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Enterotoxigenic and genetic profiles of Bacillus cereus strains of food origin in Brazil

ARAGON-ALEGRO, Lina Casale; PALCICH, Gabriela; LOPES, Graciela Volz; RIBEIRO, Vinicius Buccelli; LANDGRAF, Mariza; DESTRO, Maria Teresa
Fonte: INT ASSOC FOOD PROTECTION Publicador: INT ASSOC FOOD PROTECTION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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In Brazil. the incidence of Bacillus cereus outbreaks is unknown, and there is little information about B. cereus occurrence in food. In addition, data on toxin production and genetic characterization of the B. cereus isolates cannot be found. This pathogen causes two distinct types of toxin-mediated foodborne illnesses known as diarrheal and emetic syndromes. Diarrheal syndrome has been linked to three different enterotoxins: two protein complexes, hemolysin BL (HBL) and nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE); and an enterotoxic protein, cytotoxin K (cytK). Emetic syndrome is related to cereulide, a toxin encoded by the ces gene. In this study, NHE and HBL production capacities of 155 strains of B. cereus isolated from Brazilian food products were evaluated with an immunoassay. Strains were also tested for the presence of the genes of the HBL and NHE complexes, cytK, cytK-1, cytK-2, and ces, using PCR. HBL was detected in 105 (67.7%) strains and NHE in 154 (99.4%) strains. All the strains harbored at least one gene of the NHE complex, while 96.1% of them were positive for at least one of those of the HBL complex. Genes cytK1 and ces were not detected. All strains showed toxigenic capacity and could represent a risk for consumers if good practices are not followed. This is the first report on toxigenic and genetic profiles of B. cereus strains isolated in Brazil.

Immunoassays for pesticide analysis in environmental and food matrices

Toscano, I. A.; Nunes, G. S.; Barcelo, D.
Fonte: Faculty Food Technology Biotechnology Publicador: Faculty Food Technology Biotechnology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 245-255
ENG
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Immunochemical methods have increased considerably in the past years, and many examples of small and large scale studies have demonstrated the reliability of the immunotechniques for control and monitoring gf contaminant residues in different kinds of samples. Application of the immunoassay (IA) methods in pesticide residue control is an area with enormous potential for growth. The most extensively studied IA is the enzyme-linked absorbent assay (ELISA), but several other approaches, that include radioimmunoassay and immunoaffinity chromatography, have been also developed recently. In comparison with classical analytical methods, IA methods offer the possibility of highly sensitive, relatively vapid, and cost-effective measurements. This paper introduces the general IAs used until now, focusing on their use in pesticide analysis, and discussing briefly the effects of interferences from solvent residues or matrix components on the IA performance. Numerous immunochemical methods commonly used for pesticide determination in different samples such as food, crop and environmental samples are presented.

The effect of electric field on important food-processing enzymes : comparison of inactivation kinetics under conventional and ohmic heating

Castro, Inês; Macedo, B.; Teixeira, J. A.; Vicente, A. A.
Fonte: Institute of Food Technologists Publicador: Institute of Food Technologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 ENG
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This work deals with the determination of the inactivation kinetics of several enzymes, most of them used as time-temperature integrators in the food industry. The tested enzymes were polyphenoloxidase, lipoxygenase, pectinase, alkaline phosphatase, and β-galactosidase, and the inactivation assays were performed under conventional and ohmic heating conditions. The thermal history of the samples (conventional and ohmically processed) was made equal to determine if there was an additional inactivation caused by the presence of an electric field, thus eliminating temperature as a variable. All the enzymes followed 1st-order inactivation kinetics for both conventional and ohmic heating treatments. The presence of an electric field does not cause an enhanced inactivation to alkaline phosphatase, pectinase, and β-galactosidase. However, lipoxygenase and polyphenoloxidase kinetics were significantly affected by the electric field, reducing the time needed for inactivation. The results of the present work can be used industrially to determine processing effectiveness when ohmic heating technology is applied.

