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Capital estrangeiro e energia elétrica no Brasil: estudo sobre as empresas fornecedoras de equipamentos para o setor elétrico; Foreign capital and electrical energy in Brazil: a study about suppliers companies to electrical sector

Sasse, Carla Müller
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/03/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
Esta dissertação trata da indústria fornecedora de equipamentos para o setor elétrico nacional, com recorte específico para a geração de energia. A partir do contexto de formação do setor de serviços, busca-se estabelecer a trajetória da formação da estrutura de demanda para estes equipamentos. Enfatiza-se a presença do capital estrangeiro neste processo, inicialmente no setor de serviços e mais a frente atuando no setor industrial. Apresenta-se as principais características desta indústria, com destaque para a concentração existente e o favorecimento das empresas multinacionais. A análise é feita sob a perspectiva da oferta e da demanda.; This thesis is about industries which provide equipment to national electrical sector, with specific focus on energy generation. From formation context of service sector, we search to establish the formation's trajectory of demands structure for these equipments. Emphasize the presence of foreign capital in this process, at first in service sector and later at industrial sector. Presents this industry main characteristics, prominence to the existing concentration and advantages for multinational companies. The analysis is made in the supply and demand perspective.

A study on supervision over foreign banks in China

Li, Ting
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Master in International Management / JEL Classification: E44 G18; The five-year transitional period after China’s entry into WTO has expired. To fulfil her promise of opening up the financial service market, China has cancelled all the restrictions on the scope of business and regional access for foreign-funded banks. Although the State Council has enacted the recently revised «Regulation of the People’s Republic of China on the Administration of Foreign-funded Banks» and the «Rules for Implementing the Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Administration of Foreign-funded Banks» as the main legal document on regulating foreign-funded banks, and, as obvious, flaw is unavoidable. And we must improve the supervisory legal system of foreign-funded banks in China to dissolve the risk arising by the entry of foreign-funded banks. This research work analyses and discuss the practical impact of the current legislation for supervision of foreign-capital banks, supervision of market access of foreign-capital banks, the supervision on RMB business management in foreign capital banks and the legal system for internal control of foreign banks. In the end of the dissertation, the improvement towards the perfection supervision of the foreign banks in PRC will be emphasized with respect to the new opening situation.; O período de transição concedido à República Popular da China (RPC) na sua admissão na Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC) já caducara. Segundo os compromissos de admissão na OMC...

The foreign capital flows and the behavior of stock prices at BM&FBovespa

Sanvicente,Antonio Zoratto
Fonte: ANPAD - Associação Nacional de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa em Administração Publicador: ANPAD - Associação Nacional de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa em Administração
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
The main purpose of this article is to investigate alternative explanations for the impact of foreign capital flows on Ibovespa returns, including: trend chasing, information contribution and mutual feedback. Daily data of the period between 2005 and 2012 are analyzed using simultaneous equation models which are estimated by ordinary least squares (OLS). Several exogenous market variables are included as determinants of returns and capital flows. The research results present that only the information contribution hypothesis is supported by the analysis. Besides, it also shows that the 2008 global financial crisis had no significant effect on the interaction of market returns with foreign capital flows.

Gross Capital Flows : Dynamics and Crises

Broner, Fernando; Didier, Tatiana; Erce, Aitor; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
This paper analyzes the joint behavior of international capital flows by foreign and domestic agents -- gross capital flows -- over the business cycle and during financial crises. The authors show that gross capital flows are very large and volatile, especially relative to net capital flows. When foreigners invest in a country, domestic agents tend to invest abroad, and vice versa. Gross capital flows are also pro-cyclical, with foreigners investing more in the country and domestic agents investing more abroad during expansions. During crises, especially during severe ones, there is retrenchment, that is, a reduction in both capital inflows by foreigners and capital outflows by domestic agents. This evidence sheds light on the nature of shocks driving capital flows and helps discriminate among existing theories. The findings seem consistent with shocks that affect foreign and domestic agents asymmetrically, such as sovereign risk and asymmetric information.

Does Foreign Portfolio Investment Reach Small Listed Firms?

Knill, April M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Using a unique dataset, the author examines the impact of foreign portfolio investment on the capital issuance behavior of small listed firms. The author finds that foreign portfolio investment is associated with an increased probability of small firm security issuance in all nations, regardless of property rights development. Evidence suggests the mechanism by which this occurs is a freeing up of capital in domestic markets when large firms utilize the foreign investment directly. Debt levels in nations where property rights are more developed increase, suggesting that foreign portfolio investment may reach small firms through the banking channel as well as capital markets in these nations.

