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Relationship between ultrasound subcutaneous fat depth, body condition score and body subcutaneous fat distribution in Miranda breed jennets

Quaresma, Miguel; Payan-Carreira, Rita; Rochas e Silva, Severiano
Fonte: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Publicador: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro
Tipo: Parte de Livro
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
In Northeast Portugal donkeys usually face seasonal food shortage and often their basic requirements are not properly met. Body condition score (BCS) may be used to assess a donkey’s welfare and nutritional status, but the procedure is highly subjective. For several domestic species the relationships between the ultrasound subcutaneous fat depth, the body condition score and the body subcutaneous fat distribution have already been establish. Interspecies differences on the most relevant site for ultrasound collection of data have been demonstrated, in particular between equids and ruminants, which are related with anatomic features. In donkeys no available information exists on the relationship between ultrasonographic fat amount and its pattern of deposition and the BCS, and a preliminary study was developed using 16 adult jennets of the Asinina de Miranda breed, in a total of 33 examinations for BCS and real time ultrasound (RTU). RTU images were acquired to determine the subcutaneous fat depth (SF), measured at the neck; loin; rump and tail-head, and tissue depth (TD) measured at ribs. SF distribution was analysed and the correlations between BCS and RTU measurements were assessed. The largest variations in SF deposition were found along the thoracolumbar axis...

Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

Pereira,Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano,Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho,Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro,Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio,Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini,Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore,Silvia Eloiza
Fonte: Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo Publicador: Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
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56.1%
OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures...

The effect of daily walking on body fat distribution

Kajioka, Taeko; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Sato, Yuzo
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2000 EN
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The effect of daily walking on body fat distribution was investigated using an electronic pedometer and ultrasonography. Subjects were 77 women, aged 31 to 72 years. They were divided into four groups according to the average number of steps they walked per day (I<7,500, 7,500 ≤II<10,000, 10,000

Racial differences in body fat distribution among reproductive-aged women

Rahman, Mahbubur; Temple, Jeff R.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.24%
We examined the influence of race/ethnicity on body fat distribution for a given body mass index (BMI) among reproductive-aged women. Body weight, height, and body fat distribution were measured with a digital scale, wall-mounted stadiometer, and dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA), respectively, on 708 healthy black, white, and Hispanic women 16–33 years of age. Multiple linear regression was used to model the relationship between race/ethnicity and different body fat distribution variables after adjusting for BMI, age at menarche, and demographic and lifestyle variables. For a given BMI, white women had the highest total fat mass (FMtotal), trunk fat mass (FMtrunk), and leg fat mass (FMleg), while Hispanic women had the highest %FMtrunk (percentage of FMtrunk) and trunk-to-limb fat mass ratio (FMRtrunk-to-limb). Conversely, black women had the lowest FMtotal, FMtrunk, %FM (percent body fat mass), %FMtrunk, and FMRtrunk-to-limb, and the highest %FMleg (percentage of FMleg). %FM was similar in whites and Hispanics and lower in blacks. The (race × BMI) interactions were significant for almost all of the body fat distribution variables. Increasing differences with increasing BMI were apparent between blacks and whites in FMtrunk, %FMtrunk...

Sonographic assessment of abdominal fat distribution in infancy

Holzhauer, Susanne; Zwijsen, Renate M. L.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Boehm, Guenther; Moll, Henriette A.; Mulder, Paul G.; Kleyburg-Linkers, Veronica A.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.28%
There is growing evidence that not only the total amount of fat, but also the distribution of body fat determines risks for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Developmental studies on factors influencing body fat distribution have been hampered by a lack of appropriate techniques for measuring intraabdominal fat in early life. Sonography, which is an established method for assessing abdominal fat distribution in adults, has not yet been evaluated in infants. To adapt the sonographic measurement of abdominal fat distribution to infants and study its reliability. The Generation R study, a population-based prospective cohort study. We included 212 one- and 227 two-year old Dutch infants in the present analysis. Sixty-two infants underwent replicate measurements to assess reproducibility. We developed a standardized protocol to measure the thickness of (1) subcutaneous and (2) preperitoneal fat in the upper abdomen of infants. To this end we defined infancy specific measurement areas to quantify fat thickness. Reproducibility of fat measurements was good to excellent with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.93–0.97 for intra-observer agreement and of 0.89–0.95 for inter-observer agreement. We observed a pronounced increase in preperitoneal fat thickness in the second year of life while subcutaneous fat thickness increased only slightly...

