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A superexploração do trabalho em economias periféricas dependentes; A brief review of the content of super-exploitation of workers in dependent peripheral economies

AMARAL, Marisa Silva; CARCANHOLO, Marcelo Dias
Fonte: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Serviço Social e Curso de Graduação em Serviço Social da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Serviço Social e Curso de Graduação em Serviço Social da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
O presente artigo parte do escopo de análise da teoria marxista da dependência, que identifica a superexploração do trabalho como característica fundamental da condição dependente, fato este marcado pela intensificação do processo de transferência de valores produzidos na periferia e acumulados nos países do centro. Pretende demonstrar como o processo de acumulação de capital leva à formação de um exército industrial de reserva e como este último contribui com as formas de superexploração do trabalho e com o seu fortalecimento para o caso dos países dependentes, em especial os latino-americanos.; This paper uses the Marxist theory of dependence, which identifies the super-exploitation of workers as an essential characteristic of the dependent condition, a fact that is marked by the intensification of the transfer of wealth produced in the periphery and accumulated in the countries of the center. It intends to demonstrate how capital accumulation leads to the formation of an industrial reserve army and how this contributes to the forms of super-exploitation of labor and to its strengthening in dependent countries, particularly those of Latin America.

Estrutura genética de populações de Euterpe edulis Mart. submetidas à ação antrópica utilizando marcadores alozímicos e microssatélites. ; Genetic structure of Euterpe edulis Mart. populations submitted to human exploitation using allozymic and microsatellite markers.

Conte, Rudimar
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/04/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
O palmiteiro (Euterpe edulis Mart.) é uma espécie nativa da Mata Atlântica cujas populações naturais encontram-se degradadas pelo extrativismo. Considerando a escassez de informações relativas às conseqüências genéticas da exploração de palmito, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto do processo de exploração sobre os níveis de diversidade, estrutura genética e tamanho efetivo de populações da espécie. Também foram estudados aspectos genéticos do recrutamento de plantas e o sistema reprodutivo da espécie. O estudo foi realizado em duas localidades do Estado de Santa Catarina, nos municípios de São Pedro de Alcântara e Ibirama. Em cada localidade foram escolhidas duas áreas de ocorrência natural de E. edulis, uma sem influência antrópica e outra que sofreu exploração de palmito, totalizando quatro populações. Os sistemas de exploração foram: (i) extrativismo - onde todos os indivíduos acima de 2 m de altura são cortados, incluindo plantas reprodutivas; and (ii) manejo - onde somente indivíduos acima de 9 cm de DAP são cortados, com a manutenção de 50 plantas reprodutivas por hectare. Em cada população foram examinadas plântulas, jovens e adultos, usando oito locos microssatélites e dez locos alozímicos. Os resultados revelaram que a espécie se reproduz por alogamia ( m tˆ = 0...

“Simple model of resource exploitation”

Reis, A. Heitor
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Parte de Livro
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
Here we present a simple model of finite resource exploitation that is parameterized by initial cost ratio, a technologic and management index m accounting for the rise of the exploitation cost with decrease of resource amount, plus another index  accounting for the avidity of the market to the resource. The analysis showed that the model captures essential features of finite resource exploitation, namely those concerning to oil exploitation. Scenarios for future oil exploitation based on parameters estimated from historical data are analyzed and discussed, as well some other scenarios of generic resource exploitation.

Exploitation of rocky intertidal grazers: population status and potential impacts on community structure and functioning.

Martins, Gustavo M.; Jenkins, Stuart R.; Hawkins, Stephen J.; Neto, Ana I.; Thompson, Richard C.
Fonte: Inter Research Publicador: Inter Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
Copyright © Inter-Research 2008.; A wide range of anthropogenic activities are impacting the ecology of coastal areas. Exploitation of marine resources is one such activity, which, through cascading trophic effects, can have influences well beyond that of the target species. We investigated the mid-rocky-shore community structure of the Azores archipelago, a seldom-studied habitat, where there is a local tradition of exploiting limpets, the main intertidal grazers. The limpet population structure differed among islands, and there was an inverse relationship between the abundance of larger limpets and the human population per coastal perimeter, but not the associated catch data. At small scales of resolution (quadrats), there was a negative relationship between the cover of algae and limpets and a positive relationship between barnacles and limpets. These relationships were also apparent at the larger scale of islands as a function of the gradient of exploitation. Our results show how natural habitat fragmentation may be useful where the experimental testing of a hypothesis is not possible, and provide evidence for the trophic cascading effects of limpet exploitation at landscape scales.

