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Astrologia e personalidade: o efeito do conhecimento das características do signo solar em variáveis medidas pelo 16 pf.; Astrology and personality: the effect of the knowledge of solar signs’s characteristics on variables measured by the 16PF.

Rodrigues, Paulo Roberto Grangeiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/09/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.6%
Nesta Tese replicamos por constructo uma pesquisa européia que encontrou para conhecedores da astrologia médias mais altas em Extroversão entre sujeitos dos signos de Fogo e Ar comparados com sujeitos de Terra e Água, formando um “padrão dente-de-serra” previsto em função da alternância zodiacal entre signos de Elementos Quentes (Fogo e Ar) e Frios (Terra e Água), como sendo efeito da “auto-atribuição”, já que a mesma variação não se deu para sujeitos não conhecedores. Também se encontrou, no entanto, maior “suscetibilidade à informação vinda de fora sobre sua personalidade” para os Quentes, o que não invalidou totalmente a teoria astrológica. Encontrou-se lá, além disso, maior média geral em Extroversão para os conhecedores. Usamos o 16 PF – Questionário dos 16 Fatores de Personalidade – com 589 sujeitos brasileiros de ambos os sexos, diferenciando entre conhecedores (208) e não conhecedores (381) da astrologia, sendo o conhecimento constituído da crença na astrologia mais a descrição de três características do signo solar. Para estimular a influência da auto-atribuição, foi dada a parte do grupo (266) a sugestão “Esta é uma pesquisa sobre astrologia”, enquanto para a outra parte (323) foi dito que seria “uma pesquisa sobre personalidade”. Investigamos variações em função dos Elementos astrológicos...

Construção, normatização e validação das escalas de socialização e extroversão no modelo dos cinco grandes fatores

Nunes, Carlos Henrique Sancineto da Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.35%
Esse projeto visou a construção, validação e normatização de escalas para a avaliação dos Fatores Extroversão e Socialização no modelo dos Cinco Grandes Fatores de Personalidade. A partir deste Modelo, Socialização é uma dimensão da personalidade que agrupa traços como altruísmo, franqueza, confiança nas pessoas, bem como frieza, falta de empatia, comportamentos antisociais, etc. Extroversão engloba traços que descrevem nível de comunicação, assertividade, gregariedade, busca por diversão, etc. A validade de construto da Escala Fatorial de Socialização (EFS) e Escala Fatorial de Extroversão (EFE) foi realizada a partir de amostras independentes compostas por aproximadamente 1.100 pessoas de cinco estados brasileiros, de ambos os sexos, com nível de escolarização médio ou superior. Foram realizadas análises fatoriais para a verificação da dimensionalidade da EFS, sendo que a solução de três fatores foi considerada a mais adequada. Os fatores extraídos foram denominados Amabilidade, Pró-sociabilidade e Confiança nas pessoas, com Alpha’s de 0,91; 0,84 e 0,80 respectivamente. A escala geral apresentou uma consistência interna de 0,92. Foram realizadas análises fatoriais para a verificação da dimensionalidade da EFE...

Brain correlates of pro-social personality traits : a voxel-based morphometry study

Coutinho, Joana; Sampaio, Adriana; Ferreira, Miguel; Soares, José Miguel; Óscar F., Gonçalves
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/03/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.54%
Of the five personality dimensions described by the Big Five Personality Model (Costa and McCrae 1992), Extraversion and Agreeableness are the traits most commonly associated with a pro-social orientation. In this study we tested whether a pro-social orientation, as expressed in terms of Extraversion and Agreeableness, is associated with a specific grey matter phenotype. Fifty-two healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), a self-report measure of the Big Five personality traits. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate the correlation between brain structure and the personality traits of Agreeableness and Extraversion. We found that Extraversion was negatively correlated with grey matter density in the middle frontal and orbitofrontal gyri while Agreeableness was negatively correlated with grey matter density in the inferior parietal, middle occipital and posterior cingulate gyri. No positive correlations were found. These results suggest that pro-social personality traits seem to be associated with decreases in grey matter density in more frontal regions for Extraversion, and more posterior regions for Agreeableness.

Attention and emotion influence the relationship between extraversion and neural response

Hutcherson, C. A.; Goldin, P. R.; Ramel, W.; McRae, K.; Gross, J. J.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.46%
Extraversion has been shown to positively correlate with activation within the ventral striatum, amygdala and other dopaminergically innervated, reward-sensitive regions. These regions are implicated in emotional responding, in a manner sensitive to attentional focus. However, no study has investigated the interaction among extraversion, emotion and attention. We used fMRI and dynamic, evocative film clips to elicit amusement and sadness in a sample of 28 women. Participants were instructed either to respond naturally (n = 14) or to attend to and continuously rate their emotions (n = 14) while watching the films. Contrary to expectations, striatal response was negatively associated with extraversion during amusement, regardless of attention. A negative association was also observed during sad films, but only when attending to emotion. These findings suggest that attentional focus does not influence the relationship between extraversion and neural response to positive (amusing) stimuli but does impact the response to negative (sad) stimuli.

