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Financial Services and Preferential Trade Agreements : Lessons from Latin America

Haddad, Mona; Stephanou, Constantinos
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
This book deals with financial liberalization issues in the context of trade negotiations. The liberalization of trade and investment in financial services is only a subset of the broader financial liberalization agenda. The purpose of trade and investment liberalization is to increase financial market access and remove discriminatory and other access-impeding barriers to foreign competition. By contrast, the main purpose of financial liberalization is to remove distortions in domestic financial systems that impede competition and the allocation of capital to its most productive and profitable uses. In turn, financial liberalization can be divided into domestic financial reform and capital account opening, and there is a rich literature on its appropriate speed and sequencing. The first part of the book covers the fundamental principles that affect trade liberalization in financial services at both the multilateral and the regional levels. It analyzes the various models of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) used by negotiators and the architectural differences of these models. The second part of this book provides concrete examples of how countries have negotiated these agreements by focusing on the specific country experiences of Chile...

Providing Financial Services in Rural Areas : A Fresh Look at Financial Cooperatives

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
This report demonstrates that financial cooperatives can be sustainable providers of financial services in rural areas and development assistance needs to consider supporting them as a means to enhance access to rural finance. It does not suggest that financial cooperatives are the only providers or the preferred channel in all circumstances. For financial cooperatives to function as sustainable institutions, governments need to provide an enabling environment, not exercise excessive control that restricts growth and consolidation, and not use them as channels to provide subsidized credit. Integration into networks has wide-ranging benefits for financial cooperatives, ranging from improved governance to the ability to provide a wide range of services.

Slovakia - Technical Note on Consumer Protection in Financial Services : Volume 2 Sectoral Analyses and Good Practice Reviews

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
As financial markets develop and deepen, one of the key issues for the fair, open and efficient operation of the markets is the protection of consumers rights in financial services. Be they bank depositors or borrowers or investors in insurance policies, securities or investment or pension funds, financial consumers need the ability to accurately understand the terms and conditions of their contracts and take action if the terms of contracts have been violated. The Note is the second report in a pilot program to analyze consumer protection in financialservices.The objectives of the Note are three-fold, to: (1) present a set of draft good practices for assessing consumer protection in financial services; (2) conduct a review of the existing rules and practices in Slovakia compared to the draft practices; and (3) provide recommendations on ways to improve consumer protection in financial services in Slovakia. The Technical Note wasprepared at the request of the Slovak Ministry of Finance, with the valuable support of the National Bank of Slovakia and other government agencies...

Slovakia : Technical Note on Consumer Protection in Financial Services, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
As financial markets develop and deepen, one of the key issues for the fair, open and efficient operation of the markets is the protection of consumers rights in financial services. Be they bank depositors or borrowers or investors in insurance policies, securities or investment or pension funds, financial consumers need the ability to accurately understand the terms and conditions of their contracts and take action if the terms of contracts have been violated. The Note is the second report in a pilot program to analyze consumer protection in financialservices.The objectives of the Note are three-fold, to: (1) present a set of draft good practices for assessing consumer protection in financial services; (2) conduct a review of the existing rules and practices in Slovakia compared to the draft practices; and (3) provide recommendations on ways to improve consumer protection in financial services in Slovakia. The Technical Note wasprepared at the request of the Slovak Ministry of Finance, with the valuable support of the National Bank of Slovakia and other government agencies...

Worldwide Landscape of Postal Financial Services : Asia Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
Postal networks in the nine countries in the Asian region profiled here have 289,067 post offices. In many of these Asian countries, post offices have provided payments and savings services for more than 130 years. At the end of 2002, 335 million Asians had postal savings accounts, for a total balance of USD 83 billion (about 20 percent of the adult population). In China and Vietnam, postal savings have only been recently established, but are growing quickly. In addition to payment services, it provides domestic money transfers, including collecting bill payments. In some countries, e.g. Thailand, the role of postal networks in the payments system is significant. In general, however, transaction volumes for savings and payments together appear low, suggesting that many of these accounts may be dormant and may play only a marginal role in the payment system. Vigorous reform is required to develop intrinsically strong and competent institutions. The issue is not limited to repositioning postal financial services in the financial sector (instead of the public postal sector)...