Agriculture and food in the globalization age

Moreira, Manuel Belo
Fonte: International Sociological Association - Research Committee on Sociology of Agriculture and Food Publicador: International Sociological Association - Research Committee on Sociology of Agriculture and Food
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 ENG
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The objective of this article is to reflect on three basic questions concerning globalization and its effects on agriculture and food: 1) what are the major characteristics of globalization; 2) who are its major actors and 3) what are the future trends? Globalization continues to be a disputed concept despite the immense literature dedicated to it. I will focus on features of the current globalization process that can be employed to better understand the direction and reach of changes, particularly in agriculture and food.1 It is not my goal to produce original contributions about the theoretical relevance and accuracy of globalization or about its scale and scope. I will use a theoretical framework based on a political economy perspective focusing on the global agents, their logic and dynamics. However, this must be tempered by calling attention to the agencies and contingencies involved in the process. In fact, political economy insights suggesting global lines of evolution are not contradictory but rather complementary to actor-oriented, actor-network theory and social constructivist approaches, which acknowledge the social agencies and the complex articulations of the different spaces involved in agro-food production and consumption (Llambí et al. 1999...

The role of divalent cations in the development of nephrocalcinosis induced by modified food starches

Buttolph, Maria Lynn
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: [1], 193 [i.e. 195] leaves; 10484524 bytes; 10484282 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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by Maria Lynn Buttolph.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Nutrition and Food Science, 1983.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND SCIENCE.; Bibliography: leaves 179-189.

As micotoxinas e a segurança alimentar na soja armazenada.; Micotoxins and food safety in soybeans storage.

OLIVEIRA, M. A. de; LORINI, I.; MALLMANN, C. A.
Fonte: Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, nov. 2010. Publicador: Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, nov. 2010.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
PT_BR
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Micotoxinas associadas aos grãos são uma das principais causas de não conformidade em relação a alimentos seguros e as impurezas e/ou matérias estranhas presentes podem estar associadas à sua maior incidência. Amostras de grãos de soja e respectivas impurezas foram avaliadas na recepção e na expedição de uma Unidade Armazenadora de grãos da região norte do Estado do Paraná na safra 2008/2009. As micotoxinas avaliadas no Laboratório de Análises Micotoxicológicas (LAMIC, em Santa Maria-RS) foram: aflatoxinas (B1, B2, G1, G2), deoxinivalenol, nivalenol, ocratoxina A e zearalenona. Os resultados mostraram baixa ocorrência de micotoxinas em grãos de soja quando armazenados de forma correta. A grande fonte de contaminação por aflatoxina e zearalenona são as impurezas e/ou matérias estranhas permitidas na legislação brasileira até o limite de 1%. A legislação deve ser alterada e deve ser adotado o limite zero de impurezas, na etapa de expedição, visando garantir a segurança alimentar na cadeia produtiva da soja. Mycotoxins are an important contaminant on grains mainly on the impurities which coming with from the field during harvesting. Samples of soybean grain and their impurities were taken at reception of storage unit...

A discussion paper on challenges and proposals for advanced treatments for potabilization of wastewater in the food industry.

LUIZ, D. B.; JOSÉ, H. J.; MOREIRA, R. F. P. M.
Fonte: In: VALDEZ, B. (Ed.). Scientific, health and social aspects of the food industry. Croatia: InTech, 2012. Publicador: In: VALDEZ, B. (Ed.). Scientific, health and social aspects of the food industry. Croatia: InTech, 2012.
Tipo: Capítulo em livro técnico-científico (ALICE)
EN
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There are many studies and reviews on advanced processes to treat secondary wastewater from industries which also address the challenges and limitations to water reuse and the hygienic concerns especially in food industries. However, the challenges associated with treating a secondary wastewater to provide drinking water quality become clear when real wastewater is treated in batch and in pilot scale. The limitations are several, particularly in food industries. Hence, this review aims to present an overview and a discussion regarding the challenges and proposals related to the advanced treatment of food industry wastewater to provide drinking water quality, elucidating some experimental and theoretical questions surrounding such processes. Valuable experimental advice which is not usually found in research papers will be provided, for instance, which oxidation treatment should be chosen, which initial experiments should be carried, and which methodology should be followed to evaluate the kinetics constants in different situations will be provided, along with methodology issues.; 2012