The Role of Body Mass Index, Insulin, and Adiponectin in the Relation Between Fat Distribution and Bone Mineral Density

Zillikens, M. Carola; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Berends, Anne L.; Henneman, Peter; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Oostra, Ben A.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Pols, Huibert A. P.; Rivadeneira, Fernando
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.24%
Despite the positive association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), the role of fat distribution in BMD/BMC remains unclear. We examined relationships between BMD/BMC and various measurements of fat distribution and studied the role of BMI, insulin, and adiponectin in these relations. Using a cross-sectional investigation of 2631 participants from the Erasmus Rucphen Family study, we studied associations between BMD (using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA]) at the hip, lumbar spine, total body (BMD and BMC), and fat distribution by the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), and DXA-based trunk-to-leg fat ratio and android-to-gynoid fat ratio. Analyses were stratified by gender and median age (48.0 years in women and 49.2 years in men) and were performed with and without adjustment for BMI, fasting insulin, and adiponectin. Using linear regression (adjusting for age, height, smoking, and use of alcohol), most relationships between fat distribution and BMD and BMC were positive, except for WTR. After BMI adjustment, most correlations were negative except for trunk-to-leg fat ratio in both genders. No consistent influence of age or menopausal status was found. Insulin and adiponectin levels did not explain either positive or negative associations. In conclusion...

Genetic analysis of abdominal fat distribution in SM/J and A/J mice[S]

Kobayashi, Misato; Ohno, Tamio; Hada, Natsuko; Fujiyoshi, Masato; Kuga, Masako; Nishimura, Masahiko; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko
Fonte: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2010 EN
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46.22%
Each abdominal fat depot, such as mesenteric or epididymal, differently contributes to the development of insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic regions that contribute to fat accumulation in epididymal/mesenteric fat and to examine whether or not the genetic regions that affect glucose metabolism and body fat distribution are coincident. We previously mapped a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) (T2dm2sa) for impaired glucose tolerance on chromosome 2 and revealed that SM.A-T2dm2sa congenic mice showed not only glucose tolerance but also fat accumulation. In the present study, to identify the loci/genes that control the accumulation of abdominal fat, we perfomed QTL analyses of epididymal/mesenteric fat weight by using (A/J×SM.A-T2dm2sa)F2 mice in which the effect of T2dm2sa was excluded. As a result, two highly significant QTLs for mesenteric fat, as well as three significant QTLs for epididymal/mesenteric fat, were mapped on the different chromosomal regions. This suggests that the fat accumulations in individual fat depots are controlled by distinct genomic regions. Our comparison of these QTLs for abdominal fat distribution with those for glucose metabolism revealed that the major genetic factors affecting body fat distribution do not coincide with genetic factors affecting glucose metabolism in (A/J×SM.A-T2dm2sa)F2.

Body fat distribution and inflammation among obese older adults with and without metabolic syndrome

Koster, Annemarie; Stenholm, Sari; Alley, Dawn E.; Kim, Lauren J.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Kanaya, Alka M.; Visser, Marjolein; Houston, Denise K.; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
The protective mechanisms by which some obese individuals escape the detrimental metabolic consequences of obesity are not understood. This study examined differences in body fat distribution and adipocytokines in obese older persons with and without metabolic syndrome. Additionally, we examined whether adipocytokines mediate the association between body fat distribution and metabolic syndrome. Data were from 729 obese men and women (BMI≥30kg/m2), aged 70-79 participating in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. Thirty-one percent of these obese men and women did not have metabolic syndrome. Obese persons with metabolic syndrome had significantly more abdominal visceral fat (men:p=0.04; women:p<0.01) and less thigh subcutaneous fat (men:p=0.09; women:p<0.01) than those without metabolic syndrome. Additionally, those with metabolic syndrome had significantly higher levels of IL-6, TNF-α and PAI-1 than individuals without metabolic syndrome. Per standard deviation (SD) higher in visceral fat, the likelihood of metabolic syndrome significantly increased in women (odds ratio (OR):2.16, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.59-2.94). In contrast, the likelihood of metabolic syndrome decreased in both men (OR:0.56, 95%CI:0.39-0.80) and women (OR:0.49...