Personality and fear responses during conditioning: Beyond extraversion

Pineles, Suzanne L.; Vogt, Dawne S.; Orr, Scott P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.35%
The personality domain of introversion-extraversion has been theorized to be associated with the strength of fear conditioning, but the literature on this topic has been equivocal. Furthermore, except for extraversion and neuroticism, relationships of the other Big Five personality domains with fear response acquisition have not been explored. In the current study, multi-level modeling was used to examine the relationships of facets of the Big 5 domains to fear response acquisition. Participants were 217 police and firefighter trainees who completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) and a fear conditioning task as part of a larger study. Results indicated that several facets of extraversion have opposing associations with fear response acquisition of an electrodermal response– possibly contributing to the mixed results in the literature. Additionally, facets of other Big Five domains were found to be associated with fear response acquisition.

Unpacking the Relation between Extraversion and Volunteering in Later Life: The Role of Social Capital

Okun, Morris A.; Pugliese, John; Rook, Karen S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.35%
This study tested the hypothesis that the relation between extraversion and volunteering by older adults is fully mediated by social capital (participation in clubs and organizations, church attendance, and contact with friends). Data for this study come from 888 adults between the ages of 65–90 years old who participated in the Later Life Study of Social Exchanges (LLSSE). In support of our hypothesis, structural equation modeling revealed that extraversion exerted (a) a significant total effect on volunteering (.122), (b) significant indirect effects on volunteering via contact with friends (.042), church attendance (.034), and clubs and organizations (females only: .042), and (c) a non-significant direct effect on volunteering (.010). These findings suggest that social capital provides a viable explanation for the association between extraversion and volunteering.

Extraversion Is Linked to Volume of the Orbitofrontal Cortex and Amygdala

Cremers, Henk; van Tol, Marie-José; Roelofs, Karin; Aleman, Andre; Zitman, Frans G.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Veltman, Dick J.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/12/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.65%
Neuroticism and extraversion are personality factors associated with the vulnerability for developing depression and anxiety disorders, and are possibly differentially related to brain structures implicated in the processing of emotional information and the generation of mood states. To date, studies on brain morphology mainly focused on neuroticism, a dimension primarily related to negative affect, yielding conflicting findings concerning the association with personality, partially due to methodological issues and variable population samples under study. Recently, extraversion, a dimension primarily related to positive affect, has been repeatedly inversely related to with symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. In the present study, high resolution structural T1-weighted MR images of 65 healthy adults were processed using an optimized Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to test for associations of neuroticism and extraversion with prefrontal and subcortical volumes. Orbitofrontal and right amygdala volume were both positively related to extraversion. Extraversion was differentially related to volume of the anterior cingulate cortex in males (positive) and females (negative). Neuroticism scores did not significantly correlate with these brain regions. As extraversion is regarded a protective factor for developing anxiety disorders and depression and has been related to the generation of positive affect...

Non-additive and Additive Genetic Effects on Extraversion in 3314 Dutch Adolescent Twins and Their Parents

Rettew, David C.; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.54%
The influence of non-additive genetic influences on personality traits has been increasingly reported in adult populations. Less is known, however, with respect to younger samples. In this study, we examine additive and non-additive genetic contributions to the personality trait of extraversion in 1,689 Dutch twin pairs, 1,505 mothers and 1,637 fathers of the twins. The twins were on average 15.5 years (range 12–18 years). To increase statistical power to detect non-additive genetic influences, data on extraversion were also collected in parents and simultaneously analyzed. Genetic modeling procedures incorporating age as a potential modifier of heritability showed significant influences of additive (20–23%) and non-additive genetic factors (31–33%) in addition to unshared environment (46–48%) for adolescents and for their parents. The additive genetic component was slightly and positively related to age. No significant sex differences were found for either extraversion means or for the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences. There was no evidence of non-random mating for extraversion in the parental generation. Results show that in addition to additive genetic influences, extraversion in adolescents is influenced by non-additive genetic factors.

