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How efficient are pension fund managers in Chile?

Barrientos,Armando; Boussofiane,Aziz
Fonte: Instituto de Economa da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Publicador: Instituto de Economa da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
The paper measures and evaluates technical efficiency among pension fund managers in Chile. Recent pension reform has established pension fund management market in nine countries in Latin America. The new pension providers compete for affiliates on the basis of fees, rates of return, and quality of service, and are subject to extensive regulation. Applying data envelopment analysis to data from Chile 1982-1999, the paper examines issues of efficiency, competition, and regulation. The analysis concludes that pension fund managers operate below the estimated "efficiency frontier", and there is no evidence of a sustained upward trend in technical efficiency over time.

Detecting Superior Mutual Fund Managers: Evidence from Copycats

Phillips, Blake; Pukthuanthong, Kuntara; Rau, P. Raghavendra
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
We examine the ex ante ability of investors to identify superior mutual fund managers among the investor set likely most able, and with the greatest incentive to do so, their rivals. Identifying actual copycat funds via comparisons of trading in consecutive periods, we find little evidence to suggest that managers are able to detect superior funds. Copycats select funds with high prior performance and investment inflows, and the performance of the target fund reverses following copying initiation. If superior managers exist, our results suggest that the source of skill lies in private information obtained by these managers. These results are consistent with information models indicating that private, but not public, information can be profitable. (JEL G02, G11, G23)

Deconstructing Herding : Evidence from Pension Fund Investment Behavior

Raddatz, Claudio; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.81%
Pension funds have been expected to invest in a wide range of securities and provide liquidity to domestic capital markets since they are the most sophisticated investors, with plenty of resources to gather private information and manage portfolios professionally. However, by analyzing unique, monthly asset-level data from the pioneer case of Chile, this paper shows that pension funds tend to herd. This is consistent with pension funds copying each other in their investment strategies as a way to extract information, boost returns, and reduce risk. The authors compute measures of herding across asset classes (equities, government bonds, and private sector bonds) and at different pension fund industry levels. The results show that pension funds herd more in assets for which they have less market information and when risk increases. Moreover, herding is more prevalent across funds that narrowly compete with each other, that is, when comparing funds of the same type across pension fund administrators. There is much less herding within pension fund administrators and across pension fund administrators as a whole. This herding pattern is consistent with incentives for managers to be close to industry benchmarks...

On the International Transmission of Shocks : Micro-Evidence from Mutual Fund Portfolios

Raddatz, Claudio; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.89%
Using micro-level data on mutual funds from different financial centers investing in equity and bonds, this paper analyzes how investors and managers behave and transmit shocks across countries. The paper shows that the volatility of mutual fund investments is quantitatively driven by investors through injections of capital into, or redemptions out of, each fund, and by managers changing the country weights and cash in their portfolios. Both investors and managers respond to returns and crises, and substantially adjust their investments accordingly. These mechanisms generated large capital reallocations during the global financial crisis. Their behavior tends to be pro-cyclical, reducing their exposure to countries experiencing crises and increasing it when conditions improve. Managers actively change country weights over time, although there is significant short-run "pass-through," meaning that price changes affect country weights. Consequently, capital flows from mutual funds do not seem to stabilize markets and instead expose countries to foreign shocks.

Crashes, Bailouts, Regulations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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46.58%
With the recent stock market frauds in markets around the world such as the Madoff case in the U.S. and the recent Satyam fraud in India, no nation can hold its head high and claim to have good corporate governance. The reality is that the problems of fraud, faulty audits, misleading accounts, lack of transparency, conflicts of interest, criminal destruction of records and a long list of other corporate governance violations, are not limited to emerging markets but are very much in evidence in developed markets as well. Given recent events then, the importance of sound corporate governance is becoming increasingly apparent. International organizations like the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Bank and the International Corporate Governance Network (ICGN), along with major fund managers, are formulating sets of codes and principles that can be applied globally. It is also clear, however, that governments have generally done a poor job of policing the complex world of finance and that the greater part of the task will be left to self policing on the part of the participants. There is no doubt about it: sound corporate governance pays. Several studies undertaken by various organizations have shown that: there is a direct relationship between good corporate governance and investment returns. The oversight that comes from transparency and accountability creates a structure where the managers are discouraged from mismanaging the company...

