be improved to make the school acceptable. Throughout the next twenty-five years, Flexner worked with Deans George Blumer and Milton C. Winternitz to improve the school's finances, infrastructure, and quality of education through his work with the Carnegie Foundation and General Education Board Flexner has been given great accolades for his work on medical education for the country, but little mention is made of him at Yale, even though he was one of the most influential figures in the development of Yale in the last century.

Did Flexner's Report condemn black medical schools? Not so, in my opinion.

Hoover, Eddie L.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
I invited Kathryn L. Moseley, MD to write the editorial appearing on the pages before this one as to whether she thought that the original Flexner Report was unduly harsh on the existing black medical schools. I invited her to choose whether she wanted to write the "pro" or "con" editorial, and that I would write the opposite piece for the sake of a presentation-although I might not necessarily believe in the position on which I was to write. She elected to write the "yes, it was harmful" piece, and I had to assume the editor's burden. In fact, as I began doing my internal soul searching for answers, I began to believe that the original Flexner Report actually helped preserve two black schools--Howard and Meharry--both of which might well have closed along with the other five schools scattered across the southeast, absent Flexner's direct and tangential support.

The Flexner Report of 1910 and Its Impact on Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Psychiatry in North America in the 20th Century

Stahnisch, Frank W.; Verhoef, Marja
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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America experienced a genuinely vast development of biomedical science in the early decades of the twentieth century, which in turn impacted the community of academic psychiatry and changed the way in which clinical and basic research approaches in psychiatry were conceptualized. This development was largely based on the restructuring of research universities in both of the USA and Canada following the influential report of Johns Hopkins-trained science administrator and politician Abraham Flexner (1866–1959). Flexner's report written in commission for the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching in Washington, DC, also had a major influence on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in psychiatry throughout the 20th century. This paper explores the lasting impact of Flexner's research published on modern medicine and particularly on what he interpreted as the various forms of health care and psychiatric treatment that appeared to compete with the paradigm of biomedicine. We will particularly draw attention to the serious effects of the closing of so many CAM-oriented hospitals, colleges, and medical teaching programs following to the publication of the Flexner Report in 1910.

The origin and future of offshore medical schools in the caribbean

Maharaj,SR; Paul,TJ
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
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The Flexner Report of 1910 concluded that there were too many medical schools in the United States of America (USA). In the wake of this conclusion, Flexner recommended higher admission and graduation standards for medical schools, the expected impact being fewer medical schools and graduates. One unintended consequence of this recommendation was a male-only policy by some universities to accommodate the smaller numbers of males. There were privately owned medical schools, unaffiliated to any college or universities which were run primarily for profit. Degrees were usually obtained after only two years of study and laboratory and dissection exercises were not part of the training. The adoption of Flexner's recommendation resulted in medical education becoming more expensive; it also created opportunities for persons without the financial means or the matriculation requirements to find alternative training programmes among those "medical schools" which did not adopt Flexner's recommendations. This paper traces the further development of these "medical schools" to facilitate the need for more doctors in the context of global maldistribution of doctors which has resulted in many medically underserved areas, more so in developing countries (1).