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The Honey Bee Parasite Nosema ceranae: Transmissible via Food Exchange?

Smith, Michael L.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/08/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Nosema ceranae, a newly introduced parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is contributing to worldwide colony losses. Other Nosema species, such as N. apis, tend to be associated with increased defecation and spread via a fecal-oral pathway, but because N. ceranae does not induce defecation, it may instead be spread via an oral-oral pathway. Cages that separated older infected bees from young uninfected bees were used to test whether N. ceranae can be spread during food exchange. When cages were separated by one screen, food could be passed between the older bees and the young bees, but when separated by two screens, food could not be passed between the two cages. Young uninfected bees were also kept isolated in cages, as a solitary control. After 4 days of exposure to the older bees, and 10 days to incubate infections, young bees were more likely to be infected in the 1-Screen Test treatment vs. the 2-Screen Test treatment (P = 0.0097). Young bees fed by older bees showed a 13-fold increase in mean infection level relative to young bees not fed by older bees (1-Screen Test 40.8%; 2-Screen Test 3.4%; Solo Control 2.8%). Although fecal-oral transmission is still possible in this experimental design, oral-oral infectivity could help explain the rapid spread of N. ceranae worldwide.

Successful Manipulation of the Quality and Quantity of Fat and Carbohydrate Consumed by Free-Living Individuals Using a Food Exchange Model12

Moore, Carmel; Gitau, Rachel; Goff, Louise; Lewis, Fiona J.; Griffin, Margaret D.; Chatfield, Mark D.; Jebb, Susan A.; Frost, Gary S.; Sanders, Tom A. B.; Griffin, Bruce A.; Lovegrove, Julie A.;
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2009 EN
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46.06%
Our objective in this study was to develop and implement an effective intervention strategy to manipulate the amount and composition of dietary fat and carbohydrate (CHO) in free-living individuals in the RISCK study. The study was a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study that was conducted in 720 participants identified as higher risk for or with metabolic syndrome. All followed a 4-wk run-in reference diet [high saturated fatty acids (SF)/high glycemic index (GI)]. Volunteers were randomized to continue this diet for a further 24 wk or to 1 of 4 isoenergetic prescriptions [high monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)/high GI; high MUFA/low GI; low fat (LF)/high GI; and LF/low GI]. We developed a food exchange model to implement each diet. Dietary records and plasma phospholipid fatty acids were used to assess the effectiveness of the intervention strategy. Reported fat intake from the LF diets was significantly reduced to 28% of energy (%E) compared with 38%E from the HM and LF diets. SF intake was successfully decreased in the HM and LF diets to ≤10%E compared with 17%E in the reference diet (P = 0.001). Dietary MUFA in the HM diets was ∼17%E, significantly higher than in the reference (12%E) and LF diets (10%E) (P = 0.001). Changes in plasma phospholipid fatty acids provided further evidence for the successful manipulation of fat intake. The GI of the HGI and LGI arms differed by ∼9 points (P = 0.001). The food exchange model provided an effective dietary strategy for the design and implementation across multiple sites of 5 experimental diets with specific targets for the proportion of fat and CHO.

Food Price Increases in South Asia : National Responses and Regional Dimensions

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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36.18%
Food price inflation not only threatens macroeconomic stability but also decreases the welfare levels of most households, especially the poorer ones, for whom food consumption constitutes a relatively large share of total expenditures. This report analyzes the causes and effects of food price inflation in South Asia during the period 2007?08 and beyond; simulates the impact of food price increases on household welfare and the potential of adjustments in consumer and producer behavior for mitigating the negative impact on welfare; and assesses the potential impact of regional trade liberalization on food prices. The appendixes describe the policy reactions of individual governments to the increases in food prices against the background of their respective domestic food policies. The focus is on wheat and rice, which are the main food staples in South Asia and together account for an important part of food expenditures of the poor. By analyzing the household?level impacts of the food crisis and taking stock of the policy responses of national governments...

