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Trade Finance during the Great Trade Collapse

Chauffour, Jean-Pierre; Malouche, Mariem
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
The bursting of the subprime mortgage market in the United States in 2008 and the ensuing global financial crisis were associated with a rapid decline in global trade. The extent of the trade collapse was unprecedented: trade flows fell at a faster rate than had been observed even in the early years of the great depression. G-20 leaders held their first crisis-related summit in November 2008. The goal was to understand the root causes of the global crisis and to reach consensus on actions to address its immediate effects. In the case of trade, a key question concerned the extent to which a drying up of trade finance caused the observed decline in trade flows. This book brings together a range of projects and studies undertaken by development institutions, export credit agencies, private bankers, and academics to shed light on the role of trade finance in the 2008-09 great trade collapse. It provides policy makers, analysts, and other interested parties with analyses and assessments of the role of governments and institutions in restoring trade finance markets. A deeper understanding of the complexity of trade finance remains critical as the world economy recovers and the supply of trade finance improves. The international community continues to know too little about the fragility of low income economies in response to trade finance developments and shocks...

The Role of Islamic Finance in Enhancing Financial Inclusion in Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) Countries

Mohieldin, Mahmoud; Iqbal, Zamir; Rostom, Ahmed; Fu, Xiaochen
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.72%
The core principles of Islam lay great emphasis on social justice, inclusion, and sharing of resources between the haves and the have nots. Islamic finance addresses the issue of "financial inclusion" or "access to finance" from two directions -- one through promoting risk-sharing contracts that provide a viable alternative to conventional debt-based financing, and the other through specific instruments of redistribution of the wealth among the society. Use of risk-sharing financing instruments can offer Shariah-compliant microfinance, financing for small and medium enterprises, and micro-insurance to enhance access to finance. And redistributive instruments such as Zakah, Sadaqat, Waqf, and Qard-al-hassan complement risk-sharing instruments to target the poor sector of society to offer a comprehensive approach to eradicating poverty and to build a healthy and vibrant economy. Instruments offered by Islam have strong historical roots and have been applied throughout history in various Muslim communities. The paper identifies gaps currently existing in Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) countries on each front...

Lessons for the Urban Century : Decentralized Infrastructure Finance in the World Bank

Clarke Annez, Patricia; Huet, Gwénaelle; Peterson, George E.
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.72%
This book takes a look at the past to gain insights for the future. Nearly 30 years ago, when the world urban population was only about half of the 3 billion that it is today, when most Less Developed Countries (LDCs) were primarily rural, and before the wave of decentralization of the 1980s and 1990s, the World Bank developed an instrument with great potential. The key characteristics of this instrument, the Urban Infrastructure Fund (UIF), are several. It provides finance for an array of urban services, not just one sector, such as water and sanitation, leaving flexibility for local beneficiaries to set their priorities. UIF projects operate in more than one city. Perhaps the most important distinctive feature is that these projects use local institutions to do the work of identifying, appraising and channeling finance to subnational entities (municipalities, local utilities, or community groups) on behalf of the World Bank. This arrangement makes it feasible to reach beyond the major capitals or business centers such as Chongqing...

Access to Finance, Product Innovation and Middle-Income Traps

Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Canuto, Otaviano
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
This paper studies interactions between access to finance, product innovation, and labor supply in a two-period overlapping generations model with an endogenous skill distribution and credit market frictions. In the model lack of access to finance (induced by high monitoring costs) has an adverse effect on innovation activity not only directly but also indirectly, because too few individuals may choose to invest in skills. If monitoring costs fall with the number of successful projects, multiple equilibria may emerge, one of which, a middle-income trap, characterized by low wages in the design sector, a low share of the labor force engaged in innovation activity, and low growth. A sufficiently ambitious policy aimed at alleviating constraints on access to finance by innovators may allow a country to move away from such a trap by promoting the production of ideas and improving incentives to invest in skills.

Tunisia Agricultural Finance Study : Main Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.75%
The Tunisia agricultural finance study was carried out in response to a request made in December 2009 by the Tunisian Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) for support for a study on the key constraints in agricultural finance. Technical and financial support was specifically requested for: (i) a comprehensive diagnostic analysis of the current mechanisms and problems of financing of the agricultural sector in Tunisia, including those by financial institutions and from budget resources, foreign direct investment, and insurance; (ii) a comparison of the Tunisian experience with successful experiences made in other comparable countries; and (iii) the formulation of concrete proposals. The diagnostic part was also requested to include the regulations pertaining to agricultural credit, other constraints impeding the development of agricultural finance, such as costs, profitability, professional organizations, extension services, research etc., and to look at the indebtedness of smallholders. It was also requested that the recommendations help to: (i) better define the objectives to be achieved in terms of financing of agriculture; (ii) increase the participation of the financial sector in financing agriculture; (iii) help identify need for support by different types of farmers; (iv) identify new instruments geared at qualitative and technological changes; (v) reduce the indebtedness of farmers; and (vi) help improve the subsidies for agricultural investment. There are two main written outputs of the Tunisia agricultural finance study. The experts working on the study have compiled a great deal of detailed background information diagnosing the current situation...