Markers of Inflammation and Fat Distribution following Weight Loss in African American and Caucasian Women

Fisher, Gordon; Hyatt, Tanya C.; Hunter, Gary R.; Oster, Robert A.; Desmond, Renee A.; Gower, Barbara A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.2%
Changes in markers of inflammation (MOI) and fat distribution with weight loss between African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) women have yet to be characterized. The purpose of this study was to examine potential ethnic differences in MOI and regional fat distribution with weight loss, and identify the associations between these markers and changes in regional fat distribution with weight loss among AA and C women. Subjects were 126 healthy, premenopausal women, BMI 27–30 kg/m2. They were placed on a weight loss intervention consisting of diet and/or exercise until a BMI < 25 was achieved. Fat distribution was measured with computed tomography, and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-I, sTNFR-II, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin (IL)-6 were assessed. All MOI and adiposity measures significantly decreased with weight loss. Significant ethnic differences with weight loss were observed for fat mass, body fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), sTNF-RI, and sTNF-RII. Mixed-model analysis indicated that adjusting for change in IAAT explained ethnic differences in change in TNF-α and the decrease in TNF-α with weight loss...

Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci

Liu, Ching-Ti; Monda, Keri L.; Taylor, Kira C.; Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W.; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Ellis, Jaclyn C.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J.; Nalls,
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.18%
Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0×10−6 were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10−8 for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10−8 for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5×10−8; RREB1: p = 5.7×10−8). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2...

Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Lamburghini, Silvia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/09/2014 EN
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46.22%
The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However...

Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci

Liu, Ching-Ti; Monda, Keri L.; Taylor, Kira C.; Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W.; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Ellis, Jaclyn C.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J.; Nalls,
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0×10−6 were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10−8 for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10−8 for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5×10−8; RREB1: p = 5.7×10−8). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2...

FTO Genotype and 2-Year Change in Body Composition and Fat Distribution in Response to Weight-Loss Diets: The POUNDS LOST Trial

Zhang, Xiaomin; Qi, Qibin; Zhang, Cuilin; Hu, Frank B.; Sacks, Frank M.; Qi, Lu
Fonte: American Diabetes Association Publicador: American Diabetes Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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46.21%
Recent evidence suggests that the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) genotype may interact with dietary intakes in relation to adiposity. We tested the effect of FTO variant on weight loss in response to 2-year diet interventions. FTO rs1558902 was genotyped in 742 obese adults who were randomly assigned to one of four diets differing in the proportions of fat, protein, and carbohydrate. Body composition and fat distribution were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. We found significant modification effects for intervention varying in dietary protein on 2-year changes in fat-free mass, whole body total percentage of fat mass, total adipose tissue mass, visceral adipose tissue mass, and superficial adipose tissue mass (for all interactions, P < 0.05). Carriers of the risk allele had a greater reduction in weight, body composition, and fat distribution in response to a high-protein diet, whereas an opposite genetic effect was observed on changes in fat distribution in response to a low-protein diet. Likewise, significant interaction patterns also were observed at 6 months. Our data suggest that a high-protein diet may be beneficial for weight loss and improvement of body composition and fat distribution in individuals with the risk allele of the FTO variant rs1558902.

