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Gestão de projetos em empresas de base tecnológica da área de software: análise do nível de maturidade e aplicabilidade de escritórios de projetos; Project management in technology based firms of software development: project maturity analysis and project office applicability

Jucá Junior, Antonio da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/09/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
Dentro da literatura sobre gestão de projetos, trabalhos que estudam o uso do escritório de projetos dedicam-se, quase que exclusivamente, a citar modelos e exemplos bem sucedidos nas grandes empresas, em especial àquelas com estruturas projetizadas como bens de capital e engenharia. Há uma tendência de estas empresas exigirem práticas semelhantes de seus fornecedores. Esta exigência se intensifica nas pequenas empresas de base tecnológica, pois comumente realizam projetos complexos, com risco considerável para os seus clientes. A implantação de escritório de projetos é um mecanismo fundamental para apoiar a utilização das técnicas e metodologias nessa área, porém, exige um investimento significativo em infra-estrutura e profissionais qualificados. Este trabalho analisa o nível de maturidade em gestão de projetos de uma amostra de empresas de base tecnológica desenvolvedoras de software e avalia o potencial de adoção do escritório de projetos. O grau de maturidade foi avaliado segundo um modelo adaptado do OPM3. Foi realizada ainda a identificação e sistematização dos serviços que podem ser oferecidos por um escritório de projetos, segundo a literatura especializada. Ao final, o trabalho faz uma análise dos possíveis serviços que poderiam ser disponibilizados por um escritório de projetos para uso das empresas estudadas.; Inside project management literature most of available researches about project offices mainly discuss reference models and examples of best practices in big companies...

Uso de indicadores de desempenho nas empresas construtoras brasileiras: diagnóstico e orientações para utilização; Use of performance indicators in Brazilian construction firms: diagnoses and orientations for utilization

Barbosa, Ava Santana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/04/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
A busca pelo aumento do desempenho tem levado as empresas, em geral, a buscar ferramentas de gestão para esse fim. Nas empresas construtoras não tem sido diferente. Nesse tipo de empresa, a primeira iniciativa foi a gestão da qualidade, porém atualmente observa-se a utilização de outras, a exemplo dos sistemas de medição de desempenho. Nesse contexto, a questão que guiou esse trabalho foi identificar se existe uma prática de medição de desempenho em empresas construtoras e se essa prática contribui para a gestão de desempenho. A partir daí, o objetivo deste trabalho é identificar qual o panorama da utilização dos sistemas de medição de desempenho pelas empresas construtoras brasileiras, além de buscar verificar como é essa prática, qual o seu alinhamento com a teoria e que contribuição pode ser dada a partir da comparação entre a teoria e a prática. Essas informações foram coletadas através de um survey e de um levantamento detalhado em empresas construtoras que possuíam um sistemade gestão da qualidade implantado e, com essas pesquisas de campo, foi possível identificar as características desse uso, os pontos fortes e as dificuldades encontradas pelas empresas. A partir da análise comparativa da prática das empresas e a teoria sobre medição de desempenho...

Valuation and performance of firms in complex ownership structures : an application to Korean chaebols

Almeida, Heitor
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
We propose several new metrics to describe the complex ownership structure of business groups, and provide simple formulas and algorithms to compute these metrics. We use these measures to describe in detail the ownership structure of Korean chaebols in the period of 2003 to 2004. In addition, we validate the usefulness of our new metrics by showing empirically that they are important for understanding the valuation and performance of group firms. In particular, we show evidence that firms that are central to the control structure of the chaebol (central firms), firms in cross-shareholdings, and firms that are placed at the bottom of the group (i.e., with lower ultimate ownership) have lower profitability than other group firms. The valuation results suggest that central firms and firms in cross-shareholding loops have lower valuations than other public Chaebol firms. The lower valuation of these firms is not explained by variation in measures of ownership concentration and separation between ownership and control.