Financial Sector Assessment Program Update : Republic of Kazakhstan - Investment Opportunities for Pension Funds

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The objective of this note is to put forward policy alternatives that could lead to improved management of pension fund assets in Kazakhstan. This note emphasizes prudence in the management of pension assets, given the social and fiscal importance of the pension sector. It also discusses different investment alternatives and development options for the domestic Kazakhstani capital market. The note aims to be realistic and pragmatic, based on the best professional judgment of the author.1 It is concluded that neither the regulators nor industry participants appear to fully appreciate the risks attached to the practice of focusing on short-term and high yield investments, which exposes pensioners to higher reinvestment and issuer risk. The recommendations are summarized in the last section of this note.

India : International Organization of Securities Commission Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.7%
An assessment of the level of implementation of the IOSCO principles in the Indian securities market was conducted from June 15 to July 1, 2011 as part of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) by Ana Carvajal, Monetary and capital markets department. An initial IOSCO assessment was conducted in 2000. Since then significant changes have taken place in the Indian market, in terms of market development, upgrading of market infrastructure and of the regulatory framework. The IOSCO methodology requires that assessors not only look at the legal and regulatory framework in place, but at how it has been implemented in practice. The assessor relied on: (i) a self-assessment developed by Securities Board Exchange of India (SEBI); (ii) the review of relevant laws, and other relevant documents provided by the authorities including annual reports; (iii) meetings with the Chairman of SEBI and other members of the Board, staff of SEBI as well as the RBI, and other public authorities, in particular representatives of the Ministry of Finance (MoF) and the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA); as well as (iv) meetings with market participants...

On the International Transmission of Shocks : Micro-Evidence from Mutual Fund Portfolios

Raddatz, Claudio; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.7%
Using micro-level data on mutual funds from different financial centers investing in equity and bonds, this paper analyzes how investors and managers behave and transmit shocks across countries. The paper shows that the volatility of mutual fund investments is quantitatively driven by both the underlying investors and fund managers through (i) injections into/redemptions out of each fund and (ii) managerial changes in country weights and cash. Both investors and managers respond to country returns and crises and adjust their investments substantially, e.g., generating large reallocations during the global financial crisis. Their behavior tends to be pro-cyclical, reducing their exposure to countries during bad times and increasing it when conditions improve. Managers actively change country weights over time, although there is significant short-run pass-through from returns to country weights. Capital flows from mutual funds do not seem to have a stabilizing role and expose countries in their portfolios to foreign shocks.

Mexico : The IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
As the supervisor of the securities markets in Mexico, the National Banking and Securities Commission (Comision Nacional Bancaria y de Valores, CNBV) has developed a robust supervisory framework that exhibits high levels of implementation of the International Organization of Securities Commissions Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation (IOSCO Principles) in many areas. The assessment was conducted during the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) mission to Mexico during the period September 7 to September 21, 2011. The assessment was carried out using the 2003 IOSCO methodology for assessing implementation of the IOSCO Principles. The most significant issues regarding full implementation of the Principles fall under the regulator principles. These issues flow from two sources. First, there is no specific statute governing derivatives (whether exchange traded or over-the-counter (OTC)), nor any other express legislative provisions that govern the regulation of that growing market. Second...

Private Equity and Venture Capital in SMEs in Developing Countries : The Role for Technical Assistance

Divakaran, Shanthi; McGinnis, Patrick J.; Shariff, Masood
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
This paper discusses the constraints for private equity financing of small and medium enterprises in developing economies. In addition to capital, private equity investors bring knowledge and expertise to the companies in which they invest. Through active participation on the board of directors or in partnership with management, private equity investors equip companies with critical improvements in governance, financial accounting, access to markets, technology, and other drivers of business success. Although private equity investors could help to create, deepen, and expand growth of small and medium enterprises in developing economies, the vast majority of private equity in such markets targets larger or more established enterprises. Technical assistance, when partnered with private equity, can unlock more investor commitments and considerably enhance the ability of small and medium enterprises in emerging markets to raise private equity capital. Technical assistance provides funding that allows private equity funds to extend their reach to smaller companies. Technical assistance can mitigate some level of risk and increase the probability of successful investments by funding targeted operational improvements of investee companies. Dedicated technical assistance facilities financed by third parties...

