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O bolso e a urna: financiamento político em perspectiva comparada; The pocket and the urn: political financing in comparative perspective

Bourdoukan, Adla Youssef
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/07/2009 PT
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Dentro do tema mais amplo do financiamento político, os objetivos desta tese são explicar o surgimento, a disseminação e os efeitos do financiamento público de partidos e campanhas eleitorais. Um dos principais achados desta tese é a constatação de que o modelo de financiamento político varia em função do sistema eleitoral. Em países com sistemas majoritários há uma tendência à adoção de financiamento exclusivamente privado; por outro lado, é possível dizer que o financiamento público é uma característica dos países com sistemas proporcionais, tamanha a sua predominância nesses países no início do século XXI. Além disso, o tipo de financiamento público também varia de acordo com o sistema eleitoral: em sistemas proporcionais é mais presente um tipo de financiamento público que utiliza critérios alocativos baseados no tempo passado, que tende a propiciar uma perpetuação do status quo ante partidário. Em sistemas majoritários, ao contrário, quando existe financiamento público, geralmente são utilizados critérios alocativos baseados no tempo presente, cujo efeito sobre a competição eleitoral é menos pronunciado. Esses achados sustentam a hipótese de que o financiamento público é adotado em sistemas proporcionais como instrumento de restrição do mercado eleitoral em benefício dos partidos mais estabelecidos.; Within the ample theme of political finance...

Making Health Financing Work for Poor People in Tanzania

Haazen, Dominic
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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This policy note is designed to support the development of the health financing strategy in Tanzania. It is directed at decision makers in the areas of health and social policy as well as the Ministry of Finance, which will play a crucial role in integrating the financial implications of this note into the overall fiscal situation in Tanzania. It is also hoped that this note will stimulate debate among interested stakeholders on the best funding modalities for health and the most appropriate ways to integrate those modalities. On the basis of the data and options described in this policy note, the World Bank will work with authorities and other interested stakeholders to develop a financing program to support the needed reforms in these sectors. This policy note provides background information, cross-country examples, and policy options, which can all be incorporated into the development of a comprehensive health financing strategy. It also provides a framework for looking at the various elements of the health financing system...

Financing Health Care in East Asia and the Pacific : Best Practices and Remaining Challenges

Langenbrunner, John C.; Somanathan, Aparnaa
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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This is an exciting time in East Asia and the Pacific region. No region will appear to be moving so rapidly. In this dynamic environment, many countries in the region have been approaching the World Bank requesting technical assistance and knowledge about health financing best practices and options. There is great interest in expanding knowledge sharing and learning from other East Asian and Pacific countries about their experiences in health financing. Moreover, some common issues appear to be emerging: universal insurance, options for financing health insurance, institutional setups of health financing options, provider payment mechanisms, equity considerations, ways to reach the poor and impoverished, and ways to meet the challenges of a changing demographics and epidemiologic profile. Under a generous grant from the Health, Nutrition, and population hub in the World Bank in fiscal year 2008, the region was requested to provide an overview of health financing systems in the region. This overview examined the different health financing mechanisms in terms of performance on dimensions of efficiency and equity and in terms of relative roles of government. In addition...

The Impact of the Business Environment on Young Firm Financing

Chavis, Larry W.; Klapper, Leora F.; Love, Inessa
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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This paper uses a dataset of more than 70,000 firms in over 100 countries to systematically study the use of different financing sources for new and young firms, in comparison to mature firms. The authors find that in all countries younger firms rely less on bank financing and more on informal financing. However, they also find that younger firms use more bank finance in countries with stronger rule of law and better credit information, and that the reliance of young firms on informal finance decreases with the availability of credit information. Overall, the results suggest that improvements to the legal environment and availability of credit information are disproportionately beneficial for promoting access to formal finance by young firms.

Strategy and Business Plan for the Pakistan Infrastructure Project Financing Facility : Infrastructure Financing Market Update

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The report presented a detailed assessment of the infrastructure Public Private Partnership (PPP) financing market in Pakistan, including key financing gaps as existent in 2007. This note builds on the report by presenting an update of the state of the Pakistan infrastructure financing market as on date, and in particular, by analyzing the implications of the global financial crisis and the changes in the macroeconomic environment in Pakistan. This note is structured as follows: section two provides background information on the Pakistan economy; section three summarizes the key effects of international financial shocks and domestic political issues on the Pakistan economy; section four summarizes the progress on the infrastructure enabling environment; section five provides a summary update of the demand for infrastructure finance; section six presents recent developments in the supply of infrastructure finance; and section seven sets out the key conclusions.