Financial Exploitation and Psychological Mistreatment Among Older Adults: Differences Between African Americans and Non-African Americans in a Population-Based Survey

Beach, Scott R.; Schulz, Richard; Castle, Nicholas G.; Rosen, Jules
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
Purpose: To examine racial differences in (a) the prevalence of financial exploitation and psychological mistreatment since turning 60 and in the past 6 months and (b) the experience—perpetrator, frequency, and degree of upset—of psychological mistreatment in the past 6 months. Design and methods: Random digit dial telephone recruitment and population-based survey (telephone and in-person) of 903 adults aged 60 years and older in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania (693 non-African American and 210 African American). Covariates included sex, age, education, marital status, household composition, cognitive function, instrumental activities of daily living/activities of daily living difficulties, and depression symptoms. Results: Prevalence rates were significantly higher for African Americans than for non-African Americans for financial exploitation since turning 60 (23.0% vs. 8.4%) and in the past 6 months (12.9% vs. 2.4%) and for psychological mistreatment since turning 60 (24.4% vs. 13.2%) and in the past 6 months (16.1% vs. 7.2%). These differences remained once all covariates were controlled in logistic regression models. There were also racial differences in the experience of psychological mistreatment in the past 6 months. Risk for clinical depression was also a consistent predictor of financial exploitation and psychological mistreatment. Implications: Although the results will need to be replicated in national surveys...

Exploration e exploitation: um olhar no setor de refino de petróleo sob a dimensão do aprendizado organizacional

Ribeiro, Luciano Maciel; Satt Júnior, Sergio
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
O objetivo desse artigo é revisar os conceitos Exploration e Exploitation publicados por March (1991), através da identificação dos atributos relacionados com esses conceitos, identificar as possíveis vantagens competitivas para empresas de refino de petróleo com a aplicação dos conceitos de Exploration e Exploitation. Para o desenvolvimento deste estudo foi utilizada a pesquisa bibliográfica, compreendendo a investigação em artigos e livros relevantes nestes conceitos apresentados. O trabalho tenta colocar foco na oportunidade da utilização do aprendizado organizacional como forma de melhorar os processos de refino, identificando as alterações de procedimentos e controles para redução de custos (Exploitation) e as possibilidades de redução dos efeitos nos processos, mostrando também o espaço nesse segmento para novas inovações (Exploration).; The objective of this paper is to review the concepts Exploration and Exploitation published by March (1991), by identifying the attributes related to these concepts, identify possible competitive advantages for businesses of oil refining with the application of the concepts of Exploration and Exploitation. To develop this study we used the literature, including research articles and books relevant these concepts presented. The paper tries to put focus on the opportunity of using organizational learning as a way to improve the refining processes...

Os saberes docentes e a exploração sexual comercial de meninas: desafios da contemporaneidade; Teacher knowledge and commercial sexual exploitation of girls: the challenges of contemporary

MARTINS, Railda Gonçalves
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Educação; Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Educação; Ciências Humanas
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
This work is part of the Line Research Training and Professionalization. The goal of research is to know the values that teachers express when dealing with the adolescent involved with commercial sexual exploitation. The teacher and presents as key characters in the process of socialization of the individual, since the school is composed of individuals with certain historical realities, social and cultural references which directly influence the construction and assimilation of values by their students. To read those values, bibliographic searches were conducted and field. In literature, the path query classical and contemporary authors who have focused on studies related to the subject, but also investigations that have as object of study the issue of sexual exploitation of teenagers, both in Brazil and abroad. Regarding the training of teachers and professors, the discussion focused on the teacher knowledge, and as support for their understanding, works by authors who deal with this issue. This is a qualitative research in which empirical study took place in two schools in the municipality of Goiânia-GO. The data collection instruments used were questionnaires, videos related to the issue of commercial sexual exploitation of adolescents (ESCCA) and focus group technique. Data collected and analyzed revealed that the teachers and know the difference between prostitution and ESCCA. Compared to what to do when they realize ESCCA cases...