Strategic Interactions and Portfolio Choice in Money Management : Evidence from Colombian Pension Funds

Pedraza Morales, Alvaro
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.95%
This paper studies the portfolio choice of strategic fund managers in the presence of a peer-based underperformance penalty. Evidence is taken from the Colombian pension fund management industry, where six asset managers are in charge of portfolio allocation for the mandatory contributions of the working population. These managers are subject to a peer-based underperformance penalty, known as the Minimum Return Guarantee. The trading behavior by the managers is studied before and after a change in the strictness of the guarantee in June 2007. The evidence suggests that a tighter minimum return guarantee results in more trading in the direction of peers, a behavior that is more pronounced for underperforming managers. These managers rebalance their portfolios by buying securities in which they are underexposed relative to their peers, as opposed to selling assets in which they are overexposed. Overall, the results suggest that incentives for managers to be close to industry benchmarks play an important role in the portfolio allocation of these funds.

Republic of Korea Financial Sector Assessment Program : Detailed Assessment of Observance - IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.7%
An assessment of the level of implementation of the IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation (IOSCO Principles) was conducted in the Republic of Korea (Korea) from April 3 to 19, 2013 as part of the IMF-World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP). The assessment was made by Eija Holttinen, Monetary and Capital Markets Department, IMF, and Andrea Corcoran, an external expert working for the World Bank. The previous IOSCO assessment of Korea was conducted in 2001-02 before the first IOSCO Assessment Methodology had been developed. From the perspective of the IOSCO Principles, this is therefore effectively a first assessment. Hence, comparisons with the prior assessment are discouraged since the process has since been refined to promote consistency and has become progressively more rigorous. The assessment was based on: (i) a self-assessment and additional written responses prepared by the authorities; (ii) reviews of the relevant legislation and regulations; (iii) meetings with the management and staff of the FSC...

Asset Price Effects of Peer Benchmarking

Acharya, Sushant; Pedraza, Alvaro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.74%
This paper estimates the effects of peer benchmarking by institutional investors on asset prices. To identify trades purely due to peer benchmarking as separate from those based on fundamentals or private information, the paper exploits a natural experiment involving a change in a government imposed underperformance penalty applicable to Colombian pension funds. This change in regulation is orthogonal to stock fundamentals and only affects incentives to track peer portfolios allowing the authors to identify the component of demand due to peer benchmarking. The authors find that peer effects among pension fund managers generate excess in stock return volatility, with stocks exhibiting short-term abnormal returns followed by returns reversal in the subsequent quarter. Additionally, peer benchmarking produces an excess in comovement across stock returns beyond the correlation implied by fundamentals.

Governance and Investment of Public Pension Assets : Practitioners' Perspectives

Rajkumar, Sudhir; Dorfman, Mark C.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.77%
The impact of good governance on investment management and performance is immense. Several key factors contribute to good governance within pension funds, appropriate governance structures; well-defined accountabilities, policies, and procedures; and suitable processes for the selection and operation of governing bodies and managing institutions. Not surprisingly, good governance requires leadership by individuals with the expertise, professionalism, and integrity to navigate a fund's direction and withstand pressures from multiple constituencies. In the current context of aging populations in many countries, fiscal burdens on pension funds are increasing. At the same time, the necessity of delivering on pension commitments in contributory schemes means that governance, transparency, and accountability should be of utmost importance to pension fund managers. With these concerns in mind, part three of this book provides useful perspectives from senior managers of public pension funds, international pension authorities...

Mutual Fund Investment in Emerging Markets : An Overview

Kaminsky, Graciela L.; Lyons, Richard K.; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
International mutual funds are key contributors to the globalization of financial markets and one of the main sources of capital flows to emerging economies. Despite their importance in emerging markets, little is known about their investment allocation and strategies. This article provides an overview of mutual fund activity in emerging markets. It describes their size, asset allocation, and country allocation and then focuses on their behavior during crises in emerging markets in the 1990s. It analyzes data at both the fund-manager and fund-investor levels. Due to large redemptions and injections, funds' flows are not stable. Withdrawals from emerging markets during recent crises were large, which is consistent with the evidence on financial contagion.