Determinants of sucess and failure in internationalisation of the cork business : a tale of two iberian family firms

Branco, Amélia; Parejo, Francisco; Lopes, João Carlos; Rangel, José Francisco
Fonte: ISEG - GHES Publicador: ISEG - GHES
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
The trajectories of internationalisation followed by family firms can be viewed from several theoretical approaches: phases and models of the internationalisation process; international entrepreneurship, the sociological perspective and family business theory. A historical perspective of internationalised family firms, allowing for the integration of the abovementioned approaches, is useful to obtain a deep understanding of the internationalisation process of different sectors and of different countries. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the facilitating and restricting factors during the internationalisation path of family firms, whilst considering the influence in their competitive advantages, of ownership structure, management attitudes and other intangible assets, as well as external factors to the firms, like location. The research involved a long run analysis (of more than one century) of two firms which operate in the cork business in Spain and Portugal: Mundet & C.ª, Lda and Corticeira Amorim. One of these companies - Mundet - was closed down in the 1980s and the other – Corticeira Amorim – became, and still is, the leading firm worldwide in the cork industry. A detailed comparison of these two histories - one of failure...

Internationalization strategies and methods of construction firms – a comparative study between Hong Kong - Chinese and Portuguese – European approaches

Gabriel, Delfino Azinheira
Fonte: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Publicador: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
Dissertação para obtenção do Grau Mestre em Engenharia Civil – Perfil de Construção; The topic about internationalization in construction industry is often discussed and debated. In a context of internationalization success, it is significant to evaluate the process of the international experience by exploring the underlying reasons and factors. This master thesis is a descriptive and qualitative study about the internationalization strategies and methods of construction firms. Based on the value and contribution to the research regarding the topic, it sets out to explore the similarities and differences of the internationalization decision-making behavior between by eastern and western construction firms. To fulfill the objective stated above, in-depth, individual, face-to-face, research interviews were conducted involving six top-level management executives of Hong Kong construction firms in Macau, towards gathering all the relevant information regarding their perception of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, risks and entry strategies related to international expansion. Based on the analysis for the information collected, a comparison with the western behavior was conducted regarding the mentioned factors...

How Business Is Done and the ‘Doing Business’ Indicators : The Investment Climate When Firms Have Climate Control

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Pritchett, Lant
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
This paper examines de jure and de facto measures of regulations, finding the relationship between them is neither one for one, nor linear. "Doing Business" provides indicators of the formal time and costs associated with fully complying with regulations. Enterprise Surveys report the actual experiences of a wide range of firms. First, there are significant variations in reported times to complete the same transaction by firms facing the same formal policy. Second, regulatory compliance appears "under water" as firms report actual times much less than the Doing Business reported days. Third, the data reveal substantial differences between favored and disfavored firms in the same location. Favored firms show minimal variation, so Doing Business has little predictive power for the times they report. For disfavored firms, the variation is greater, although still not significantly correlated with Doing Business. Fourth, where multiple Enterprise Surveys are available, there is little association over time...

Small vs. Young Firms across the World : Contribution to Employment, Job Creation, and Growth

Ayyagari, Meghana; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Maksimovic, Vojislav
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
This paper describes a unique cross-country database that presents consistent and comparable information on the contribution of the small and medium enterprises sector to total employment, job creation, and growth in 99 countries. The authors compare and contrast the importance of small and medium enterprises to that of young firms across different economies. They find that small firms (in particular, firms with less than 100 employees) and mature firms (in particular, firms older than 10 years) have the largest shares of total employment and job creation. Small firms and young firms have higher job creation rates than large and mature firms. However, large firms and young firms have higher productivity growth. This suggests that while small firms employ a large share of workers and create most jobs in developing economies their contribution to productivity growth is not as high as that of large firms.

Mind the Gap? A Rural-Urban Comparison of Manufacturing Firms

Rijkers, Bob; Soderbom, Mans; Loening, Josef
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
This paper compares and contrasts the performance of rural and urban manufacturing firms in Ethiopia to assess the impact of market integration and the investment climate on firm performance. Rural firms are shown to operate in isolated markets, have poor access to infrastructure and a substantial degree of market power, whereas urban firms operate in better integrated and more competitive markets, where they have much better access to inputs. Fragmentation may also help explain why urban firms are much larger, much more capital intensive and why they produce much more output per worker. Capital intensity and labor productivity are strongly correlated with firm size. Manufacturing technology choice does not vary strongly across space and increasing returns to scale are modest at best, suggesting that rural-urban differences in output per worker are predominantly driven by differences in capital intensity and Total Factor Productivity (TFP). The average TFP of firms in rural towns is much higher than that of rural firms in remote areas...