Prefrontal cortex glutamate and extraversion

Grimm, Simone; Schubert, Florian; Jaedke, Maren; Gallinat, Jürgen; Bajbouj, Malek
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.6%
Extraversion is considered one of the core traits of personality. Low extraversion has been associated with increased vulnerability to affective and anxiety disorders. Brain imaging studies have linked extraversion, approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and glutamatergic neurotransmission. However, the relationship between extraversion and glutamate in the DLPFC has not been investigated so far. In order to address this issue, absolute glutamate concentrations in the DLPFC and the visual cortex as a control region were measured by 3-Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in 29 subjects with high and low extraversion. We found increased glutamate levels in the DLPFC of introverts as compared with extraverts. The increased glutamate concentration was specific for the DLPFC and negatively associated with state anxiety. Although preliminary, results indicate altered top-down control of DLPFC due to reduced glutamate concentration as a function of extraversion. Glutamate measurement with 1H-MRS may facilitate the understanding of biological underpinnings of personality traits and psychiatric diseases associated with dysfunctions in approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states.

Extraversion and neuroticism relate to topological properties of resting-state brain networks

Gao, Qing; Xu, Qiang; Duan, Xujun; Liao, Wei; Ding, Jurong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Yuan; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Huafu
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.6%
With the advent and development of modern neuroimaging techniques, there is an increasing interest in linking extraversion and neuroticism to anatomical and functional brain markers. Here, we aimed to test the theoretically derived biological personality model as proposed by Eysenck using graph theoretical analyses. Specifically, the association between the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks and extraversion/neuroticism was explored. To construct functional brain networks, functional connectivity among 90 brain regions was measured by temporal correlation using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of 71 healthy subjects. Graph theoretical analysis revealed a positive association of extraversion scores and normalized clustering coefficient values. These results suggested a more clustered configuration in brain networks of individuals high in extraversion, which could imply a higher arousal threshold and higher levels of arousal tolerance in the cortex of extraverts. On a local network level, we observed that a specific nodal measure, i.e., betweenness centrality (BC), was positively associated with neuroticism scores in the right precentral gyrus (PreCG), right caudate nucleus, right olfactory cortex...

On the nature of extraversion: variation in conditioned contextual activation of dopamine-facilitated affective, cognitive, and motor processes

Depue, Richard A.; Fu, Yu
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.46%
Research supports an association between extraversion and dopamine (DA) functioning. DA facilitates incentive motivation and the conditioning and incentive encoding of contexts that predict reward. Therefore, we assessed whether extraversion is related to the efficacy of acquiring conditioned contextual facilitation of three processes that are dependent on DA: motor velocity, positive affect, and visuospatial working memory. We exposed high and low extraverts to three days of association of drug reward (methylphenidate, MP) with a particular laboratory context (Paired group), a test day of conditioning, and three days of extinction in the same laboratory. A Placebo group and an Unpaired group (that had MP in a different laboratory context) served as controls. Conditioned contextual facilitation was assessed by (i) presenting video clips that varied in their pairing with drug and laboratory context and in inherent incentive value, and (ii) measuring increases from day 1 to Test day on the three processes above. Results showed acquisition of conditioned contextual facilitation across all measures to video clips that had been paired with drug and laboratory context in the Paired high extraverts, but no conditioning in the Paired low extraverts (nor in either of the control groups). Increases in the Paired high extraverts were correlated across the three measures. Also...

What is Extraversion For? Integrating Trait and Motivational Perspectives and Identifying the Purpose of Extraversion

McCabe, Kira O.; Fleeson, William
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.65%
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the manifestation of extraversion (i.e., acting and being extraverted) in everyday behavior can be explained by intentional (functional) constructs, namely, goals. By using personality states as an outcome for specific, momentary goal pursuit, we were able to identify the function of extraversion states in everyday behavior. Using experience-sampling methodology, participants described their current state extraversion, goal pursuit, and state affect over ten days. Results show that eighteen selected goals predicted over 74 percent of the variance in state extraversion, meaning that both within-person and between-person fluctuations in state extraversion were strongly associated to changes in momentary goal pursuit. The eighteen goals also strongly predicted positive affect, which was partially mediated by state extraversion.

Individual differences in reward prediction error: contrasting relations between feedback-related negativity and trait measures of reward sensitivity, impulsivity and extraversion

Cooper, Andrew J.; Duke, Éilish; Pickering, Alan D.; Smillie, Luke D.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.46%
Medial-frontal negativity occurring ∼200–300 ms post-stimulus in response to motivationally salient stimuli, usually referred to as feedback-related negativity (FRN), appears to be at least partly modulated by dopaminergic-based reward prediction error (RPE) signaling. Previous research (e.g., Smillie et al., 2011) has shown that higher scores on a putatively dopaminergic-based personality trait, extraversion, were associated with a more pronounced difference wave contrasting unpredicted non-reward and unpredicted reward trials on an associative learning task. In the current study, we sought to extend this research by comparing how trait measures of reward sensitivity, impulsivity and extraversion related to the FRN using the same associative learning task. A sample of healthy adults (N = 38) completed a battery of personality questionnaires, before completing the associative learning task while EEG was recorded. As expected, FRN was most negative following unpredicted non-reward. A difference wave contrasting unpredicted non-reward and unpredicted reward trials was calculated. Extraversion, but not measures of impulsivity, had a significant association with this difference wave. Further, the difference wave was significantly related to a measure of anticipatory pleasure...