Foreign Direct Investment in Latin America during the Emergence of China and India : Stylized Facts

Cravino, Javier; Lederman, Daniel; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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In spite of the growing concerns about foreign direct investment being diverted from Latin America to China and India, the best available data show that Latin America has performed relatively well since 1997. Foreign capital stocks from OECD countries and the United States in particular in China and India are still far from those in the largest Latin American economies. The evidence shows that foreign capital stocks in China increased more than in Latin America during 1990-1997, but not as much since 1997. In fact, Latin America has actually performed better than China since 1997 given its lack of relative growth. The growth of foreign capital stocks in India was more stable than in China. Nonetheless, after controlling for shocks emanating from the source countries and bilateral distance between source and host countries, this paper finds a significant change in foreign capital stocks relative to China between 1990 and 1997, but no change relative to India.

Ride the Wild Surf : An Investigation of the Drivers of Surges in Capital Inflows

Calderón, César; Kubota, Megumi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Over the past 15 years, gross inflows to industrial and developing countries have enjoyed a wild ride. After reaching record highs in the run-up to the global financial crisis, they collapsed dramatically in 2008-09. As signs of global recovery reappeared, capital inflows resumed although at different speeds. The recovery in flows was faster and sharper in developing countries. This paper aims at understanding the (domestic and external) drivers of these surges in gross inflows using quarterly data for 67 countries from 1975 to 2010. It finds that domestic and external factors have significant explanatory power in driving surges of inflows. This finding holds for the sample of industrial countries whereas domestic factors play a significantly larger role in explaining surges to developing countries. Zooming into the findings shows that: (a) financial booms tend to attract massive capital inflows, (b) surges to either industrial or developing countries are driven by regional contagion, and (c) strong growth and natural resource abundance are keys to attract inflows of foreign capital into developing countries.

Unconventional Monetary Policy Normalization in High-Income Countries : Implications for Emerging Market Capital Flows and Crisis Risks

Burns, Andrew; Kida, Mizuho; Lim, Jamus Jerome; Mohapatra, Sanket; Stocker, Marc
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.55%
As the recovery in high-income countries firms amid a gradual withdrawal of extraordinary monetary stimulus, developing countries can expect stronger demand for their exports as global trade regains momentum, but also rising interest rates and potentially weaker capital inflows. This paper assesses the implications of a normalization of policy and activity in high-income countries for financial flows and crisis risks in developing countries. In the most likely scenario, a relatively orderly process of normalization would imply a slowdown in capital inflows amounting to 0.6 percent of developing-country GDP between 2013 and 2016, driven in particular by weaker portfolio investments. However, the risk of more abrupt adjustments remains significant, especially if increased market volatility accompanies the unwinding of unprecedented central bank interventions. According to simulations, abrupt changes in market expectations, resulting in global bond yields increasing by 100 to 200 basis points within a couple of quarters...

The Relative Restrictiveness of Australia's Foreign Investment Environment to its Major Investors

Thomas, Davina
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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56.4%
Any perceived or real restriction on the foreign investment environment will have a direct negative effect on a country's ability to encourage high levels of overseas capital. While there is a concurrent need for host governments to protect their national interest, if it wishes to attract high foreign capital and its various advantages of increased growth, specialisation and competition, it must actively work to limit any barrier or minimise perception of restriction. Two of the most important characteristics for an accessible and open foreign investment policy, argued by the OECD Policy Framework for Investment, are non-discriminatory treatment and transparency which can be infused across legislation, regulations, policy and perception of policy to signify to current and prospective investors its attitude to foreign investment. There have been several developments in the global economy which have affected Australia's foreign investment framework, in particular the rise of China and Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) as well as the Global Financial Crisis. Australia's policy, especially towards SWFs has been negatively perceived in many cases which thus calls for a review of its restrictiveness compared to its major investors. By quantitatively and qualitatively judging Australia against to its major investors...

Substitution between Foreign Capital in China, India, the Rest of the World, and Latin America: Much Ado about Nothing?; Journal of Economic Integration

Cravino, Javier; Lederman, Daniel; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
EN
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This paper explores the impact of the emergence of China and India on Foreign Capital Stocks (FCS) in other economies. Using bilateral FCS data from 1990-2003 and drawing from the Knowledge-Capital Model of multinational enterprises to control for fundamental determinants of FCS across countries, the evidence suggests that the impact of foreign capital in China and India on other countries' FCS has been positive. This finding is robust across different specifications and estimation techniques. There is surprisingly weak evidence of substitution in manufacturing FCS away from Central America/Mexico in favor of China, and from Southern Cone countries to India, but these findings are not robust to the use of alternative estimation techniques. In sum, fears of a global competition for FDI seem misplaced, and policymakers concerned about attracting foreign investors should focus their efforts on the fundamentals determinants of FDI.