De-centering the text: Exploring the potential for visual methods in the sociology of food

Power, Elaine
Fonte: Journal for the Study of Food and Society Publicador: Journal for the Study of Food and Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1012518 bytes; application/pdf
EN
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In our culture, the image has become more powerful than the word, and perhaps more than ever, both social agents and social researchers “know more than we can say” in words. Yet sociological knowledge production and representation remain firmly rooted in text. In this paper, I argue that visual methods, such as film, photography and video, can expand knowledge production in the study of food and society, and represent that knowledge more richly and forcefully. In their capacities to evoke the sensual, non-rational, and material aspects of life, visual methods are well suited to the study of a subject such as food, which encompasses social processes from the embodied and tacit experiences of preparing and consuming food, to complex global configurations of power. I begin with the limitations of logo-centric sociology. Concentrating on photography, I move to a brief history of this method in sociology and discuss epistemological issues related to the contemporary post-foundationalist practice of visual sociology. Finally, I turn to a discussion of three main types of visual research activities: producing visual images; collaborating with research participants to produce visual images; and examining pre-existing images.

Seventeenth Annual Masters of Food and Wine Program 2003

Masters of Food & Wine
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Outros
EN
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A page from the program from the Seventeenth Annual Masters of Food and Wine ceremonies. Donald Ziraldo and Karl Kaiser are on the list of "Winemakers of 2003".

Are Low Food Prices Pro-Poor? Net Food Buyers and Sellers in Low-Income Countries

Aksoy, M. Ataman; Isik-Dikmelik, Aylin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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There is a general consensus that most of the poor in developing countries are net food buyers and food price increases are bad for the poor. This could be expected of urban poor, but it is also often attributed to the rural poor. Recent food price increases have increased the importance of this issue, and the possible policy responses to these price increases. This paper examines the characteristics of net food sellers and buyers in nine low-income countries. Although the largest share of poor households are found to be net food buyers, almost 50 percent of net food buyers are marginal net food buyers who would not be significantly affected by food price increases. Only three of the nine countries examined exhibited a substantial proportion of vulnerable households. The average incomes (as measured by expenditure) of net food buyers were found to be higher than net food sellers in eight of the nine countries examined. Thus, food price increases, ceteris paribus, would transfer income from generally higher income net food buyers to poorer net food sellers. The analysis also finds that the occupations and income sources of net sellers and buyers in rural areas are significantly different. In rural areas where food production is the main activity and where there are limited non-food activities...

Responding to Higher and More Volatile World Food Prices

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Following the world food price spike in 2008 and again in 2011, there has been increased attention on better understanding the drivers of food prices, their impacts on the poor, and policy response options. This paper provides a simple model that closely simulates actual historical food price behavior around which the analysis of the drivers of food price levels, volatility, and the associated response options is derived. Future food prices are likely to remain higher than pre-2007 levels and recent price uncertainty is likely to continue for the foreseeable future. Accelerated use of food crops for industrial purposes (biofuels) continues to offset the slowing population growth effect on food demand. World food stocks remain at relatively low levels where the likelihood of price spikes is higher. Production gains may be harder to achieve in the future than in the past, with more limited space for area expansion, declining yield growth, and increases in weather variability. Suggested responses to reduce average food price levels are to (i) raise food crop yields...

State of School Feeding Worldwide 2013

World Food Programme
Fonte: World Food Programme, Rome Publicador: World Food Programme, Rome
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In 2009, the World Bank (WB) and the World Food Programme (WFP), in collaboration with the Partnership for Child Development (PCD), published an analysis called Rethinking School Feeding. The analysis was undertaken to better understand the growing demand from countries for school feeding programmes that was sparked by the food, fuel, and financial crises of 2008. This report seeks to build on the 2009 analysis and begin a systematic process to better understand the strengths and challenges of school feeding programmes globally. It presents the current status of our understanding of school feeding. Information was drawn from a global survey conducted by WFP in early 2012 and a series of case studies and peer-reviewed technical working papers undertaken in collaboration with partners. The analysis led to the identification of new areas that require more focused attention. The report highlights these areas and outlines the current research agenda on which WFP and its partners are currently collaborating.