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Malawi - Access to Financial Services

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
This technical note the Malawi 2007 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) reviews the current challenges of increasing access to financial services in Malawi. After a cursory assessment of the state of the financial sector in chapter one, it summarizes the key challenges of rural financial sector development (chapter two); then discusses the opportunities that branchless banking technology offers (chapter three), the options for strengthening the financial infrastructure (chapter four) and the role of government in increasing access (chapter five). It concludes with recommendations on how authorities may seek to realize these opportunities (chapter six).

Republic of Bulgaria : Alternative Dispute Resolution for Financial Services Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
The objective of this technical note is to evaluate the existing legal, regulatory and institutional framework of financial Alternative dispute resolution body, for example an ombudsman (ADR) mechanisms in Bulgaria, and to present the authorities with options for reform and improvement. There is a need to further strengthen and reform the existing financial ADR framework in Bulgaria. Fortifying the design and structure of financial ADR mechanisms is an important step to increase currently low levels of consumer trust in financial services. In addition, the implementation of the recently approved European Union (EU) Directive on ADR will require a significant amount of restructuring and reorganization of the existing ADR mechanisms in Bulgaria in order to be compliant with the new required standards. An ADR will not be a success unless consumers can be confident that financial services providers will take part and will follow decisions in favor of the consumer. Bearing in mind the Bulgarian context and the limitations imposed by the Bulgarian constitution...

Access to Financial Services : A Review of the Issues and Public Policy Objectives

Claessens, Stijn
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
This article reviews the evidence on the importance of finance for economic well-being. It provides data on the use of basic financial services by households and firms across a sample of countries, assesses the desirability of universal access, and provides an overview of the macroeconomic, legal, and regulatory obstacles to access. Despite the benefits of finance, the data show that use of financial services is far from universal in many countries, especially developing countries. Universal access to financial services has not been a public policy objective in most countries and would likely be difficult to achieve. Countries can, however, facilitate access to financial services by strengthening institutional infrastructure, liberalizing markets and facilitating greater competition, and encouraging innovative use of know-how and technology. Government interventions to directly broaden access to finance, however, are costly and fraught with risks, among others the risk of missing the targeted groups. The article concludes with recommendations for global actions aimed at improving data on access and use and suggestions on areas of further analysis to identify constraints to broadening access.

Egyptian National Postal Organization : Postal Financial Services and Access to Finance

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
ENPO is an organization employing 48,000 staff and operating a network of more than 9,000 access points (of which 3,500 post offices, 6,500 agencies, of which 1,500 are currently active). A commercial entity with management autonomy, ENPO is primarily a provider of basic financial services. Other services are mail (regular and express), parcels and Government services. Postal financial services, with three main business lines (savings, payments and giro services) and 15 million savings accounts, generate around 50% to 60% of ENPO s total revenue, and occupy an estimated 15% of ENPO s staff. Although available accounting and financial information are limited, it seems that postal financial services are operated at a profit. For ENPO which is currently in a transition phase from an administration-type of organization, moving towards a corporate-type of organization, the strategic option will play as an accelerator of change (in case the Government decides for a drastic move towards bancarization) or as a consolidator of incremental reform (in case the Government opts for a progressive approach...

Including Financial Services in Preferential Trade Agreements : Lessons of International Experience for China

Stephanou, Constantinos
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
The objective of this paper is to address the main considerations for China of including financial services in its preferential trade agreements. The paper briefly reviews China's financial liberalization process and the state of its domestic financial system, discusses the main considerations of including financial services in China's preferential trade agreements, compares and contrasts the different 'architectural' approaches that have been used by countries to include financial services in such agreements, and identifies good practices in preparing for financial services negotiations. Particular emphasis is placed on lessons from Latin American preferential trade agreements, given their more frequent and extensive coverage of financial services compared with other regions.