Foreign Capital Utilization in China : Prospects and Future Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Beijing Publicador: Beijing
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.5%
China has been among the world's largest recipients of foreign direct investment (FDI). Nonetheless, at the time China is moving into its eleventh five-year plan period, four issues with FDI to China are becoming increasingly recognized by policy makers: geographic concentration, excessive reliance on investment in export-oriented manufacturing, under-investment in higher-technology industries, and heavy reliance on fiscal incentives to attract FDI. This report seeks to analyze these and provide benefit from international experience in suggesting policies. In addition to this introduction, the paper includes the following chapters: external environment, FDI in China, maintaining an attractive investment climate, leveling the playing field in taxation, improving the composition of FDI, and non-FDI capital flows liberalization and risk management.

Trends and Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in South Asia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Like many other developing countries, South Asian nations have been experiencing increased Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows over the past decade as developing countries get a larger share of cross-border investments once sent to developed countries. Nonetheless, South Asia's FDI inflows remain the lowest relative to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) among developing country regions. Over the next 20 years, more than one million new workers will be entering the South Asian labor market each month as the region's youth bulge matures and seeks employment. To absorb these workers and provide higher living standards and reduce poverty, South Asian countries will have to rely on more than just public investment. This report looks into the historical patterns of FDI in South Asia, examines its sectoral composition, and evaluates current policies and policy options that may help create an environment for increasing FDI flows. The launching point for this study is the substantial empirical literature that suggests that FDI is associated with growth...

Does "Good Government" Draw Foreign Capital? Explaining China's Exceptional Foreign Direct Investment Inflow

Fan, Joseph P. H.; Morck, Randall; Xu, Lixin Colin; Yeung, Bernard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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China is now the world's largest destination of foreign direct investment (FDI), despite assessments highlighting its institutional deficiencies. But this FDI inflow corresponds closely to predicted FDI flows into China from a model that predicts FDI inflow based on government quality indicators and controls and is estimated across a sample of other weak-institution countries. The only real discrepancy is that, if government quality is measured by constraints on executive power, China receives somewhat more FDI than the model predicts. This might reflect an underestimation of the strength of these constraints in China, a unique institutional setting for FDI operations, FDI based on expected future institutional improvements, or a unique Chinese model of development. The authors conclude that Ockham's razor disfavors the last. They also note that FDI may be elevated because Chinese institutions protect foreign firms better than domestic ones.

Converting and Transferring Currency : Benchmarking Foreign Exchange Restrictions to Foreign Direct Investment Across Economies

Anderson, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
EN_US
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The ease of converting and transferring currency is a crucial consideration for firms investing in a foreign economy. The Converting and Transferring Currency data and indicators measure foreign exchange restrictions most relevant for foreign direct investment across economies to identify common policies and benchmark the restrictiveness of economies' foreign exchange regimes. Of 98 economies included in the analysis, 53 economies maintain generally unrestricted foreign exchange regimes for foreign direct investment. But 24 economies impose moderate to heavy restrictions across most transactions covered by the Converting and Transferring Currency indicators, with another 21 economies imposing administrative or procedural requirements. All high-income economies measured by the Converting and Transferring Currency data maintain unrestricted foreign exchange regimes for foreign direct investment, and the two poorest regions of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa are the most restrictive regions on average. Still, there is significant variation in restrictiveness across economies at similar income levels: 38 percent of low-income and lower-middle-income economies impose moderate to heavy restrictions on transactions covered by the Converting and Transferring Currency data...

Substitution between Foreign Capital in China, India, the Rest of the World, and Latin America : Much Ado about Nothing?

Cravino, Javier; Lederman, Daniel; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
This paper explores the impact of the emergence of China and India on foreign capital stocks in other economies. Using bilateral data from 1990-2003 and drawing from the knowledge-capital model of the multinational enterprises to control for fundamental determinants of foreign capital stocks across countries, the evidence suggests that the impact of foreign capital in China and India on other countries' foreign capital stocks has been positive. This finding is robust to the use of ordinary least squares, Poisson, and negative binomial estimators; to the inclusion of time and country-pair fixed effects; to the inclusion of natural-resource endowments; and to the use of the sum of foreign capital stocks in Hong Kong (China) and mainland China instead of using only the latter's foreign capital stocks. There is surprisingly weak evidence of substitution in manufacturing foreign capital stocks away from Central America and Mexico in favor of China, and from the Southern Cone countries to India, but these findings are not robust to the use of alternative estimation techniques.