Managers, Investors, and Crises : Mutual Fund Strategies in Emerging Markets

Kaminsky, Graciela; Lyons, Richard; Schmukler, Sergio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.7%
The authors address the trading strategies of mutual funds in emerging markets. The data set they develop permits analyses of these strategies at the level of individual portfolios. A methodologically novel feature of their analysis: they disentangle the behavior of fund managers from that of investors. For both managers and investors, they strongly reject the 0 hypothesis of no momentum trading. Funds' momentum trading is positive: they systematically buy winners and sell losers. Contemporaneous momentum trading (buying current winners and selling current losers) is stronger during crises, and stronger for fund investors than for fund managers. Lagged momentum trading (buying past winners and selling past losers) is stronger during noncrises, and stronger for fund managers. Investors also engage in contagion trading-selling assets from one country when asset prices fall in another. These findings are based on data about mutual funds that represent only 10 percent of the market capitalization in the countries considered. Were it a larger share of the market...

Mutual Fund Investment in Emerging Markets : An Overview

Kaminsky, Graciela; Lyons, Richard; Schmukler, Sergio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
International mutual funds are one of the main channels for capital flows to emerging economies. Although mutual funds have become important contributors to financial market integration, little is known about their investment allocation, and strategies. The authors provide an overview of mutual fund activity in emerging markets. First, they describe international mutual funds' relative size, asset allocation, and country allocation. Second, they focus on fund behavior during crises, by analyzing data at the level of both investors, and fund managers. Among their findings: Equity investment in emerging markets has grown rapidly in the 1990s, much of it flowing through mutual funds. Collectively, these funds hold a sizable share of market capitalization in emerging economies. Asian, and Latin American funds achieved the fastest growth, but are smaller than domestic U.S. funds and world funds. When investigating abroad, U.S. mutual funds invest more in equity than in bonds. World funds invest mainly in developed nations (Canada...

The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, and the World Bank's Engagement with the Global Fund

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Group Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank Group
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
The principal purpose of this Global Program Review (GPR) is to learn lessons from the experience of the Global Fund and its interaction with the Bank in three areas: (a) the design and operation of large global partnership programs like the Global Fund that are financing country-level investments, (b) the engagement of the World Bank with these partnership programs, and (c) the evaluation of these programs. The Review has an intensive focus on the Bank's engagement with the Global Fund at the country level because of the potential for competition or collaboration between Global Fund-supported activities and the Bank's lending operations at the country level. Therefore, it also focuses on the design and operation of the Global Fund-supported activities at the country level. This review was initiated before the high-level independent review panel on fiduciary controls and oversight mechanisms of the Global Fund was commissioned in February 2011, and it was drafted before their final report, turning the page from emergency to sustainability...

Detecting Superior Mutual Fund Managers: Evidence from Copycats

Phillips, Blake; Pukthuanthong, Kuntara; Rau, P. Raghavendra
Fonte: OUP Publicador: OUP
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
This is the author accepted manuscript. It will be embargoed for 12 months following publication. The final version is available from OUP at http://raps.oxfordjournals.org/content/4/2/286.abstract?sid=a91c8a2d-4018-4630-9f71-821c247757c4.; We examine the ex ante ability of investors to identify superior mutual fund managers among the investor set likely most able, and with the greatest incentive to do so, their rivals. Identifying actual copycat funds via comparisons of trading in consecutive periods, we find little evidence to suggest that managers are able to detect superior funds. Copycats select funds with high prior performance and investment inflows, and the performance of the target fund reverses following copying initiation. If superior managers exist, our results suggest that the source of skill lies in private information obtained by these managers. These results are consistent with information models indicating that private, but not public, information can be profitable. (JEL G02, G23)

On Relative Performance Contracts and Fund Managers Incentives

Grant, Simon; Eichberger, Jurgen; King, Stephen P
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
For pension schemes, mutual funds, banks and other financial intermediaries, large portfolio decisions are increasingly delegated to fund managers. Recently, there has been growing concern that these managers seem to adopt extremely similar investment strategies. One possible explanation for this phenomenon may be found in reward schemes based on relative performance. We show how relative performance reward schemes may arise as optimal contracts. Our focus is the fund owners-fund manager relationship in which the manager, before making a portfolio decision on behalf of the owners, may acquire, at some cost, information that is not available to the owners. Payment schemes based on relative performance afford the owners tighter control of their manager's activities. However, if two managers of different funds both accept contracts that depend on their relative as well as absolute performances, then there may exist equilibria in the managers' subgame that result in undesirable outcomes for the owners.