Enhancing Food Security in Afghanistan : Private Markets and Public Policy Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report analyzes some key aspects of food security, namely production, trade, markets and food aid at the national level, and consumption at the household level. In doing so it aspires to make a contribution to the on-going work in Afghanistan regarding the attainment of the poverty and hunger Millennium Development Goal. The major findings of the report can be summarized as follows: Food security (at the national level) does not necessarily require national self-sufficiency in wheat or other food staples, as long as the country has access to international markets. Rather, diversification into legal high-value crops and livestock products may be the most effective means of increasing food security, by generating foreign exchange and raising the incomes and purchasing power of the rural poor. In spite of very difficult conditions, wheat markets in Afghanistan have performed fairly well and private sector international trade has helped to stabilize supply and prices. Therefore, further developing the infrastructure and institutions to support wheat markets and facilitating private sector trade is called for and will enhance food security. At the household level...

Republic of Moldova Food Security Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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This report provides an analysis of food security in Moldova. It attempts to outline the specific characteristics of food insecurity found in Moldova and to identify its underlying causes. This report provides a basis on which sound public policy can be built. The understanding of food security as a concept has evolved in Moldova over time, but policy has remained focused on food availability as the primary attribute of food security. The report looks at how many people are food insecure in Moldova, where these people live, who they are, and why they face food security challenges. The report adopts the international food security concept and analytical framework based on the four key dimensions: (i) the availability of food; (ii) access to food; (iii) utilization of food; and (iv) the stability of these three dimensions over time. The report is divided into following parts. The part one outlines the methodology used and provides a brief overview of Moldovas agriculture sector. In part two the report focuses on overall food security outcomes by assessing how many people are food insecure in Moldova...

Use of Catastrophe Risk Models in Assessing Sovereign Food Security for Risk Transfer

Sharma, Mohan; Hohl, Roman
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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This paper discusses how catastrophe crop risk models can be used to assess food security needs at the sovereign level for the purpose of risk transfer. The rationale for a system to evaluate food security needs at the national level is discussed. The role of technology and remote sensing data availability as an enabler of catastrophe crop risk models is discussed followed by a description of the framework of catastrophe crop models for droughts, representing the peril for which catastrophe models have had the most success. The integration of the output of catastrophe crop models with a food security vulnerability assessment model is described next. Recent advances in analytical modeling of various types of shocks in assessing food security are described but the operational use of these analytical models in the development of food security assessment for risk transfer is seen to be limited for now because of the complexity of these analytical models. The food security vulnerability modeling in the African Risk Capacity...

Comparative Analysis of Certain Requirements of Food Legislation in the European Union and the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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This report presents a comparative analysis of the food legislation requirements of the European Union (EU) and the Customs Union. Its purpose is to guide food business operators and public authorities engaged in reforming national food safety systems in the peculiarities of EU and Customs Union legal requirements and help them evaluate their capabilities in meeting those requirements. This report supports the International Finance Corporation’s efforts to facilitate the opening of new markets for the producers in emerging markets. This report compares the most critical aspects of food legislation of the EU and the Customs Union, such as: requirements and arrangements of food control; requirements to food quality; requirements to food labeling; food and food-related articles and materials that require special authorization; and laboratory control and food safety criteria. Ensuring food safety and consumer protection increasingly occupy the agendas of governments, which are looking to expand their trade networks. Likewise...