Solomon Islands : Health Financing Options

Somanathan, Aparnaa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The objective of this Policy Note is to provide an assessment of available options for financing health care in the Solomon Islands. In doing so, the analysis will factor in the country-specific economic, social and political factors, which will ultimately influence the performance of the health financing mechanisms. The Note was motivated by the Solomon Islands Government s (SIG) interest in knowing whether financing options other than general revenue financing would be feasible and sustainable in the context of the Solomon Islands. In particular, SIG wished to consider whether Social Health Insurance presents a better alternative to General Revenue financing. The Note therefore seeks to provide the evidence and information needed to guide the Solomon Islands Government (SIG) in making decisions about different health financing options.

The Financing and Growth of Firms in China and India : Evidence from Capital Markets

Didier, Tatiana; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper studies the extent to which firms in China and India use capital markets to obtain financing and grow. Using a unique data set on domestic and international capital raising activity and firm performance, it finds that the expansion of financial market activity since the 1990s has been more limited than what the aggregate figures suggest. Relatively few firms raise capital. Even fewer firms capture the bulk of the financing. Moreover, firms that issue equity or bonds are different and behave differently from other publicly listed firms. Among other things, they are typically larger and grow faster. The differences between users and non-users exist before the capital raising activity, are associated with the probability of raising capital, and become more accentuated afterward. The distribution of issuing firms shifts more over time than the distribution of those that do not issue, suggesting little convergence in firm size among listed firms.

Community Involvement in Health Care Financing : A Survey of the Literature on the Impact, Strengths, and Weaknesses

Jakab, Melitta; Krishnan, Chitra
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The paper reviews 45 published and unpublished reports on community financing completed between 1990 and 2001. The main objective of the study was to explore performance measures reported in the literature regarding community financing. The study concluded that the reviewed literature is rich in describing scheme design and implementation. At the same time, evidence on the performance of community financing schemes is limited. The study focused on reporting measures on three indicators in particular: Resource mobilization capacity. Community financing mechanisms mobilize significant resources for health care. However, there is a large variation in the resource mobilization capacity of various schemes. This review did not find systematic estimates about how much community financing contributes to health revenues at the local and/or national level. Social inclusion. Community financing is effective in reaching a large number of low-income populations who would otherwise have no financial protection against the cost of illness. There is large variation in the size of various schemes. At the same time...

Health Financing for Poor People : Resource Mobilization and Risk Sharing

Preker, Alexander S.; Carrin, Guy
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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Most community financing schemes have evolved in the context of severe economic constraints, political instability, and lack of good governance. Usually government taxation capacity is weak, formal mechanisms of social protection for vulnerable populations absent, and government oversight of the informal health sector lacking. In this context of extreme public sector failure, community involvement in the financing of health care provides a critical albeit insufficient first step in the long march towards improved access to health care by the poor and social protection against the cost of illness. Health Financing for Poor People stresses that community financing schemes are no panacea for the problems that low-income countries face in resource mobilization. They should be regarded as a complement to - not as a substitute for - strong government involvement in health care financing and risk management related to the cost of illness. Based on an extensive survey of the literature, the main strengths of community financing schemes are the extent of outreach penetration achieved through community participation...

Unlocking Commercial Financing for Clean Energy in East Asia

Wang, Xiaodong; Stern, Richard; Limaye, Dilip; Mostert, Wolfgang; Zhang, Yabei
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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Overwhelming evidence indicates that climate change, caused in large part by human activities, is already adversely impacting all people, with the very real prospect of worse to come. Nevertheless, a global treaty to curb carbon emissions remains elusive. In East Asia, all middle-income countries have set national targets for energy efficiency and renewable energy, and some even have targets for carbon reduction. This report focuses on recent experiences in applying public financing instruments and tries to draw the lessons to date: when and how to use the instruments, which instrument to select, and how to design and implement them. The wide range of financial instruments designed to support and catalyze clean energy investment over the last decade is truly remarkable. Such instruments include credit lines and risk guarantees designed to increase both the capacity and confidence of commercial banks for clean energy lending; dedicated funds and concessional financing mechanisms to kick-start new technologies; mezzanine and equity financing targeted at start-ups; small and medium enterprises and energy service companies; and various consumer financing instruments designed to lower the upfront costs of clean energy equipment. This report systematically reviews the successes and failures of innovative interventions and distills the lessons of applying them. This report is organized in following four parts: part one gives overview; part two focuses on financing energy efficiency; part three focuses on financing renewable energy; and part four focuses on clean energy financing case studies.