Enhancing Access to Finance for Technology Entrepreneurs : Analysis of Highly Innovative, High Growth Start-Ups in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Nepal

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
The first part of the study provides contextual background to the financing gaps and associated barriers, which restrict access to finance for HI start-ups. These barriers are driven by both supply and demand sides of the financing equation. Supply side barriers include: high transaction costs associated with financing; high levels of credit risk associated with HI start-ups; high collateral required by financial institutions; non-conducive legal and regulatory environments for investment in HI start-ups; lack of start-up expertise and dedicated resources by financiers; and finance products that are not tailored to HI start-ups needs and circumstances. Demand side barriers include: reliance by HI start-ups on informal financing sources; lack of awareness on the process to apply for funding from formal financing sources; low levels of financial literacy by HI start-ups; and the fear of losing control by involving external investors. This section also contains a broad overview of the country frameworks governing the start-up sector...

Innovative Agricultural SME Finance Models

Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.71%
This report is organized into three main sections. Section one sets out the context by describing the particular challenges and opportunities related to financing agriculture, followed by defining the target group of agricultural SME s. Section two describes a set of innovative financing models. Section three then provides a framework for an indicative assessment of these models by gathering and forming observations from the case studies. The model observations are then highlighted in three types of country contexts in which bankers in developing countries may find themselves. Preliminary assessment results are presented. The report concludes with key lessons learned on innovative agricultural financing, relevant case studies, and an outlook on further work in this area. Annexes present methodologies and case studies representing the various models.

Scaling-Up SME Access to Financial Services in the Developing World

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play a major role in economic development, particularly in emerging countries. Access to finance remains a key constraint to SME development in emerging economies. Closing the credit gap for formal SMEs will be less daunting than for informal SMEs. The SME finance gap is the result of a mismatch between the needs of the small firms and the supply of financial services, which typically are easier for larger firms to access. Deficiencies in the enabling environment and residual market failures have motivated government interventions to foster SME access to financing. The stocktaking exercise confirms the rise in various parts of the world of specific business models aimed at providing financial services to SMEs in a cost-effective manner. Effective SME financing models can be implemented in different country and market environments, but greater outreach is achieved in the most developed environments for the financial sector. Although SME banking and microfinance models are successfully being rolled out in an increasing number of countries and regions...

Access to Finance for Smallholder Farmers

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.72%
The percentage of smallholders with access to finance is equally difficult to quantify. According to estimates, even promising approaches to expanding smallholder lending, such as value chain finance, are reaching fewer than 10 percent of smallholders, primarily those in well-established value chains dedicated to higher value cash crops. International Finance Corporation (IFC) has been engaged for several years in learning efforts through diverse partnerships to obtain insights into the challenges of agricultural finance. The evidence of microfinance institution (MFI) involvement in financing commercial and semi-commercial smallholders remains anecdotal and lacks specifics on what makes MFI lending to these segments feasible, and what restricts their reach and effectiveness. This IFC study aims to identify and disseminate lessons emerging from the work of MFIs that have implemented agricultural operations targeting agricultural smallholders in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to support replication and expansion of scalable approaches. Through this research...

Small and Medium Enterprise Finance

Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.75%
This update considers new findings since the initial Stocktaking report, substantiating the contribution of the private sector, and of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in particular, for new jobs and investment. These findings further illustrate the key role access to finance plays in SMEs abilities and willingness to add jobs including the special circumstances of fast-growing SMEs, or gazelles. The new findings further detail availability and gaps in SME financing, including for specific subsectors such as women-owned firms and agri-enterprises. New trends include progress made in recent years to improve financial markets infrastructure, and expanded lending in countries such as China, which have made progress in this area. The findings also include key private sector innovations pioneered by the SME Finance Challenge winners and other private sector institutions, focusing on key sector opportunities (such as agribusiness and energy), product innovation (such as expanded local currency options), and risk management alternatives. The new findings and trends highlight the potential of collaborative platforms that have emerged from the G-20/GPFI (Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion) process to combine resources to improve SME access to finance...