Os saberes docentes e a exploração sexual comercial de meninas: desafios da contemporaneidade; Teacher knowledge and commercial sexual exploitation of girls: the challenges of contemporary

MARTINS, Railda Gonçalves
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Educação; Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Educação; Ciências Humanas
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
This work is part of the Line Research Training and Professionalization. The goal of research is to know the values that teachers express when dealing with the adolescent involved with commercial sexual exploitation. The teacher and presents as key characters in the process of socialization of the individual, since the school is composed of individuals with certain historical realities, social and cultural references which directly influence the construction and assimilation of values by their students. To read those values, bibliographic searches were conducted and field. In literature, the path query classical and contemporary authors who have focused on studies related to the subject, but also investigations that have as object of study the issue of sexual exploitation of teenagers, both in Brazil and abroad. Regarding the training of teachers and professors, the discussion focused on the teacher knowledge, and as support for their understanding, works by authors who deal with this issue. This is a qualitative research in which empirical study took place in two schools in the municipality of Goiânia-GO. The data collection instruments used were questionnaires, videos related to the issue of commercial sexual exploitation of adolescents (ESCCA) and focus group technique. Data collected and analyzed revealed that the teachers and know the difference between prostitution and ESCCA. Compared to what to do when they realize ESCCA cases...

Archive(s) : approche dialectique et exploitation artistique

Klein, Anne
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
Les archives sont aujourd’hui utilisées et envisagées hors de leur lieu traditionnel qu’est le service d’archives et souvent même hors de l’action des archivistes. Cette thèse de doctorat propose un renversement dialectique benjaminien dans la conception de l’archivistique dont le point central devient l’utilisation des archives définitives plutôt que la production des documents. Les premiers chapitres retracent les différentes compréhensions des archives depuis la création des institutions nationales au 19e siècle jusqu’au renouvellement opéré par certains archivistes se réclamant de la postmodernité à la fin du 20e siècle. Cette histoire des archives et de l’archivistique montre que les archives définitives sont caractérisées au regard du rapport au passé qu’elles permettent et que les archivistes pensent leur objet depuis la question historiographique de l’écriture de l’histoire. Ainsi, deux conceptions générales des archives coexistent aujourd’hui et apparaissent comme essentiellement contradictoires en ce que l’une (traditionnelle) est centrée sur le créateur des documents et le passé compris comme l’ensemble des actes posés par le créateur, tandis que l’autre (postmoderne) se fonde sur les fonctions sociales des archives et sur le rôle de l’archiviste. L’élément commun à ces deux visions est l’absence de prise en charge théorique des utilisateurs et de l’exploitation des documents. Or...

A sequence analytic model of entrepreneurial discovery and exploitation process

Gordon, S.R.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
This study examined the effect that temporal order within the entrepreneurial discovery exploitation process has on the outcomes of venture creation. Consistent with sequential theories of discovery-exploitation, the general flow of venture creation was found to be directed from discovery toward exploitation in a random sample of nascent ventures. However, venture creation attempts which specifically follow this sequence derive poor outcomes. Moreover, simultaneous discovery-exploitation was the most prevalent temporal order observed, and venture attempts that proceed in this manner more likely become operational. These findings suggest that venture creation is a multi-scale phenomenon that is at once directional in time, and simultaneously driven by symbiotically coupled discovery and exploitation.; Scott R. Gordon

The Relationship between Exploration and Exploitation Strategies, Manufacturing Flexibility, and Organizational Learning: An Empirical Comparison between Non-ISO and ISO Certified Firms

Tamayo-Torres, Javier; Guti??rrez-Guti??rrez, Leopoldo; Ruiz-Moreno, Antonia
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
The markets in which organizations currently operate require them to use behaviour based on both exploitation strategy and exploration strategy, each of which contributes fundamental benefits for the firm???s success. Exploitation strategy attempts to obtain the maximum advantage from existing abilities, whereas exploration strategy searches for new ways for the organization to adapt. Further, since manufacturing markets are characterized by short product life, they require a high level of manufacturing flexibility, which can play a crucial role in the development of the exploitation and exploration strategies. This study analyses the relationship of manufacturing flexibility to exploitation and exploration strategies, taking into account an issue of maximum international scope: the implementation of ISO standards. In many international markets, ISO implementation is crucial in enabling organizations to be competitive. However, no consensus has been reached concerning the real benefits that these systems provide to the organizations that implement them. The main goal of our study is to analyse whether there are significant differences in the relationship of manufacturing flexibility to exploitation and exploration strategies in ISO 9001:2000 certified organizations and non-certified organizations. Our results show that most of the relationships analysed are only significant in ISO certified organizations. As an added value...

