Tese de mestrado, Desenho, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Belas-Artes, 2010; The present Dissertation is an analysis of the importance of Geometry and Perspective in the conception of the artistic object, in particular painting and drawing. It is in this context that this work is developed through a journey which begins in the Classical period, goes through all the most relevant aspects of perspective representation of the Renaissance and ends in the Baroque period, with the analysis of the painting of the ceiling of São Paulo church in Lisbon. In the beginning of this Dissertation we refer the first attempts to represent depth throughout art history, with Greek examples in ceramics and architecture and a special emphasis on the Parthenon in Athens. In the Renaissance, the importance of the lessons of Alberti and Piero della Francesca produce an impact in this period’s painting, influencing some circles of painting workshops and artists and putting perspective on a par with mathematics, in the sphere of the scientific knowledge of the time. Still in this same period, but in Northern Europe, the treaty of Jean Pelerin, known as Viator, with its first edition in 1505, more practical and with more diversified solutions which deny many a time the characteristic centralism of the Italian perspective...
This study examined maltreated and non-maltreated children’s (N = 183) emerging understanding of “truth” and “lie,” terms about which they are quizzed to qualify as competent to testify. Four- to six-year-old children were asked to accept or reject true and false (T/F) statements, label T/F statements as the “truth” or “a lie,” label T/F statements as “good” or “bad,” and label “truth” and “lie” as “good” or “bad.” The youngest children were at ceiling in accepting/rejecting T/F statements. The labeling tasks revealed improvement with age and children performed similarly across the tasks. Most children were better able to evaluate “truth” than “lie.” Maltreated children exhibited somewhat different response patterns, suggesting greater sensitivity to the immorality of lying.
Recent research suggests that infants and toddlers succeed at a wide range of nonelicited-response false-belief tasks (i.e., tasks that do not require children to answer a direct question about a mistaken agent’s likely behavior). However, one exception to this generalization comes from verbal anticipatory-looking tasks, which have produced inconsistent findings with toddlers. One possible explanation for these findings is that toddlers succeed when they correctly interpret the prompt as a self-addressed utterance (making the task a nonelicited-response task), but fail when they mistakenly interpret the prompt as a direct question (making the task an elicited-response task). Here, 2.5-year-old toddlers were tested in a verbal anticipatory-looking task that was designed to help them interpret the anticipatory prompt as a self-addressed utterance: the experimenter looked at the ceiling, chin in hand, during and after the prompt. Children gave evidence of false-belief understanding in this task, but failed when the experimenter looked at the child during and after the prompt. These results reinforce claims of robust continuity in early false-belief reasoning and provide additional support for the distinction between nonelicited- and elicited-response false-belief tasks. Three accounts of the discrepant results obtained with these tasks—and of early false-belief understanding more generally—are discussed.
Image-guided interventions using intraoperative three-dimensional (3D) imaging can be
less cumbersome than systems dependent on preoperative images, especially by needing
neither image-to-patient registration nor a lengthy process of segmenting and generating
a 3D model. In this dissertation, a method for computer-assisted surgery using direct
navigation on intraoperative images is presented. In this system the registration step of
a navigated procedure was divided into two stages: preoperative calibration of images to
a ceiling-mounted optical tracking system, and intraoperative tracking during acquisition
of the 3D image. The preoperative stage used a custom-made multi-modal calibrator that
could be optically tracked and also contained fiducial spheres for radiological detection; a
robust registration algorithm was used to compensate for the high false-detection rate that
arose from the optical light-emitting diodes. Intraoperatively, a tracking device was at-
tached to bone models that were also instrumented with radio-opaque spheres; a calibrated
pointer was used to contact the latter spheres as a validation. The fiducial registration error
of the calibration stage was approximately 0.1 mm with the Innova 3D X-ray fluoroscope
and 0.7 mm with the mobile-gantry CT scanner. The target registration error in the valida-
tion stage was approximately 1.2 mm with the Innova 3D X-ray fluoroscope and 1.8 mm
with the mobile-gantry CT scanner. These findings suggest that direct registration can be a
highly accurate means of performing image-guided interventions in a fast...
O primeiro objetivo deste relatório, que adiante se desenvolve, é apresentar o trabalho realizado para a obtenção de conhecimentos que justifiquem a atribuição do grau de mestre em engenharia, no ramo das construções.
O estágio, que a este trabalho dá sustentação, foi feito na empresa Metaloviana, onde foi possível acompanhar as várias fases de conceção, fabrico e montagem de um teto falso, designadamente na sala de comando da central Venda Nova III, de aproveitamento hidroelétrico.
Tendo Portugal objetivos cada vez mais ambiciosos na utilização de energias renováveis, aproveitando, entre outros, os recursos hídricos para a produção de eletricidade, a EDP Produção fez estudos onde verificou que a realização de reforços de potência em aproveitamento já existentes, seria uma forma economicamente bastante atrativa e ao mesmo tempo responderia às crescentes solicitações energéticas. É neste âmbito que se insere o Reforço de Potência em Venda Nova III.
A empresa Metaloviana, com instalações fabris em Viana do Castelo, tem todo um historial e capacidade, reconhecida nacional e internacionalmente. Este, confere a certeza de ter acompanhado um trabalho de ponta, devidamente creditado e fundamentado numa qualidade e mérito...
Does knowing when mental arithmetic judgments are right—and when they are wrong—lead to more accurate judgments over time? We hypothesize that the successful detection of errors (and avoidance of false alarms) may contribute to the development of mental arithmetic performance. Insight into error detection abilities can be gained by examining the “calibration” of mental arithmetic judgments—that is, the alignment between confidence in judgments and the accuracy of those judgments. Calibration may be viewed as a measure of metacognitive monitoring ability. We conducted a developmental longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the calibration of children's mental arithmetic judgments and their performance on a mental arithmetic task. Annually between Grades 5 and 8, children completed a problem verification task in which they rapidly judged the accuracy of arithmetic expressions (e.g., 25+50 = 75) and rated their confidence in each judgment. Results showed that calibration was strongly related to concurrent mental arithmetic performance, that calibration continued to develop even as mental arithmetic accuracy approached ceiling, that poor calibration distinguished children with mathematics learning disability from both low and typically achieving children...
We derive analytically an exact closed-form formula for the standard minimax
Average Run Length (ARL) to false alarm delivered by the Generalized
Shiryaev-Roberts (GSR) change-point detection procedure devised to detect a
shift in the baseline mean of a sequence of independent exponentially
distributed observations. Specifically, the formula is found through direct
solution of the respective integral (renewal) equation, and is a general result
in that the GSR procedure's headstart is not restricted to a bounded range, nor
is there a "ceiling" value for the detection threshold. Apart from the
theoretical significance (in change-point detection, exact closed-form
performance formulae are typically either difficult or impossible to get,
especially for the GSR procedure), the obtained formula is also useful to a
practitioner: in cases of practical interest, the formula is a function linear
in both the detection threshold and the headstart, and, therefore, the ARL to
false alarm of the GSR procedure can be easily computed.; Comment: 9 pages; Accepted for publication in Proceedings of the 12-th
German-Polish Workshop on Stochastic Models, Statistics and Their