Unbundling Institutions for External Finance

Knack, Steve; Xu, Lixin Colin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
The empirical literature on institutions and development has been challenged on grounds of reverse causality, measurement error in institutional indicators, and heterogeneity. This paper uses firm-level data across countries to confront these challenges. Instead of analyzing ultimate outcomes, such as income levels where institutional quality is likely endogenous, the focus is on firm-level external finance. Moreover, institutions are “unbundled” to explore how various types of institutions affect external finance differently. The paper documents that micro firms have significantly less access to external finance than small and medium firms. General financial development and contracting institutions that facilitate transactions between private parties exert little effect, on average, on firms’ access to external finance. In contrast, property rights institutions that constrain political and economic elites exhibit stronger positive association with access to external finance. The analysis finds evidence of attenuation bias associated with error in measuring institutions. For leveling the playing field between elite and non-elite firms (as proxied by firm size) in their access to external finance...

A law and finance analysis of venture capital exits in emerging markets

Cumming, Douglas; Fleming, G
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 133461 bytes; 364 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We analyze a sample of 336 venture capital exits from 12 Asia -Pacific countries: Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. The data also comprise these countries’ venture capitalists’ investments in U.S.-based entrepreneurial firms. We consider the determinants of the types of entrepreneurial firms receiving venture capital finance, the choice of exit vehicle (IPO, acquisition, secondary sale, buyback and write -off), the extent of exit (full or partial), and the determinants of the IRRs with Heckman controls for selection effects. Among other things, the data highlight the importance of legal and institutional factors in the disposition of venture capital investments.; no

Dual Credit Markets and Household Access to Finance; Evidence from a Representative Chinese Household Survey

Cull, Robert; Gan, Li; Gao, Nan; Xu, Lixin Colin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Policy Research Working Paper; Publications Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.77%
Using a new and representative data set of Chinese household finance, this paper documents household access to and costs of finance, along with their correlates. As in most developing countries, informal finance is a crucial element of household finance, and wealth tends to be associated with better access to formal and informal finance. Better financial knowledge shifts loan portfolios toward formal sources relative to informal ones. Connections to the Communist Party are associated with significantly better access to finance in rural areas but not in urban areas. A larger social network is positively associated with access to informal finance. Controlling for household characteristics, rural residents pay interest rates on loans similar to urban residents. Younger residents pay higher rates, while households on firmer economic footing face lower rates. Taking financial classes and college education is associated with higher interest rates for urban residents, suggesting perhaps that financial knowledge coincides with greater demand for credit in areas with more economic opportunity. Overall...

Transforming Central Finance Agencies in Poor Countries : A Political Economy Approach

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
This report presents the findings of a study of functions carried out by Central Finance Agencies (CFAs) that was financed jointly by the Bank Netherlands Partnership Program (BNPP), the Korean Trust Fund (KTF) and the World Bank over a three-year period from July 2008 to mid-2011. CFAs are not a single organization or entity of government but a group of ministries and agencies, of which the ministry of finance (MoF) is normally the most prominent, with collective responsibility for the design and implementation of a country's vast array of financial and fiscal policies and operations. Such policies and operations include macro fiscal analysis and forecasting, budget preparation and execution, accounting and reporting, cash and debt management, fiscal risk analysis, public procurement, tax policy and customs/revenue administration, and the regulation of financial institutions. In most developing countries, the role of CFAs is the public resources nexus of all issues with a political economy dimension. The allocation of roles and responsibilities for central finance functions among the finance ministry itself and other government agencies varies substantially from country to country. Chapter one of the reports defines the concept of a CFA-which is the array of government organizations (including notably the finance ministry) that carry out 16 core finance functions of government (budget preparation and execution...

2014 Joint Report on Multilateral Development Banks' Climate Finance

African Development Bank; Asian Development Bank; European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; European Investment Bank; Inter-American Development Bank; World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
This joint report on MDB Climate Finance captures a particular context of activities that Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) carry out in developing and emerging economies. The context is built on the premise that development finance is being provided in a world shaped by climate change. This is the fourth edition of the Joint Report on MDB Climate Finance. The report covers financing for climate change mitigation and adaptation projects and activities, in developing and emerging economies, committed by this group of MDBs in 2014. The report contains the following new information, not presented in previous years: overview of MDB climate finance from 2011 to 2014; information about the financial instruments used by MDBs for climate finance; and additional thematic regional coverage, including small island states and least developed countries. This report has two main sections. Section 1 contains total MDB climate finance numbers for 2014, broken down by adaptation and mitigation and by sector and geographic region...

IFC and Its Role in Globalization : Highlights from IFC's Participants Meeting, Washington, D.C., June 6-7, 2001

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and the International Finance Corporation Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and the International Finance Corporation
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.43%
Globalization represents an opportunity to add local value to emerging markets. That opportunity is the underlying theme of this volume, which brings together in edited form the papers and comments presented on globalization at the International Finance Corporation (IFC) Annual Participants Meeting held in Washington D.C. on June 6-7, 2001. IFC sees itself at the very center of the globalization process. No other financial institution stands at the dividing line between the entire developed world and the entire developing world, between the public sector and the private sector, between economic, financial, and environmental realities on the one hand, and government policy objectives on the other. Because of its status, because it must deal with the issues surrounding globalization every day, and because it always operates through partnerships with other financial institutions, IFC is in a unique position to take the lead in grasping this opportunity.