Status Report on the Plan of Action of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the Protection of Children and Young People from Sexual Violence and Exploitation

Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Report (Bericht); info:eu-repo/semantics/other
EN
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36.76%
The action plan continues the numerous steps taken in the last few years to combat sexual abuse and the sexual exploitation of children and young people. It then goes on to lay the foundation for ongoing progress in this field. This presupposes close cooperation between the competent authorities at the federal, federal states and municipal level, and also with non-governmental organisations and research circles. The establishment of a federal/federal state working group was an important step towards guiding and coordinating the implementation and further development of the action plan. The causes of sexual violence and exploitation must be recognised early and provide the basis for prevention and intervention programmes. In committing sexual acts with children the offenders regularly operate in the relevant areas of criminal law. Besides investigation and prevention, great importance is attributed to improvements in the field of the penal code and procedural law, but also in the area of victim protection and harmonising European criminal law. The action plan thus aims to further develop criminal law protection of children and young people, strengthening prevention and the protection of victims. Further, it seeks to interlink the advice and assistance programmes...

Entrepreneurial discovery and exploitation processes : sequence or symbiosis?

Gordon, S.R.
Fonte: BABSON Publicador: BABSON
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
This study examined the effect that temporal order within the entrepreneurial discovery-exploitation process has on the outcomes of venture creation. Consistent with sequential theories of discovery-exploitation, the general flow of venture creation was found to be directed from discovery toward exploitation in a random sample of nascent ventures. However, venture creation attempts which specifically follow this sequence derive poor outcomes. Moreover, simultaneous discovery-exploitation was the most prevalent temporal order observed, and venture attempts that proceed in this manner more likely become operational. These findings suggest that venture creation is a multi-scale phenomenon that is at once directional in time, and simultaneously driven by symbiotically coupled discovery and exploitation.; Scott R. Gordon; Summary only

Addressing Potential Exploitation In Clinical Research on Human Subjects

Ross, Andrew Dean Foley
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
Numerous claims have been made to the effect that clinical research on human subjects can be exploitative — and hence morally problematic — even if there is informed consent and in the absence of any harm. If such claims are true, it follows that research ethics bodies ought to include avoidance of exploitation amongst their guiding principles. In order to evaluate these claims and provide guidance to implement a principle of avoidance of exploitation, three main questions must be addressed: what exactly do we mean by “exploitation”; how does exploitation affect the morality of clinical trials on human subjects; and what can be done to tackle exploitation in clinical trials. Chapter 2 provides an expository account of the historical context of the claims that sparked the current debate. Chapter 3 addresses the first main question by outlining three main types of exploitation accounts — namely micro fairness exploitation, macro fairness exploitation, and mere use exploitation — with examples of each from the literature. This typology is used in subsequent chapters to conduct a type-by-type analysis in order to determine whether or not particular controversial practices could constitute exploitation. Chapter 4 examines the nature of the connections (if any) between the three types of exploitation and a) concerns about standards of care and placebo controls...

Exploitation as a Path to Development: Sweatshop Labour, Micro-Unfairness, and the Non-Worseness Claim

Randall Barnes, Michael
Fonte: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM) Publicador: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
Sweatshop labour is sometimes defended from critics by arguments that stress the voluntariness of the worker’s choice, and the fact that sweatshops provide a source of income where no other similar source exists. The idea is if it is exploitation—as their opponents charge—it is mutually beneficial and consensual exploitation. This defence appeals to the non-worseness claim (NWC), which says that if exploitation is better for the exploited party than neglect, it cannot be seriously wrong. The NWC renders otherwise exploitative—and therefore morally wrong—transactions permissible, making the exploitation of the global poor a justifiable path to development. In this paper, I argue that the use of NWC for the case of sweatshops is misleading. After reviewing and strengthening the exploitation claims made concerning sweatshops, most importantly by refuting certain allegations that a micro-unfairness account of exploitation cannot evaluate sweatshop labour as exploitative, I then argue that even if this practice may seem permissible due to benefits otherwise unavailable to the global poor, there remains a duty to address the background conditions that make this form of wrong-doing possible, which the NWC cannot accommodate. I argue that the NWC denies this by unreasonably limiting its scope and is therefore incomplete...