The Role of Inventory Adjustments in Quantifying Factors Causing Food Price Inflation

Hochman, Gal; Rajagopal, Deepak; Timilsina, Govinda; Zilberman, David
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
The food commodity price increases beginning in 2001 and culminating in the food crisis of 2007/08 reflected a combination of several factors, including economic growth, biofuel expansion, exchange rate fluctuations, and energy price inflation. To quantify these influences, the authors developed an empirical model that also included crop inventory adjustments. The study shows that, if inventory effects are not taken into account, the impacts of the various factors on food commodity price inflation would be overestimated. If the analysis ignores crop inventory adjustments, it indicates that prices of corn, soybean, rapeseed, rice, and wheat would have been, respectively, 42, 38, 52, and 45 percent lower than the corresponding observed prices in 2007. If inventories are properly taken into account, the contributions of the above mentioned factors to those commodity prices are 36, 26, 26, and 35 percent, respectively. Those four factors, taken together, explain 70 percent of the price increase for corn, 55 percent for soybean...

Inflation Dynamics and Food Prices in an Agricultural Economy : The Case of Ethiopia

Loening, Josef L.; Durevall, Dick; Birru, Yohannes A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
Ethiopia has experienced a historically unprecedented increase in inflation, mainly driven by cereal price inflation, which is among the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using monthly data from the past decade, the authors estimate error correction models to identify the relative importance of several factors contributing to overall inflation and its three major components, cereal prices, food prices, and non-food prices. The main finding is that, in a longer perspective, over three to four years, the main factors that determine domestic food and non-food prices are the exchange rate and international food and goods prices. In the short run, agricultural supply shocks and inflation inertia strongly affect domestic inflation, causing large deviations from long-run price trends. Money supply growth does affect food price inflation in the short run, although the money stock itself does not seem to drive inflation. The results suggest the need for a multi-pronged approach to fight inflation. Forecast scenarios suggest monetary and exchange rate policies need to take into account cereal production...

World Food Prices and Human Development: Policy Simulations for Archetype Low-Income Countries

Lofgren, Hans
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
In recent years, world food prices have increased and fluctuated widely. This paper explores the impact of international food prices and domestic policies on Millennium Development Goal (MDG) and macro indicators for two archetype low-income countries, a net food exporter and a net food importer, using Maquette for MDG Simulations (MAMS), a Computable General Equilibrium model. The simulations, which cover the period 2011-2025, indicate that the size of positive (negative) effects on macro and MDG indicators of a food export (import) price increase depend on the initial gross domestic product share for food exports (imports), leaving countries that are heavily involved in international food trade more exposed to international shocks. Given relatively low elasticity estimates, the impact of changes in food prices on undernourishment are relatively marginal. Flexible responses (in terms of production shares, whether output is exported or sold at home, and whether domestic demanders buy imports or domestic output) enable countries to benefit from or be less hurt by price changes. The case for policy responses to higher import prices is stronger for the net food importer. An untargeted food subsidy...

Managing Food Price Risks and Instability in an Environment of Market Liberalization

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
This report, Managing Food Price Risks and Instability in an Environment of Market Liberalization, studies the food price instability and risk problem in low-income countries and investigates the benefits and costs of alternative policy responses, and provides guidance on how to make the transition from state-dominated markets to private markets. The report concludes that problems of food price instability and food insecurity need to be addressed by developing: measures to improve overall productivity of food staples, measures to promote irrigation or crop diversification to reduce climate risks, improvements of the overall efficiency of markets, including investments in transport and communication infrastructure, storage, information systems, and market regulations. The report stresses that direct public interventions in food markets to manage food price risk should be a last resort. Specific policy recommendations are made to achieve these objectives.

Food, Financial Crises, and Complex Derivatives : A Tale of High Stakes Innovation and Diversification

Songwe, Vera
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
The 2008 food price crisis was an integral part of the financial crisis. In fact, the food price crisis was the second crisis in a chain of events that began in 2007 with the mortgage crisis, and culminated in the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. Contrary to what was generally believed in 2008, developing countries, particularly food-importing countries, were part of the early wave of the financial crisis via food price increases, and later suffered another wave via the real sector. The events leading up to the food crisis were global and complex in nature. As a result, as the G-20 discusses solutions to the financial crisis, any new framework must include developing countries, especially low-income countries. In addition, developing countries, especially in Africa, must pay close attention to the work of the Financial Stability Board (FSB) and its recommendations on financial market reform, and over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives in particular, because these reforms will have important consequences for their housing...