Harmonization of Neuroticism and Extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium: an application of Item Response Theory

van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; McGue, Matt; Pettersson, Erik; Terracciano, Antonio; Verweij, Karin J. H.; Amin, Najaf; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tõnu; van Grootheest, Gerard; Hansell, Narelle K.; Huffman, Jennifer; Konte, Bettina; Lah
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.54%
Mega- or meta-analytic studies (e.g. genome-wide association studies) are increasingly used in behavior genetics. An issue in such studies is that phenotypes are often measured by different instruments across study cohorts, requiring harmonization of measures so that more powerful fixed effect meta-analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we demonstrate for two clinically relevant personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, how Item-Response Theory (IRT) can be applied to map item data from different inventories to the same underlying constructs. Personality item data were analyzed in >160,000 individuals from 23 cohorts across Europe, USA and Australia in which Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed by nine different personality inventories. Results showed that harmonization was very successful for most personality inventories and moderately successful for some. Neuroticism and Extraversion inventories were largely measurement invariant across cohorts, in particular when comparing cohorts from countries where the same language is spoken. The IRT-based scores for Neuroticism and Extraversion were heritable (48 and 49 %, respectively, based on a meta-analysis of six twin cohorts, total N = 29...

Comparing Happiness and Hypomania Risk: A Study of Extraversion and Neuroticism Aspects

Kirkland, Tabitha; Gruber, June; Cunningham, William A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/07/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.54%
Positive affect has long been considered a hallmark of subjective happiness. Yet, high levels of positive affect have also been linked with hypomania risk: a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics that constitute a dispositional risk for future episodes of hypomania and mania. At a personality level, two powerful predictors of affective experience are extraversion and neuroticism: extraversion has been linked to positive affect, and neuroticism to negative affect. As such, a single personality trait – extraversion – has been linked to both beneficial and harmful outcomes associated with positivity. It is clear that positive affect, in different forms, has divergent consequences for well-being, but previous research has struggled to articulate the nature of these differences. We suggest that the relationship between affect and well-being needs to be situated within the psychological context of the individual – both in terms of more specific forms of extraversion and neuroticism, but also in terms of interactions among personality aspects. Consistent with this idea, we found that two aspects of extraversion (enthusiasm and assertiveness) differentially predicted subjective happiness from hypomania risk and two aspects of neuroticism (volatility and withdrawal) interacted to predict hypomania risk: the highest levels of hypomania risk were associated with the combination of high volatility and low withdrawal. These findings underscore the importance of examining personality at the right level of resolution to understand well-being and dysfunction.

Der Einfluss von Vitamin D und Asthma auf NEO-FFI Persönlichkeitsfaktoren; Exploring the relationship between vitamin D and basic personality traits

Finearty, Andrea Christina Anna
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.6%
Am Physiologischen Institut Tübingen untersuchten wir im Rahmen unserer beiden Studien," Vitamin D-Studie" und "Asthma-Studie", unterschiedliche Faktoren auf ihren möglichen Einfluss auf die Hauptdimensionen der Persönlichkeit. Hierfür benutzten wir den sogenannten "NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI)" Persönlichkeitsfragebogen, der sehr zuverlässig die Hauptpersönlichkeitsmerkmale Neurotizismus, Extraversion, Offenheit für neue Erfahrungen, Verträglichkeit und Gewissenhaftigkeit erfragt. Dabei fanden wir eine signifikante Korrelation zwischen der Vitamin D-Konzentration und den Faktoren Extraversion und Offenheit für Neues. Bei Probanden, die eine erhöhte Ausprägung der Faktoren Extraversion und Offenheit für Neues aufwiesen, konnten wir höhere Vitamin D-Spiegel beobachten und gehen daher davon aus, dass Vitamin D diese Persönlichkeitseigenschaften zu verändern vermag.; The Institute of Physiology Tübingen conducted two separate studies, a vitamin D study and an asthma study investigating the Influences of Asthma and Vitamin D on main personality traits. For this investigation we used the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), which is excellent for investigating the main personality traits which are neuroticism, extraversion...