ICTs for Financial Services in Africa

Stefanski, Scott
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
The second most populous continent in the world and with abundant natural resources, Africa continues to grow as the world's economy currently stands on shaky ground. However, steady GDP gains are sometimes obscured by the continent's economic, political and social problems. As Africa grows and becomes more tightly integrated with the global economy, its citizens and businesses increasingly need access to financial services tools that will allow them to compete. ICT is one avenue for increasing that access as ICT and financial services complement each other. ICTs allow for greater financial inclusion, and the financial services sector is a primary driver of communications and network technology. However, the financial services sector has distinct developmental challenges. Issues of trust, consumer protection, and network systemic risks that can slow the pace of progress require clear and strong regulations. The need for policy and regulatory development is made more difficult by the speed of technological change. Nevertheless...

Liberalization of Trade in Financial Services : Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean

Stephanou, Constantinos
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
This policy note is based on a project on financial services and trade agreements in the Latin America and Caribbean Region. It emphasizes that the liberalization of trade in financial services is helpful to, but is not a panacea for, domestic financial system modernization. It adds that the means of liberalizing trade in financial services may also determine the extent of the benefits that can be attained and that any trade commitments in financial services will need to be aligned with China's financial system condition and policy objectives. The author points out however, that China can also draw useful policy lessons from the Latin America and Caribbean (LCR) experience when negotiating financial services in Preferential Trade Arrangement (PTAs) by firstly, the inclusion of financial services which depends greatly on the existence of offensive interests and of asymmetric bargaining powers between the negotiating counterparts; secondly, the case studies which strongly indicate the importance of initial conditions and historical experience in shaping a country's financial services trade strategy; thirdly...

The Role of Postal Networks in Expanding Access to Financial Services : Country Case - Egypt's Postal Finance Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
This paper discusses the role of the postal network in expanding access to financial services in Egypt. It reviews the public postal operator within the postal sector and within the broader context of the communications sector. The roles of the postal network and state and privately-owned banks are also reviewed from the perspective of the financial sector development, with particular focus on payments systems development and microfinance. The ultimate goal of postal reform is to create a system where modern technology and a free flow of information benefit the customer. A modern, efficient postal service that utilizes the latest information technology will not only increase Egypt's social and economic development, but will also contribute significantly to the creation of an Egyptian information society.

Russian Federation : Diagnostic Review of Consumer Protection in Financial Services, Volume 1. Key Findings and Recommendations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
This paper is a pilot diagnostic review of consumer protection in financial services in the Russian Federation. The review examines financial services in Russia, but also emphasizes the need for a set of good practices, or benchmarks, for use in reviewing consumer protection in financial services in any jurisdiction. This work will prove helpful to the international community, and those in emerging markets. The review finds that most people in Russia do not consider themselves financially literate, and have little understanding of their rights as consumers. The review's objectives are to conduct a review of the existing rules and practices in Russia, compared to international good practices on consumer protection in financial services; provide recommendations on ways to improve consumer protection in financial services in Russia; and refine a set of good practices prepared by the World Bank for assessing consumer protection in financial services. As part of the conclusion, methods for better financial education for consumers...

Vietnam - The Role of Postal Networks in Expanding Access to Financial Services Country case : Vietnam's postal finance services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
This paper discusses the role of the postal network in expanding access to financial services in Vietnam. It reviews the public postal operator within the postal sector and within the broader context of the communications sector. The roles of the Vietnam postal network and post bank are also reviewed from the perspective of the financial sector development, with particular focus on payments systems development and micro finance. While this country case on Vietnam can stand alone, it is an integral part of this large study of the potential of postal networks to coordinate with financial service providers in 7 countries (Egypt, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Romania, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Vietnam) and 5 regions (Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East and Northern Africa). Five years after its introduction, the Vietnamese Postal Savings Corporation (VPSC) can look back on an impressive record of successes. With its 920 post offices (of 3,000), VPSC operates the second-largest financial service network in the country. It developed as a channel for mobilizing small household deposits...