Financing for Development Post-2015

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper is a contribution to United Nation (UN)-led efforts to articulate a post-2015 development framework, building on the Millennium Declaration and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It focuses on the challenge of financing development goals and complements the extensive work conducted by the United Nations1 and other institutions, including the World Bank Group. The paper is structured as follows. Section one outlines elements of what it will take to achieve development outcomes, the importance of a global development cooperation framework, the role of targeted, evidence-based policies and sound institutions; and the mobilization of resources for global public goods. Section two focuses on how best to support developing countries in mobilizing domestic resources for development, by boosting taxation capacity, harnessing natural resource revenue, improving expenditure efficiency, and curbing illicit financial flows. Section three examines issues of aid effectiveness and considers ways for development actors to provide better and smarter aid. Section four discusses trends in private financial flows to developing countries and the growing mismatch between available financing and investment needs. It then turns to strategies for mobilizing financing for long-term infrastructure. Finally...

Assessment of Health Financing Options : Papua New Guinea

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Papua New Guinea s (PNG) health system is characterized by low health inputs per capita, low health service contact rates and significant inequities in health care use. Health spending relative to GNI per capital and as a revenue share of GDP is low. Government spending as a share of total health expenditure is, however, high and the financing system is dependent on a number of complex interactions between a number of agencies, both at the national and subnational level. Anecdotal evidence suggests that out-of-pocket (OOP) spending is minimal. The current system of health financing has not delivered improved health outcomes; in fact health outcomes in PNG have been stagnant in recent decades. PNG is not on track to meet any of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Significant investment in the heath sector is needed to address the decline, meet current demographic trends and address inefficiencies and inequities. These additional resource requirements will have to be met while maintaining the high levels of financial risk protection and relatively equitable access to health care. The additional resource requirements will have to be financed in a sustainable manner. This report examines three broad health financing options in PNG: (i) increasing the level of general revenue spending; (ii) introducing contributory...

World Bank Group Support to Health Financing

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The way countries finance health care influences how well a health system performs and achieves its expected outcomes, including how equitable and efficient it is. Countries decide how to mobilize revenues from different sources for financing health care, how to pool revenues in public and private insurance and in a national health system with automatic coverage (risk pooling), and how to purchase care from health care providers. The World Bank has implemented health financing activities in 68 countries during FY03-12. Health financing interventions are found in about 40 percent of the Bank s Health, Nutrition, and Population portfolio. Most projects include interventions on revenue collection from public sources. Almost half of the projects support public health insurance and automatic coverage. More recently, results-based financing (RBF) operations became more prominent. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) delivered a small program in health financing. The evaluation makes five main recommendations: support government commitment and build technical and information capacity; address health financing as a cross-cutting issue at the country level; focus on health financing as a core comparative advantage; integrate all health financing functions; and strengthen monitoring and evaluation in Bank and IFC projects.

Financing Municipal Energy Efficiency Projects

Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Improving the energy efficiency (EE) of municipally owned buildings, such as schools and hospitals, and municipal infrastructure, such as public lighting, water supply, and district heating, offers budgetary savings on energy bills and a wide range of environmental and socioeconomic benefits. But relatively few municipal EE projects have been developed and implemented successfully. The challenges that limit EE investments in municipal buildings and facilities can be grouped into three broad areas: (i) a lack of awareness and incentives; (ii) insufficient implementation capacity; and (iii) limited access to financing. All three sets of challenges need to be addressed to scale up successful implementation of municipal EE projects. This Guidance Note focuses on the key issues faced by municipalities in accessing financing for EE investments, particularly for projects in the following four areas: indoor lighting, building retrofits, public lighting, and municipal utilities. The guidance note discusses the following potential financing mechanisms that can be used by municipalities to finance EE measures: budget financing...

Facilitating SME Financing through Improved Credit Reporting

International Committee on Credit Reporting
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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The general principles for credit reporting were issued by the World Bank in September 2011. Since then, the World Bank and the international committee on credit reporting (ICCR) have been leading efforts towards the implementation of the general principles worldwide. This report is one of the concrete outputs of the work following the general principles. It addresses one of the most significant problems that limit the ability of most small and medium enterprises (SMEs) around the world to obtain adequate external financing to underpin their productive activities: information asymmetries. Creditors assess the creditworthiness of credit and loan applicants based on two basic criteria: ones financial capacity or ability to repay a loan, and ones willingness to repay the loan. A credit reporting system s (CRS) basic objective is to address information asymmetries, which is crucial for determining repayment capacity and repayment willingness. Credit reporting can therefore be extremely valuable to creditors for enhanced...