Portfolio Preferences of Foreign Institutional Ivestors

Aggarwal, Reena; Klapper, Leora; Wysocki, Peter D.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.48%
The authors examine the relationship between foreign investment and the attributes of emerging market countries and firms in which investment is made. Their findings indicate that countries with higher levels of economic development and floating exchange rate regimes tend to have greater ability to obtain foreign capital. After controlling for the country's level of economic development, they find that firms in countries with stronger shareholder rights and legal framework attract more foreign capital. The authors also find that foreign institutions allocate more of their assets to firms with better corporate governance after controlling for other country and firm attributes. The main firm-level measures of corporate governance are derived from accounting quality variables. Their results imply that steps can be taken both at the country and the firm level to create an environment conducive to foreign portfolio investment. The analysis is based on a unique dataset consisting of equity positions of U.S. mutual funds in emerging markets.

Attracting Foreign Direct Investment : What Can South Asia's Lack of Success Teach Other Developing Countries?

Gould, David M.; Tan, Congyan; Sadeghi Emamgholi, Amir S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
Like many other developing countries, South Asian nations have been experiencing increased foreign direct investment inflows over the past decade as developing countries get a larger share of cross-border investments that were once sent to developed countries. Nonetheless, South Asia's inflows of foreign direct investment remain the lowest relative to gross domestic product among developing country regions. Why are South Asia's foreign direct investment inflows so low and what lessons can be drawn for developing countries as a whole? The analysis in this paper uses a novel empirical model that accounts for possible trends in convergence in the ratio of foreign direct investment to gross domestic product between countries and cross-sectional data for 78 countries from 2000 to 2011. The sample contains 52 developing countries. The analysis finds that two key factors are at work -- high overall regulatory restrictions on foreign direct investment and specific restrictions placed on doing business with other countries. These factors include overall trade restrictiveness...

Enticing Investors : To Make a Serious Dent in Poverty, Africa Must Attract More Foreign Capital

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
The nearly 750 million people who live in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are among the world's poorest. To foster the economic growth required to create jobs, raise living standards, and hasten development, SSA nations need to attract more foreign capital, which, by enhancing imported technology and the transfer of know-how, has proved instrumental in raising productivity in many countries.

Short and Long-Run Integration : Do Capital Controls Matter?

Kaminsky, Graciela; Schmukler, Sergio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The authors study whether capital controls affect the link between domestic and foreign stock market prices and interest rates. To examine the characteristics of international market integration and the effects of capital controls in the short and long run, they apply band-pass filter techniques to data from six emerging economics during the 1990s. They find that markets seem to be linked more at longer horizons. Equity prices seem to be more connected internationally than interest rates. They also find little evidence that controls effectively segment domestic markets from foreign markets. And when they do, the effects seem to be short-lived. Moreover, the effects of controls on outflows do not seem to differ from those of controls on inflows. For example, controls on outflows in Venezuela during the 1994 crisis, and unremunerated reserve requirements in Chile and Colombia during a capital-inflow episode, seem to have shielded domestic markets at the most at very high frequencies. The degree of financial sophistication does not seem to affect the authors' conclusion on the insulation provided by capital controls. True...

Managing capital inflows in Chile

Ffrench-Davis Muñoz, Ricardo; Agosin Trumper, Manuel Rodolfo
Fonte: Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Economía y Negocios Publicador: Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Economía y Negocios
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper characterizes the surge of foreign capital inflows into Chile in the 1990s, it describes the policies to deal with these inflows, and analyzes the results of the policy mix used in terms of effectiveness with which flows were managed and effects on growth and investment. About 60 per cent of the flows have been foreign direct investment (FDI), the remainder being a mix of portfolio inflows, short-term credit, and longer-term borrowing, basically by banks and large domestic firms. The policies adopted have included the imposition of an unremunerated reserve requirement on all financial inflows (excluding FDI), active sterilized intervention on foreign exchange markets to prevent undue appreciation of the peso, and the use of a sliding exchange rate band. These policies appear to have prevented an even larger surge of foreign capital, have kept real exchange rate appreciation within bounds, and are partly responsible for the country’s positive growth performance. However; they have tended to lose effectiveness since late-1995, when capital inflows accelerated. The Chilean experience points to the need to face sharp temporary surges in capital inflows with a mix of policy tools rather than with a single instrument.