Weathering the Storm : Responses by Cambodian Firms to the Global Financial Crisis

Guimbert, Stephane; Oostendorp, Remco
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
Firms have various ways to cope with external risks. This paper analyzes the risk coping behavior that entails the smoothing of inputs (labor, raw materials, or capital). The theoretical framework shows that, if they face adjustment costs, firms prefer to smooth their inputs, especially if they expect a demand shock to be temporary. However, credit constrained firms will be adversely affected by the presence of liquidity constraints, and this will create a welfare loss due to incomplete smoothing. The authors estimate this behavior using a panel of Cambodian firms at the time of the 2008 global economic crisis. The survey shows that these firms were hard hit by the economic crisis between 2008 and 2009, with an average fall in demand (sales) of 30 percent. Based on the theoretical framework, the analysis can estimate the responsiveness of labor, capital, and raw materials input demand to demand shocks. It finds that firms try to smooth in particular if they believe the shock is temporary; in fact non-credit constrained firms reduce their inputs much less than firms that were credit constrained when the demand shock is expected to be temporary. The paper estimates that the welfare loss from incomplete smoothing due to credit constraints is many multiples of the adjustment costs of the firms that were not credit constrained. This has important policy implications about the role of financial sector development and regulations beyond the capital market. This micro analysis also has macro implications: if all firms expect a shock to be permanent...

The Financing and Growth of Firms in China and India : Evidence from Capital Markets

Didier, Tatiana; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
This paper studies the extent to which firms in China and India use capital markets to obtain financing and grow. Using a unique data set on domestic and international capital raising activity and firm performance, it finds that the expansion of financial market activity since the 1990s has been more limited than what the aggregate figures suggest. Relatively few firms raise capital. Even fewer firms capture the bulk of the financing. Moreover, firms that issue equity or bonds are different and behave differently from other publicly listed firms. Among other things, they are typically larger and grow faster. The differences between users and non-users exist before the capital raising activity, are associated with the probability of raising capital, and become more accentuated afterward. The distribution of issuing firms shifts more over time than the distribution of those that do not issue, suggesting little convergence in firm size among listed firms.

Informal Firms and Financial Inclusion : Status and Determinants

Farazi, Subika
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
Many firms in the developing world -- including a majority of micro, small, and medium enterprises -- operate in the informal economy. The informal firms face a variety of constraints, making it harder for them to do business and grow. Lack of access to finance is often cited as the biggest operational constraint these firms face. This paper documents the use of finance and financing patterns of informal firms, highlights differences between use of finance by formal and informal firms, and identifies the most significant characteristics of informal firms that are associated with higher use of financial services. The analysis shows that use of loans and bank accounts for business by informal firms is very low and a vast majority finances their day-to-day operations and investments through sources other than financial institutions (internal funds, moneylenders, family, and friends). A majority of informal firm owners would like their firms to become formal but do not do so as it would require them to pay taxes. Registered firms are 54 percent more likely to have a bank account and 32 percent more likely to have loans. Results also show that firm size...

Antecedents of service climate: local vs. foreign service firms in an emerging market context.

Hoang, Hung Trong
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.94%
Service climate has attracted attention from both academics and practitioners in recent years. However, there exist two major research gaps in this literature domain. First, service climate research to date has predominantly focused on its outcomes, with few studies investigating its antecedents. These few studies have primarily relied on a resource-based approach and have focused on certain organisational resources and practices that can enhance service climate. Second, there is limited knowledge of how service firms foster a service climate in emerging markets where much of the economic growth is currently occurring. Therefore, this study seeks to gain a more comprehensive understanding of (1) the antecedents of service climate and (2) the extent to which service firms, both local and foreign-owned, create a favourable service climate in an emerging market. The broad research problem investigated in this study is: How do service firms, local and foreign-owned, create a favourable service climate in an emerging market context? To examine the broad research problem, this study draws upon the resource-based view, social exchange theory and the eclectic paradigm to address the following two research questions: Research question 1: What are the antecedents of service climate in an emerging market context? How do the antecedents interact and influence service climate? Research question 2: How do service climate and its antecedents differ between local and foreign service firms in an emerging market context? How do the antecedents influence service climate differently across the ownership types? To address these research questions...