The Role of Postal Networks in Expanding Access to Financial Services : Egypt's Postal Finance Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
This paper discusses the role of the postal network in expanding access to financial services in Egypt. It reviews the public postal operator within the postal sector and within the broader context of the communications sector. The roles of the postal network and state and privately-owned banks are also reviewed from the perspective of the financial sector development, with particular focus on payments systems development and microfinance. The ultimate goal of postal reform is to create a system where modern technology and a free flow of information benefit the customer. A modern, efficient postal service that utilizes the latest information technology will not only increase Egypt's social and economic development, but will also contribute significantly to the creation of an Egyptian information society.

Liberalization of Trade in Financial Services : Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
This policy note is based on a project on financial services and trade agreements in the Latin America and Caribbean Region. It emphasizes that the liberalization of trade in financial services is helpful to, but is not a panacea for, domestic financial system modernization. It adds that the means of liberalizing trade in financial services may also determine the extent of the benefits that can be attained and that any trade commitments in financial services will need to be aligned with China's financial system condition and policy objectives. The author points out however, that China can also draw useful policy lessons from the Latin America and Caribbean (LCR) experience when negotiating financial services in Preferential Trade Arrangement (PTAs) by firstly, the inclusion of financial services which depends greatly on the existence of offensive interests and of asymmetric bargaining powers between the negotiating counterparts; secondly, the case studies which strongly indicate the importance of initial conditions and historical experience in shaping a country's financial services trade strategy; thirdly...

Mexico : Broadening Access to Financial Services Among the Urban Population, Mexico City's Unbanked, Volume 1, Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
The present report looks at issues of access to financial services in urban Mexico, drawing on existing documentation as well as on research (surveys, interviews and focus groups) carried out in Mexico City during 2002. The motivation behind this interest in financial exclusion is two fold. First, it is well documented that being "unbanked" (excluded from access to financial services) has costs; and it makes it more expensive to engage in a number of transactions (paying and being paid) and more difficult to save while maintaining the value of an asset As such, higher access to financial services is desirable from an efficiency point of view. Second, financial exclusion is an issue that primarily affects the poor. Access to financial services can help with poverty alleviation, particularly to the extent that it encourage asset buildings and help cope with shocks and overcome liquidity constraints. The report focuses on two key questions: what are the benefits the unbanked (those excluded from financial services) could gain from using formal financial sector institutions; and what discourages them from doing so. The objective is to help to identify measures to increase access to financial services in Mexico. As such the report is organized as follows. Chapter 1 sets the stage by discussing the importance of access to financial services and what other countries are doing to promote such access. Chapter 2 presents an analysis of actual and potential demand for financial services...

Competition and Scope of Activities in Financial Services

Claessens, Stijn; Klingebiel, Daniela
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
This article analyzes the costs and benefits of different degrees of competition and different configurations of permissible activities in the financial sector and discusses the related implications for regulation and supervision. Theory and experience demonstrate the importance of competition for efficiency and confirm that a competitive environment requires a contestable system meaning one that is open to competition-but not necessarily a large number of institutions. A competitive banking system can improve the distribution of consumer credit, enhance the corporate sector's access to financing, and mitigate the risks of financial crises. In an open market, in which services and products are provided in response to market signals, financial institutions respond by offering a wider scope of financial services. The optimal institutional design for supervisory functions is less obvious. This article reviews alternative frameworks for financial services markets from an economic perspective using experiences in several countries as a guide. Authors focus first on the role of competition in the financial sector and the tradeoffs between competition on the one hand and stability and innovation on the other. Authors next examine alternative structures of financial services dictated in many countries.

Increasing Revenues for India Post through Expanding Channeling of Financial Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
This report analyzes possibilities for increasing revenues for India Post through expanding channeling of financial services. The Indian postal network is among the largest networks in the world in terms of area covered and population served, and constitutes an important mechanism of achieving transportation and communication. Within India Post, the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB) is one of the oldest and largest financial institutions (with largest deposit base) in the country. The key objective of POSB is to provide people living in rural, semi-urban, remote and inaccessible areas of the country with an easy and reliable means of making investments, making remittances and operating savings accounts. It is of strategic importance for POSB to increase market-based revenues so as to gain better control of its market orientation and revenue structure. In addition, though POSB still retains competitive advantages over commercial banks, it will not be long before the competition replicates these advantages. Hence...