How Vulnerable Are Arab Countries to Global Food Price Shocks?

Ianchovichina, Elena; Loening, Josef; Wood, Christina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
This paper presents new estimates of pass-through coefficients from international to domestic food prices by country in the Middle East and North Africa. The estimates indicate that, despite the use of food price subsidies and other government interventions, a rise in global food prices is transmitted to a significant degree into domestic food prices in many countries in the Middle East and North Africa, although cross-country variation is significant. In nearly all countries, domestic food prices are highly downwardly rigid. The finding of asymmetric price transmission suggests that not only international food price levels matter, but also food price volatility. High food pass-through tends to increase inflation pressures, where food consumption shares are high. Domestic factors, often linked to storage, logistics, and procurement, have also played a major role in explaining high food inflation in the majority of countries in the region.

Long-Term Drivers of Food Prices

Baffes, John; Dennis, Allen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
It is becoming increasingly apparent that the post-2004, across-the-board, commodity price increases, which initially appeared to be a spike similar to the ones experienced during the early 1950s (Korean War) and the 1970s (oil crises), have a more permanent character. From 1997-2004 to 2005-12 nominal prices of energy, fertilizers, and precious metals tripled, metal prices went up by more than 150 percent, and most food prices doubled. Such price increases, especially in food commodities, not only fueled a debate on their key causes, but also alarmed government officials, leading to calls for coordinated policy actions. This paper examines the relative contribution of various sector and macroeconomic drivers to price changes of five food commodities (maize, wheat, rice, soybeans, and palm oil) by applying a reduced-form econometric model on 1960-2012 annual data. The drivers include stock-to-use ratios, crude oil and manufacturing prices, the United States dollar exchange rate, interest rate, and income. Based on long-run elasticity estimates (approximately -0.25 for the stock-to-use ratios...

Maternal food restriction reduces the exchange surface area and increases the barrier thickness of the placenta in the guinea-pig

Roberts, C.; Sohlstrom, A.; Kind, K.; Earl, R.; Khong, T.; Robinson, J.; Owens, P.; Owens, J.
Fonte: W B Saunders Co Ltd Publicador: W B Saunders Co Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
The extent to which maternal nutrition influences fetal growth through effects on placental functional development is unclear. Poor maternal nutrition is a major cause of poor fetal growth which increases neonatal morbidity and mortality, and may also increase the risk of several adult-onset diseases. We have therefore characterized the ontogeny of structural determinants of function in the placenta in guinea-pigs fed ad libitum or food restricted from before and during pregnancy. Guinea-pigs were killed at days 30 and 60 (term=67 days) of pregnancy. In ad libitum fed animals, the surface density (surface area/g placental labyrinth), which is a measure of the convolution of the exchange surface, doubled, while total surface area increased 18-fold between mid and late gestation. Concomitantly, the arithmetic mean barrier thickness to diffusion across trophoblast decreased by 68 per cent. Late in gestation, food restriction reduced the proportion of the placenta devoted to exchange (labyrinth) by 70 per cent (P< 0.04) and the weight of the placental labyrinth by 45 per cent (P=0.001). Maternal food restriction also reduced the total placental surface area for exchange by 36 per cent at day 30 (P=0.02) and 60 per cent at day 60 (P< 0.0005) of gestation...

Narratives beyond the Knife: Food Contexts as Converging and Diverging Zones in Christian-Muslim Encounters in Ethiopia

Zellelew, Tilahun Bejitual
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Abstract This study attempts to answer questions related to the role of culinary and dietary discursive practices in the process of religious identity formations and thereby of interreligious encounters. Particularly it explores the Muslim-Christian encounters in Ethiopia in food contexts such as at wedding feasts. Ethiopian Orthodox Christians and Ethiopian Muslims have a unique encounter in some socio-cultural settings that involve food/eating because of a peculiar religious food taboo of avoiding meat slaughtered by people of the other faith. This custom, which has been practiced for many centuries, has been disapproved by some as “prejudice”, “a sign of mutual aversion”, and “a barrier” in their relations. It thus seems to be in continuous battle equally against sectarian and secular pressures. The overall system built around it, however, merits investigation to understand the dynamics of the micro-level Christian-Muslim encounters in Ethiopia. The study has thus adopted several theoretical approaches in order to explore the virtues of this custom and its implication for contemporary pluralist and multi-confessional societies. It has employed semiotic analysis, narrative analysis, speech act theory, affect theory, and critical discourse analysis...