Accounting conservatism and corporate reporting in a high information asymmetry environment: analysis of initial stock offering firms.

Kim, Su Jin
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
This thesis investigates whether Initial Public Offering (IPO) firms adopt a high degree of conservatism in response to investors’ demand for high quality earnings and subsequently experience increased capital market benefits. The accounting literature suggests that the enforcement of timely loss recognition under a conservative reporting policy can mitigate managerial opportunistic behavior reducing information asymmetries between managers and outside investors (e.g., Watts 2002; LaFond & Watts 2008). This thesis hypothesizes that such benefits of accounting conservatism should be more pronounced for IPO firms because there is inherently high information asymmetry in the IPO market. In particular, financial reports are one of the primary information sources available for investors that provide information regarding a firm’s past and expected future performance. As a result, the IPO environment provides an important research setting to investigate the capital market consequences of accounting conservatism. Based on a large sample of U.S. IPO firms over the period from 1990 to 2010, this thesis investigates whether the extent to which accounting conservatism adopted by IPO firms can predict: (i) the well-documented IPO market anomalies...

Matching Firms, Managers and Incentives

BANDIERA, Oriana; GUISO, Luigi; PRAT, Andrea; SADUN, Raffaella
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
We provide evidence on the match between firms, managers and incentives using a new survey designed for this purpose. The survey contains information on a sample of executives’ risk preferences and human capital, on the explicit and implicit incentives they face and on the firms they work for. We model a market for managerial talent where both firms and managers are heterogeneous. Following the sources of heterogeneity observed in the data, we assume that firms differ by ownership structure and that family firms, though caring about profits, put relatively more weight on benefits of direct control than non-family firms. Managers differ in their degree of risk aversion and talent. The entry of firms and managers, the choice of managerial compensation schemes and the manager firm matching are all endogenous. The model yields predictions on several equilibrium correlations that find support in our data: (i) Family firms use managerial contracts that are less sensitive to performance, both explicitly through bonus pay and implicitly through career development; (ii) More talented and risk-tolerant managers are matched with firms that offer steeper contracts. (iii) Managers who face steeper contracts work harder, earn more and display higher job satisfaction. Alternative explanations may account for some of these correlations but not for all of them jointly.

Patrones de innovación en las empresas hosteleras: el caso español; Patterns of innovation in hospitality firms: the spanish case

López Fernández, Concepción; Serrano Bedia, Ana María; Gómez López, Raquel
Fonte: Universidad del País Vasco Publicador: Universidad del País Vasco
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
El objetivo de este trabajo es contribuir a la mejora del conocimiento existente sobre los patrones de innovación en las empresas hosteleras. Para ello, se ha utilizado una muestra representativa de 443 empresas hosteleras españolas pertenecientes al CNAE-55, que forman parte de la Tercera Encuesta de Innovación Tecnológica elaborada por la Comisión Europea (CIS-3) la cual se basa en una versión revisada del Manual de Oslo. Para la consecución del objetivo planteado se ha llevado a cabo, en primer lugar, un análisis descriptivo que muestra evidencia empírica de varios aspectos relacionados con las actividades de innovación de las empresas hosteleras. En segundo lugar, se ha realizado un análisis multivariante, en particular un análisis factorial y un análisis cluster, que nos ha permitido identificar 5 patrones de innovación existentes entre las empresas hosteleras españolas: “empresas altamente innovadoras en proceso”, “empresas altamente innovadoras en producto”, “empresas tradicionales orientadas al proceso”, “empresas innovadoras con escasa cooperación” y “empresas innovadoras con una fuerte cooperación”.; The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of innovation patterns in hospitality firms. To this end...

What Matters to African Firms? The Relevance of Perceptions Data

Gelb, Alan; Ramachandran, Vijaya; Shah, Manju Kedia; Turner, Ginger
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
Can perceptions data help us understand investment climate constraints facing the private sector? Or do firms simply complain about everything? In this paper, the authors provide a picture of how firms' views on constraints differ across countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using the World Bank's Enterprise Surveys database, they find that reported constraints reflect country characteristics and vary systematically by level of income-the most elemental constraints to doing business (power, access to finance, ability to plan ahead) appear to be most binding at low levels of income. As countries develop and these elemental constraints are relaxed, governance-related constraints become more problematic. As countries move further up the income scale and the state becomes more capable, labor regulation is perceived to be more of a problem-business is just one among several important constituencies. The authors also consider whether firm-level characteristics-such as size, ownership, exporter status, and firms' own experience-affect firms' views on the severity of constraints. They find that...

Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Africa : An Empirical Analysis

Dinh, Hinh T.; Clarke, George R.G.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
This book sheds light on the characteristics of formal and informal manufacturing firms in Africa by comparing these firms with firms in other regions. Drawing on two data sources, the authors find that there is a very low share of manufacturing in GDP in Africa and in African exports. Most African manufacturing firms are informal. These firms are also smaller than firms in other regions and few export. Labor productivity is low in Africa relative to other regions, but this may be because of the more challenging environment - with the lack of physical infrastructure, the heavy burden of business regulation, and other issues. However, after accounting for these differences, the authors find that firms in Sub-Saharan Africa appear more, not less, productive than firms elsewhere. This analysis suggests that improving the business environment might allow firms to enhance their performance. However, given the pervasive distortions in the business environment and the limited resources at the disposal of most African countries, Africa cannot and should not wait until the business environment becomes healthier before growing a more viable manufacturing sector. The book shows that binding constraints vary by country, by sector, and by firm size. Therefore...

Increasing Formality and Productivity of Bolivian Firms

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
Bolivia's informal sector is the largest in Latin America, by many definitions and measures. Bolivia's high informality rate has been blamed on many factors including the burden of regulation, the weakness of public institutions, and the lack of perceived benefits to being formal. The high level of informality has a number of negative implications related to for low productivity, low growth, and low quality of jobs. This study presents fresh qualitative and quantitative analyses to better understand the reasons why firms are informal and the impact of formalization on their profitability, in order to inform policy actions appropriate to the reality of Bolivia. The crucial finding of the analysis is that the impact of tax registration on profitability depends on firm size and the ability to issue tax receipts. The smallest and the largest firms in the sample have lower profits as a result of tax registration because their cost of formalizing exceeds benefits. Firms in the middle range (two to five employees) benefit from tax registration in large part due to increasing the customer base by issuing tax receipts. The study presents a set of prioritized policy implications for policy makers. In the short term...

The Demand for, and Consequences of, Formalization among Informal Firms in Sri Lanka

de Mel, Suresh; McKenzie, David; Woodruff, Christopher
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%
The majority of firms in most developing countries are informal. The authors of this paper conducted a field experiment in Sri Lanka that provided incentives for informal firms to formalize. Offering only information about the registration process and reimbursement for direct registration costs had no impact on formalization. Adding payments equivalent to one-half to one month's profits for the median firm led to registration of around one-fifth of firms. A larger payment equivalent to two months' median profits induced half the firms to register. The main reasons for not formalizing when offered incentives included issues related to ownership of land and concerns about facing labor taxes in the future. The degree of bureaucracy in the registration process also seems to matter for those with the incentive to register, with response to the incentives higher in Colombo, where the registration process was easier, than in Kandy. Three follow-up surveys, at 15 to 31 months after the intervention, measure the impact of formalizing on these firms. Although mean profits increased...

Stunted Growth : Why Don't African Firms Create More Jobs?

Iacovone, Leonardo; Ramachandran, Vijaya; Schmidt, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
Many countries in Africa suffer high rates of underemployment or low rates of productive employment; many also anticipate large numbers of people to enter the workforce in the near future. This paper asks the question: Are African firms creating fewer jobs than those located elsewhere? And, if so, why? One reason may be that weak business environments slow the growth of firms and distort the allocation of resources away from better-performing firms, hence reducing their potential for job creation. The paper uses data from 41,000 firms across 119 countries to examine the drivers of firm growth, with a special focus on African firms. African firms, at any age, tend to be 20-24 percent smaller than firms in other regions of the world. The poor business environment, driven by limited access to finance, and the lack of availability of electricity, land, and unskilled labor have some value in explaining this difference. Foreign ownership, the export status of the firm, and the size of the market are also significant determinants of firm size. However...