Avaliação da composição corporal de mulheres recém-diagnosticadas com câncer de mama; Evaluation of the body composition of women recently diagnosed with breast cancer

Martins, Karine Anusca
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências da Saúde; Faculdade 1::Departamento 1 Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências da Saúde; Faculdade 1::Departamento 1
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Introduction: Body composition modification, mainly the increase in total body fat, which is related to a number of illnesses, is an important public health problem, is quite prevalent in breast cancer patents and is directly associated with a negative prognosis for the illness. Objective: To evaluate the body composition, of total body fat and its distribution and lipid profile of women recently diagnosed with breast cancer, at two referral centers in Goiânia, Goiás. Methodology: (Article 1) A cross-sectional, cohort nested study. (Article 2). A case-control study, with 1:1 pairing, carried out in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. The data were collected through interviews based on questionnaire, with 62 women, a socio-demographic characterization and an evaluation of body composition using anthropometry including skinfolds (SF) and circumferences, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and ultrasonography (USG), besides the evaluation of lipid profile. Were carried an data tabulation (Excel/2003) and analysis (SPSS program, version 8.0) and (STATA, Intercooled Stata 8) and were used descriptive statistics. Was used in the data analyses: the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, ??t?? test, chi-square for tendency, (Mann-Whitney U), Pearson??s chi-square...

Effect of calorie restriction with or without exercise on body composition and fat distribution

Redman, L.; Heilbronn, L.; Martin, C.; Alfonso, A.; Smith, S.; Ravussin, E.; Team, P.
Fonte: Endocrine Society Publicador: Endocrine Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
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66.21%
Context: There is debate over the independent and combined effects of dieting and increased physical activity on improving metabolic risk factors (body composition and fat distribution). Objective: The objective of the study was to conduct a randomized, controlled trial (CALERIE) to test the effect of a 25% energy deficit by diet alone or diet plus exercise for 6 months on body composition and fat distribution. Design: This was a randomized, controlled trial. Setting: The study was conducted at an institutional research center. Participants: Thirty-five of 36 overweight but otherwise healthy participants (16 males, 19 females) completed the study. Intervention: Participants were randomized to either control (healthy weight maintenance diet, n = 11), caloric restriction (CR; 25% reduction in energy intake, n = 12), or caloric restriction plus exercise (CR+EX; 12.5% reduction in energy intake + 12.5% increase in exercise energy expenditure, n = 12) for 6 months. Main Outcome Measures: Changes in body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and changes in abdominal fat distribution by multislice computed tomography were measured. Results: The calculated energy deficit across the intervention was not different between CR and CR+EX. Participants lost approximately 10% of body weight (CR: – 8.3 ± 0.8...

Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women

Palmer, L.; Fox, C.S.; Liu, Y.; White, C.C.; Feitosa, M.; Smith, A.V.; Heard-Costa, N.; Lohman, K.; GIANT Consortium; MAGIC Consortium; GLGC Consortium; Johnson, A.D.; Foster, M.C.; Greenawalt, D.M.; Griffin, P.; Ding, J.; Newman, A.B.; Tylavsky, F.; Milj
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p = 3.1×10E-09), previously identified in association with waist–hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p = 5.9×10E-08). Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women...

Muskel- und Fettverteilung am Unterschenkel bei Kindern mit Wachstumshormonmangel im Vergleich zu Kindern mit Intrauteriner Wachstumsretardierung und Ullrich-Turner-Syndrom.; Muscle and fat distribution in the shank of children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency compared to children of short stature born small for gestational age and girls with Ullrich-Turner syndrome .

Berndt, Coline-Véronique
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
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66.18%
Einleitung: Erkrankungen, die mit einem Mangel an Wachstumshormon einhergehen, sind neben einem verminderten Längenwachstum durch eine veränderte Zusammensetzung der Muskel- und Fettmasse gekennzeichnet. In dieser Arbeit wurde der Einfluss einer Langzeittherapie mit Wachstumshormon (GH) auf die Muskel- und Fettverteilung bei Kindern mit Wachstumshormonmangel (iGHD), Intrauteriner Wachstumsretardierung (SGA) und Ullrich-Turner-Syndrom (UTS) untersucht. Material und Methoden: In einer retrospektiven Längsschnittstudie wurde an insgesamt 128 kleinwüchsigen Patienten (iGHD: n = 71; SGA: n = 40; UTS: n = 17) die Muskel- und Fettquerschnittsfläche am Unterschenkel und deren Veränderung unter Wachstumshormontherapie mittels peripherer quantitativer Computertomographie (pQCT) vor Therapiebeginn und nach 6 Monaten untersucht. Bei 103 dieser Patienten wurde eine erneute Messung der Muskel- und Fettquerschnittsfläche nach 12 Monaten, bei 49 Patienten zusätzlich nach 24 Monaten, durchgeführt. Alle Patienten erhielten eine tägliche subcutane Injektion von GH (mittlere Tagesdosen: iGHD: 28,2 µg/kg/d; SGA: 52,7 µg/kg/d; UTS: 44,3 µg/kg/d). Ergebnisse: Bei allen Patienten fand sich eine Zunahme der Muskelfläche unter GH-Therapie, welche bei den Patienten mit iGHD und UTS nach 6 Monaten (p<0...