Analyzing Food Price Trends in the Context of Engel’s Law and the Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis

Baffes, John; Etienne, Xiaoli L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Income growth in emerging economies has often been cited as a key driver of the past decade’s com-modity price boom—the longest and broadest boom since World War II. This paper shows that income has a negative and highly significant effect on real food commodity prices, a finding that is consistent with Engel’s Law and Kindleberger’s thesis, the predecessors of the Prebisch-Singer hypothe-sis. The paper also shows that, in the long run, income influences real food prices mainly through the manufacturing price channel (the deflator), hence weakening the view that income growth exerts strong upward pressure on food prices. Other (short-term) drivers of food prices include energy costs, inventories, and monetary conditions.

South Asia Economic Focus, June 2011 : Food Inflation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
This report focuses on the impact of policies and exogenous shocks on food inflation. It deals with four elements: 1) the pass-through of global food (and other commodity) prices, 2) macroeconomic policies, 3) market regulation and short-term supply shocks, and 4) long-term structural shifts and the terms of trade between agriculture and other sectors of the economy. This report examines food and overall inflation trends in South Asia, which is experiencing relatively high inflation, and is home to a large number of poor. There are many more poor people who are net buyers of food than there are those who benefit from higher prices of agricultural products even in the predominantly rural countries of South Asia. The report examines both short-term and longer-term drivers of rising food prices in the region, including developments in international commodity prices, domestic supply shocks, accommodative demand side policies, structural changes in demand patterns, and long-term agricultural productivity trends. The impact on poverty is examined...

Are International Food Price Spikes the Source of Egypt's High Inflation?

Al-Shawarby, Sherine; Selim, Hoda
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
This paper examines whether domestic inflation spikes in Egypt during 2001-2011 were primarily the result of external food price shocks. To estimate the pass-through of international food price inflation to domestic price inflation, two different methodologies are used: a two-step regression model estimates the pass-through in the long run, and a vector autoregression model provides the short-run estimates. The empirical evidence confirms that pass-through is high in the short term, but not in the long run. More precisely, the results show that (i) long-run pass-through to domestic food inflation is relatively low, lying between 13 and 16 percent, while the long-term spill-over from domestic food inflation to core inflation is moderate, lying around 60 percent; (ii) in the short term, pass-through is relatively high, estimated around 29 percent after 6 months and around two-thirds after a year, but the spill-over effect to core inflation is limited; (iii) international food price shocks explain only a small portion of domestic inflation shocks in both the short and long terms; and (iv) international price inflation has asymmetric effects on domestic prices.

The Challenges of High Food and Fuel Prices

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
The increase in the price of oil and food carry major adverse poverty and macroeconomic implications especially for fragile and small states and for low income households in all developing countries. In terms of their impact on income distribution, inflation, and poverty food prices are of greater and more immediate concern than high fuel prices. However, the impact of the oil price increase on economic growth is likely to be negative and the challenge of crafting appropriate policy responses to the food crisis is made much harder in a context of rising oil prices and ensuing fiscal and balance of payments pressures. This paper describes what has happened to fuel and oil prices over the past two years and links these developments to the macro-economic international context. It goes on to describe the consequences of the oil and food price increase for developing countries and especially for fragile and small states in the commonwealth. The paper also discusses policy instruments that may contribute to ameliorate the impact of the changes. Finally...

Higher Fuel and Food Prices : Impacts and Responses for Mozambique

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
The dramatic increases in world food and fuel prices during 2007 and early 2008 may set back Mozambique's considerable advances in poverty reduction during the past decade. This study assesses the impact of higher fuel and food prices at both household and macroeconomic levels, and also considers policy options to mitigate some of the negative impacts of higher prices. Rising world prices certainly represents a negative terms-of-trade shock for Mozambique, since the country imports almost all of its fuel and is a net importer of food. The report is structured in six sections. Section two presents information on the extent of international food and fuel price increases and their transmission to local markets in Mozambique. Section three presents household-level analysis focused on the first order impact of the food price increases. Section four complements previous sections by examining the impact of higher food and fuel prices within a general equilibrium framework. Section five discusses the likely impact of alternative policy options in the short and long term. Section six summarizes and concludes.