Extraversion and Self-Monitoring: Exploring Differential Responses to Descriptive and Injunctive Normative Messages within the Framework of the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion

Kredentser, Maia
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.46%
The purpose of this research program was to explore how the personality traits of extraversion and self-monitoring may impact a persuasive appeal within the framework of the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion. Using both descriptive and injunctive normative messages, I hypothesized that under conditions of low elaboration, when one is unable and unmotivated to process a message; those high in the traits of extraversion and self-monitoring would be more compliant to a persuasive appeal that utilized a descriptive normative message. Further, I hypothesized that under conditions of low elaboration, those low in the aforementioned traits would be more compliant to an appeal utilizing injunctive normative messages. I did not expect to find any differences relating to personality under conditions of high elaboration. In order to examine these expected interactions, I pre-tested messages to ensure they were adequately descriptive or injunctive (study one) and then presented these messages to participants who had previously completed measures of extraversion and self-monitoring (study two). In study one I successfully created both injunctive and descriptive normative messages that were adequately divergent. In study two, I manipulated elaboration by giving participants in the low elaboration condition a distracter task while they were reading the message...

Cross-cultural adjustment to the United States: the role of contextualized extraversion change

Liu, Mengqiao; Huang, Jason L.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.65%
Personality traits can predict how well-sojourners and expatriates adjust to new cultures, but the adjustment process remains largely unexamined. Based on recent findings that reveal personality traits predict as well as respond to life events and experiences, this research focuses on within-person change in contextualized extraversion and its predictive validity for cross-cultural adjustment in international students who newly arrived in US colleges. We proposed that the initial level as well as the rate of change in school extraversion (i.e., contextualized extraversion that reflects behavioral tendency in school settings) will predict cross-cultural adjustment, withdrawal cognitions, and school satisfaction. Latent growth modeling of three-wave longitudinal surveys of 215 new international students (54% female, Mage = 24 years) revealed that the initial level of school extraversion significantly predicted cross-cultural adjustment, (lower) withdrawal cognitions, and satisfaction, while the rate of change (increase) in school extraversion predicted cross-cultural adjustment and (lower) withdrawal cognitions. We further modeled global extraversion and cross-cultural motivation as antecedents and explored within-person change in school extraversion as a proximal factor that affects adjustment outcomes. The findings highlight the malleability of contextualized personality...

Extraversion differentiates between model-based and model-free strategies in a reinforcement learning task

Skatova, Anya; Chan, Patricia A.; Daw, Nathaniel D.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.54%
Prominent computational models describe a neural mechanism for learning from reward prediction errors, and it has been suggested that variations in this mechanism are reflected in personality factors such as trait extraversion. However, although trait extraversion has been linked to improved reward learning, it is not yet known whether this relationship is selective for the particular computational strategy associated with error-driven learning, known as model-free reinforcement learning, vs. another strategy, model-based learning, which the brain is also known to employ. In the present study we test this relationship by examining whether humans' scores on an extraversion scale predict individual differences in the balance between model-based and model-free learning strategies in a sequentially structured decision task designed to distinguish between them. In previous studies with this task, participants have shown a combination of both types of learning, but with substantial individual variation in the balance between them. In the current study, extraversion predicted worse behavior across both sorts of learning. However, the hypothesis that extraverts would be selectively better at model-free reinforcement learning held up among a subset of the more engaged participants...

Neuroticismo, extraversión y estilo atribucional en veteranos de guerra: una aproximación desde el estrés postraumático

Enrique,Alejandro
Fonte: Interdisciplinaria Publicador: Interdisciplinaria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2004 ES
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.18%
Las personas que experimentan un evento traumático (guerra, desastres naturales, abuso sexual, entre otros), a menudo suelen desarrollar un tipo específico de patología clínica conocida como Síndrome de Estrés Postraumático que frecuentemente está asociada a una serie de trastornos con una fuerte incidencia negativa en la mayoría de los casos, en todos los aspectos de la vida cotidiana de quienes lo padecen. En particular en el caso de los veteranos de la guerra de las Islas Malvinas, que no tuvieron la posibilidad de contar con asistencia psicológica y contención emocional post-guerra, la presencia de este síndrome se encuentra asociada a un estilo atribucional desadaptativo o pesimista, como así también a mayores niveles de neuroticismo y menores de extraversión en comparación con la población general, lo que se traduce en mayores niveles de ansiedad flotante, escasa capacidad de control de los impulsos, inestabilidad emocional e incapacidad para generar y mantener relaciones sociales estables, con respecto a los excombatientes que no desarrollaron estrés postraumático.