Potentials and Constraints of Using Warehouse Receipts Financing

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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The paper starts with an overview of Cambodia’s rice sector, with a particular attention to aspects which affect its need for external working capital finance, and characteristics and constraints that could hinder access to such finance (e.g., warehousing capacity, processing constraints, logistics, and market risks). Chapter two describes the general conditions for crop-based financing in Cambodia’s rice sector. Chapter three discusses policy options for enhancing the use of paddy and rice as collateral for financing. The chapter sets out the two main modalities: collateral management, and public warehousing. Both collateral management and public warehousing work best when certain support structures are in place, in particular an indemnity system, a system for the electronic trading of warehouse receipts, and a facility for refinancing warehouse receipt loans (which could be managed by the Central Bank or outsourced to another competent entity such as an investment fund). These are discussed in separate sections. The various sections describe the situation as currently prevails in Cambodia...

Assessing Firms' Financing Constraints in Brazil

Claessens, Stijn; Sakho, Yaye Seynabou
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Firm surveys often indicate that firms complain a lot about lack of access to financial services, but financing constraints are difficult to identify, given demand and supply considerations and with only surveys based on firms' perceptions. Specifically, it is difficult to separate demand for access to finance of viable firms with good growth opportunities from that of firms that are not creditworthy and should not deserve financing. In Brazil, one of the main constraints to finance is related to the high level of interest rates, which affects both bank funding costs as well as bank intermediation spreads and, as such, the cost of finance and hence the demand and supply of bank financing. This paper analyzes a unique loan level data set that covers almost a decade of monthly firm bank information from credit registry information that is not publicly available as well as two cross-sections of Brazil's Investment Climate Assessment surveys in 2004 and 2008 that provide detailed information on firms' micro characteristics as well as perceptions of credit. The data allow identification of how firms' characteristics...

Fostering the Development of Greenfield Mining-related Transport Infrastructure through Project Financing

International Finance Corporation; Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The purpose of this study is to serve as a guide on developing Greenfield transport infrastructure (rail and port) primarily used to support mining operations ('mining-related infrastructure'), through Public-Private Partnership (PPP) schemes and on a project finance basis. The focus is on key financing issues and considerations, as well as recommendations for governments and private-sector participants, specifically in the context of sub-Saharan Africa and similar regions. Over the past decade, the rapid economic growth in newly industrialized markets has fueled a strong demand for various commodities (such as iron, coal, bauxite and copper), with significant impact on their prices. The last ten years have seen an unprecedented rise in the price of mineral commodities worldwide. From the mid-2000s through the early 2010s, the world's largest mining companies embarked in the planning of numerous and often very large mining projects to satisfy what was seen as an ever growing double digit demand for minerals (iron ore...

The Greening of Macedonia's Public Buildings : Financing Options for the National Program for Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 2012-18

Limaye, Dilip; Meyer, Anke
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The Government of Macedonia (GOM) plans to launch a National Program for Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings (NPEEPB, or "the program") to achieve energy efficiency (EE) improvements in the buildings sector and meet the strategic targets outlined in the energy development strategy of the Republic of Macedonia until 2030, the EE strategy until 2020, and the national EE action plan in 2010-18. The NPEEPB, coordinated by the Ministry of Economy (MOE), aims to retrofit existing public buildings and to lead by example in the implementation of EE measures. Its targets are public buildings that are used for administrative and other activities of public interest and that are fully owned by government institutions or municipalities. This report focuses on the financing mechanisms that are considered the best fit with the institutional environment to achieve the goals of the NPEEPB, and describes in detail the implementation of the proposed financing mechanisms: a full-service EE fund, a dedicated EE credit line...

Global Capital Flows and Financing Constraints

Harrison, Ann E.; Love, Inessa; McMillan, Margaret S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Firms often cite financing constraints as one of their primary obstacles to investment. Global capital flows, by bringing in scarce capital, may ease the financing constraints of host country firms. But if incoming foreign investors borrow heavily from domestic banks, foreign direct investment may exacerbate financing constraints by crowding host country firms out of domestic capital markets. Combining a unique cross-country firm-level panel with time-series data on restrictions on international transactions and capital flows, Harrison, Love, and McMillan find that different measures of global flows are associated with a reduction in firm-level financing constraints. First, the authors show that one type of capital inflow-foreign direct investment-is associated with a reduction in financing constraints. Second, they test whether restrictions on international transactions affects the financing constraints of firms. The results suggest that only one type of restriction-those on capital account transactions-negatively affects firms' financing constraints. The authors also show that multinational firms are not financially constrained and do not appear to be sensitive to the level of foreign direct investment. This implies that foreign direct investment eases financing constraints for non-multinational firms. Finally...