Fiscal and Social Impact of a Nominal Exchange Rate Devaluation in Djibouti

Anós Casero, Paloma; Seshan, Ganesh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Limited fiscal space limits Djibouti's ability to meet the Millennium Development Goals and improve the living conditions of its population. Djibouti's fiscal structure is unique in that almost 70 percent of government revenue is denominated in foreign currency (import taxes, foreign aid grants, and military revenue) while over 50 percent of government expenditure is denominated in local currency (wages, salaries, and social transfers). Djibouti's economic structure is also unusual in that merchandise exports of local origin are insignificant, and the country relies heavily on imported goods (food, medicines, consumer and capital goods). A currency devaluation, by reducing real wages, could potentially generate additional fiscal space that would help meet Djibouti's fundamental development goals. Using macroeconomic and household level data, the authors quantify the impact of a devaluation of the nominal exchange rate on fiscal savings, real public sector wages, real income, and poverty under various hypothetical scenarios of exchange-rate pass-through and magnitude of devaluation. They find that a currency devaluation could generate fiscal savings in the short-term, but it would have an adverse effect on poverty and income distribution. A 30 percent nominal exchange rate devaluation could generate fiscal savings amounting between 3 and 7 percent of GDP. At the same time...

NutriSonic web expert system for meal management and nutrition counseling with nutrient time-series analysis, e-food exchange and easy data transition

Hong, Soon-Myung; Cho, Jee-Ye; Lee, Jin-Hee; Kim, Gon; Kim, Min-Chan
Fonte: The Korean Nutrition Society and The Korean Society of Community Nutrition Publicador: The Korean Nutrition Society and The Korean Society of Community Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
This study was conducted to develop the NutriSonic Web Expert System for Meal Management and Nutrition Counseling with Analysis of User's Nutritive Changes of selected days and food exchange information with easy data transition. This program manipulates a food, menu and meal and search database that has been developed. Also, the system provides a function to check the user's nutritive change of selected days. Users can select a recommended general and therapeutic menu using this system. NutriSonic can analyze nutrients and e-food exchange ("e" means the food exchange data base calculated by a computer program) in menus and meals. The expert can insert and store a meal database and generate the synthetic information of age, sex and therapeutic purpose of disease. With investigation and analysis of the user's needs, the meal planning program on the internet has been continuously developed. Users are able to follow up their nutritive changes with nutrient information and ratio of 3 major energy nutrients. Also, users can download another data format like Excel files (.xls) for analysis and verify their nutrient time-series analysis. The results of analysis are presented quickly and accurately. Therefore it can be used by not only usual people...

Analyse de différents facteurs conditionnant les échanges alimentaires dans une colonie d'abeilles Apis mellifica L. au moyen d'un radioisotope; A radioistope to analyse the various factors conditioning food exchanges in a colony of honeybees Apis mellifica L.

Pershad, Shobba B.
Fonte: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França Publicador: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França
Tipo: Thesis or Academic Theses
FR; FRANçAIS ; ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
TABLE DES MATIERES : Matériel et méthode. L'influence de l'âge sur les échanges de nourriture entre les ouvrières. L'influence de la durée et de la température sur les échange alimentaires. L'influence du nombre des abeilles présentes dans un groupe sur la répartition de la nourriture. Les échanges de nourriture entre des ouvrières appartenant à des colonies différentes. Transit intestinal et localisation du phosphore 32 dans le corps d'une abeille. Echanges de nourriture entre les ouvrières et les reines vierges et fécondes. Conclusions. /// CONTENTS: Material and method. Influence of age on food exchanges between workers. Influence of duration and temperature on food exchanges. Influence of the number of bees within a group on food dispaching. Food exchanges between workers belonging to different colonies. Intestinal transit and localisation of phosphore 32 in a bee body. Food exchanges between workers and virgin or fecund queens. Conclusions.; Thèse de Doctorat