Genetic independence of fat depots in cattle.

Egarr, Andrew R.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
The amount and distribution of adipose tissue is important to cattle production. Fat influences the animal’s reproductive efficiency and determines its carcass value. As a cow’s reproductive efficiency is associated with a level of overall fatness, not just a particular fat depot, being able to re-partition fat to a more valuable depot while reducing fat in less valuable depots would be advantageous. Most previous research involving fat deposition in cattle focussed on subcutaneous and intramuscular fat, and usually evaluated these in relation to total fat or carcass weight rather than the relationship between individual fat depots. The hypothesis that there is a genetic basis for variation in fat distribution in cattle and a weak relationship between fat depots independent of anatomical site was tested. The principal aim of this research was to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling fat deposition in cattle, including any relationship between fat depots. Marbling features (e.g. shape and orientation) and seam (intermuscular) fat area were quantified using image analysis. The seam fat area and other carcass fat measurements were used to examine the relationship between fat depots. Candidate genes for fat deposition traits were identified and sequenced in Jersey – Limousin mapping sires to find single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In all...

Obesity and Body Fat Distribution as Coronary Risk Factors and Supply of Proinflammatory Cytokines

Oliveira,Andreia
Fonte: ArquiMed - Edições Científicas AEFMUP Publicador: ArquiMed - Edições Científicas AEFMUP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
The role of obesity on coronary heart disease risk is not fully understood; some studies have found linear associations while others have reported J- or U-shaped associations or even no significant effects, which could be related to the use of different measures of obesity. The amount and type of body fat distribution (frequently assessed by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio) were found to be better predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than total body weight and overall obesity, often measured by body mass index. Visceral and subcutaneous fat (both included when waist circumference is measured) have been frequently associated to metabolic complications, but only a few studies have addressed the cardiovascular role of peripheral fat mass (fat located in upper and lower limbs), which might be less atherogenic than abdominal fat, due to a low fatty acid turn-over and a differential hormone production. Moreover, a gender-effect may be present, but further research is needed to confirm it. The same associations reported with cardiovascular risk have been found with low-grade chronic inflammation. Adipose tissue is a known source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and measures of central obesity seem to be stronger and more consistent predictors of inflammation than overall obesity. From this review...

The effect of age and gender on the fat distribution in Merino lambs

van der Westhuizen,E.J.; Brand,T.S.; Hoffman,L.C.; Aucamp,B.B.
Fonte: South African Journal of Animal Science Publicador: South African Journal of Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
The goal of this study was to determine the effect of gender on visceral and subcutaneous fat distribution of Merino lambs finished off under feedlot conditions. The diet (16% protein, 10MJ ME/kg feed) was fed ad libitum and animals had free access to water. A total of 108 lambs (58 wethers, 50 ewes) were divided into six groups. Groups of lambs were slaughtered every three weeks at respectively 90, 111, 132, 153, 174 and 195 days of age. The visceral fat was removed, weighed and expressed as a percentage of carcass mass, while the subcutaneous fat thickness was measured at the 13th rib. A growth curve was calculated for each gender, and the effect of age on the different fat parameters determined. The growth rates of male and female lambs did not differ and were respectively 45.2 g and 43.2 g per day. Age had a positive effect on % visceral fat with an increase of 0.029% for wethers and 0.032% for ewes per day. Similarly, fat thickness increased at a rate of 0.070 mm for wethers and 0.053 mm for ewes per day, indicating that gender had an influence on the rate of fat deposition. However, the inverse rate of deposition between the genders (visceral fat versus subcutaneous fat) warrants further discussion.