Food and agricultural outlook

Food and Agricultural Outlook Conference; United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; United States -- Dept. of Agriculture; Food and Agricultural Outlook Conference, 1978; Food and Agricultural Outlook Conf
Fonte: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Publicado em // ENGLISH
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(Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references.; (Dates or Sequential Designation) 1978-1979.; "Prepared for the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry."; "Papers presented at the Food and Agricultural Outlook Conference sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture."; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from LexisNexis Academic & Library Solutions.; CIS Microfiche Accession Numbers: CIS 77 S162-14, CIS 78 S162-17; "Papers presented at the Food and Agricultural Outlook Conference sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, held in Washington, D.C., November 13-16, 1978."; "Printed for the use of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry."; Prepared for: Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate.; At head of title: Committee print.; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from Congressional Information Service, Inc.; CIS Microfiche Accession Numbers: CIS 77 S162-14 (Y4.Ag8/3:F73/4/978), CIS 78 S162-17 (Y4.Ag8/3:F73/4/979)

External Scientific Report - Updated food composition database for nutrient intake

Roe, M.A.; Pakkala, H.; Finglas, P.M.; Oliveira, Luisa; Dias, M. Graça; On behalf of the project consortium
Fonte: European Food Safety Authority Publicador: European Food Safety Authority
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em 21/06/2013 ENG
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This report is the final report of the EFSA contract CFT/EFSA/DCM/2011/03. The aim of the project was to provide EFSA with an updated food composition database covering approximately 1750 foods in combination with additional FoodEx2 facet descriptors included in the EFSA FoodEx2 classification system, and to expand the dataset to include harmonised information on the most common composite recipes of European countries and harmonised information on food supplements. Proposals for models of nutrient composition, composite dishes and food supplement databases were developed as well as guidelines for mapping food data in national datasets to EFSA FoodEx2 codes and facet descriptors. A model for data transfer, compatible with the EuroFIR technical annex and CEN Food Data Standard, and the EFSA data structure was developed and tested. Fourteen national food database compiler organisations supplied initial food lists mapped to the EFSA food list. Information on commonly consumed composite dishes was provided by compilers from thirteen countries and information on food supplements was provided by compilers from eight countries. Datasets compatible with EFSA‟s data structure were produced based on the models. In addition, guidelines developed and limitations of the data produced are discussed.; EFSA

Niger : Food Security and Safety Nets

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Niger is a very poor country that faces serious problems of poverty and household food insecurity. With a per capita gross national income (GNI) of US$240 and an estimated 62 percent of the population living below the poverty line, Niger is one of the lowest-ranked countries on the United Nations' human development index. Reducing vulnerability and ensuring food and nutrition security is an overarching priority for the Government. Maintaining food security at the national and household level is an important priority for developing countries in general, both for the welfare of the poor and for political stability. In order to ensure food security, governments have adopted various strategies, including efforts to increase staple food crop production, market interventions, and a variety of safety net programs, especially during emergencies. In Niger, where profound vulnerabilities combined with a high level of population growth have resulted in endemic food insecurity, the Government is faced with a serious challenge. In this context...

Private food Law: Governing food chains through contract law, self-regulation, private standards, audits and certification Schemes

Van Der Meulen, Bernd
Fonte: The Netherlands : Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2011. Publicador: The Netherlands : Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2011.
Tipo: Livro Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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435 p. ; Tabl as, Gráficos,; Libro Electrónico; Over the last decade, worldwide initiatives from the private sector have turned the legal and regulatory environment for food businesses upside down. Litigation is no longer solely framed by legislative requirements, but ever more by private standards such as GlobalGAP, BRC, IFS, SQF and ISO. Private standards incorporate public law requirements, thus embedding them in contractual relations and exporting them beyond the jurisdiction of public legislators. Private standards are used to remedy shortcomings in legislation, to reach higher levels of consumer protection than the ones chosen by the EU legislature, to impose new obligations on contracting parties, to manage risks and liability beyond the traditional limits of food businesses and inally to give substance to corporate social responsibility. Private standards also play a role in deining speciic markets of growing importance and in self-regulating the commercial communication/advertising for foods and beverages. Organic standards have found an interesting symbioses with public law. Halal standards express the demands of some two billion consumers worldwide. Food businesses are inspected more often by private auditors than by public inspectors. Effects in terms of receiving or being denied certiication often far outweigh public law sanctions. In short...