Bringing Finance to Pakistan's Poor : Access to Finance for Small Enterprises and the Underserved

Nenova, Tatiana; Thioro Niang, Cecile; Ahmad, Anjum
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
Access to financing is now widely acknowledged as a path to meaningful economic inclusion and reduction in poverty. Policy efforts to increase access to finance in Pakistan have taken time to bear fruit, but now access is indeed expanding quickly in certain financial sectors (microfinance, remittances), albeit from a very low base. Nevertheless, policy measures cannot single-handedly increase financial access; financial institutions' willingness to expand access in Pakistan has been stinted by slow technologic advances, weak legal foundations, and unsuitable financial processes and products. Poor socioeconomic conditions, gender bias, and low levels of basic education and financial literacy remain barriers, but perhaps the single strongest driver of low demand for financial access has been income. The primary purpose of this study is to measure and describe the state of financial service provision to underserved segments of the market in Pakistan, particularly those with low incomes and small enterprises, and to identify ways to improve investment and create inclusive markets that meet the needs of underserved people and enterprises.

China : Improving Rural Public Finance for the Harmonious Society

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%
This report aims to assist the government in improving implementation of the New Socialist Countryside (NSC) program, especially in raising the effectiveness of public expenditures, and the harmonization of public finance. While this report pays particular attention to rural aspects of public finance, it addresses this topic within the overall framework of intergovernmental finance that impacts both rural and urban areas. Similarly, the discussions and recommendations in this report are intended to move the system towards one that is harmonized and does not differentiate between 'rural' and 'urban' areas. The structure of this report is as follows: Chapter 2 analyzes the considerable number of reform efforts that have been introduced to the rural public finance system. It looks at the RFR in depth, as well as other associated and related reforms and evaluates the overall outcome of these reforms. Chapter 3 provides an overview of China's intergovernmental system as the framework for rural public finance. It includes an analysis of the expenditure and revenue assignments and their development...

Evaluation of the International Finance Corporation's Global Trade Finance Program, 2006-12

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) introduced the Global Trade Finance Program (GTFP) in 2005 is to 'support the extension of trade finance to underserved clients globally.' The program has since expanded rapidly, and its authorized exposure ceiling was increased in three stages from $500 million in 2005 to $5 billion in 2012. In FY12, the GTFP accounted for 39 percent of total IFC commitments, 53 percent of its commitments in Sub Saharan Africa, and 48 percent of its commitments in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) recommends that IFC (i) continue to strengthen the GTFP's focus in areas where additionally is high and increase the share of the program in high-risk markets and where the supply of trade finance and alternate risk-mitigation instruments are less available; (ii) adopt additional methods of reporting volume that can reflect the distinct nature of trade finance guarantees; (iii) refine the means by which GTFP profitability is monitored and reported; (iv) review the costs and benefits of the current monitoring and evaluation framework; (v) ensure that a transparent process is in place to govern cases of covenant breach; and (vi) enhance the program's ability to meet the demand for coverage of longer-term trade finance tenors.

O Impacto do project finance nas empresas portuguesas no setor têxtil

Ribeiro, Sónia Patrícia dos Santos
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico do Porto. Instituto Superior de Contabilidade e Administração do Porto Publicador: Instituto Politécnico do Porto. Instituto Superior de Contabilidade e Administração do Porto
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
Dissertação para a obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Contabilidade e Finanças Orientador: Mestre Adalmiro Álvaro Malheiro de Castro Andrade Pereira; A presente dissertação desenvolvida no âmbito do Mestrado em Contabilidade e Finanças pretende analisar o impacto do Project Finance nas empresas portuguesas no setor têxtil. O Project Finance é uma forma de financiamento de projetos inovadora, muito utilizada nos Estados Unidos e na Europa e que se aplica essencialmente a projetos de grande escala devido às características subjacentes. Este tema é relevante devido às condições financeiras, sociais e políticas que estamos a viver. As empresas enfrentam muitas adversidades para manter o seu negócio em bom funcionamento, procurando obter vantagens competitivas, mas isso torna-se difícil quando estas não possuem meios financeiros e de gestão para sustentar os investimentos. E é aqui que o Project Finance tem um papel importante, pois é um tipo de financiamento que pode facilitar a execução de projetos em qualquer lugar do mundo, mais particularmente nos países em desenvolvimento em que as empresas enfrentam dificuldades em obter recursos financeiros. Nesta dissertação também abordaremos as Parcerias Público-Privadas...