Análisis comparativo del componente fauna entre los términos de referencia para la elaboración de estudios de impacto ambiental en proyectos de explotación de hidrocarburos en Colombia y Perú; Comparative analysis of component fauna between the terms of reference for the development of environmental impact studies in exploitation of oil projects in Colombia and Peru

Patiño Guío, María Fernanda; Ruiz Suárez, Erika Johana
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ingeniería; Especialización en Planeación Ambiental y Manejo Integral de los Recursos Naturales Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ingeniería; Especialización en Planeación Ambiental y Manejo Integral de los Recursos Naturales
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
La región andina Sudamérica es una zona privilegiada por sus condiciones geográficas para la formación de yacimientos de hidrocarburos. Su explotación genera importantes impactos a las comunidades faunísticas, por esta razón las autoridades ambientales han establecido herramientas de seguimiento y control. El presente trabajo genera un análisis comparativo entre los términos de referencia para la elaboración de estudios de impacto ambiental en proyectos de explotación de hidrocarburos en Colombia y Perú. Teniendo en cuenta que Perú es el país de Sudamérica que más trayectoria lleva en la explotación de hidrocarburos. Adicionalmente se genera una propuesta metodológica para la evaluación del componente fauna en Colombia, La cual integra las últimas herramientas desarrolladas para evaluación de los impactos sobre la biodiversidad y estrategias de compensación al contexto colombiano.; The South Andean region is an area privileged by its geographical conditions for the formation of hydrocarbon deposits. Its exploitation generates significant impacts to faunal communities, which is why authorities have established environmental monitoring and control tools. The present work generates a comparative analysis of the terms of reference for the preparation of environmental impact studies on projects of exploitation of hydrocarbons in Colombia and Peru. Given that Peru is a country in South America that path leads to more exploitation of hydrocarbons. In addition...

Fishery of the Uçá Crab Ucides Cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763) in a Mangrove Area in Cananéia, State of São Paulo, Brazil: Fishery Performance, Exploitation Patterns and Factors Affecting the Catches

Duarte,Luis Felipe de Almeida; Duran,Ricardo Santos; Mendonça,Jocemar Tomasino; Pinheiro,Marcelo Antonio Amaro
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto Oceanográfico Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto Oceanográfico
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
The fishery of the mangrove crab (Ucides cordatus) is one of the oldest sources of food, income and extractive activity in the estuarine systems of Brazil. The state of São Paulo has the largest population of any Brazilian state, and the city of Cananéia, in the Brazilian southeast has the highest recorded level of exploitation of the uçá-crab. Since 1990, this species has been under intense exploitation pressure due to the unauthorized use of a type of trap called 'redinha'. This type of fishing gear is considered harmful and is prohibited by Brazilian law, although its use is very common throughout the country. This study aims to evaluate the exploitation patterns of U. cordatus based on landing data and monitoring of the crab fishermen to verify the population structure of the crab stock and to identify the factors that influence the catches. A general view of the sustainability of the fishery for this resource is also provided for five defined mangrove sectors (areas A to E) at Cananéia. For this purpose, fishery data were recorded during 2009-2010 by the Instituto de Pesca (APTA/SAA-SP), and monitoring of the capture procedures used by two fishermen was conducted to obtain biometry data (CW, carapace width) and gender data for the captured crabs. The redinha trap was very efficient (86.4%) and produced sustainable catches because the trapped crabs were legal-sized males (CW>60 mm)...

The impact of political culture on firms' choice of exploitation-exploration internationalization strategy

Armagan, Sungu; Ferreira, Manuel Portugal
Fonte: Sage Publicador: Sage
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
This article discusses the impact of political culture on the exploitation-exploration internationalization strategies of firms. In particular, we propose that four dimensions of political culture – nationalism, internationalism, patriotism, and cosmopolitanism – influence firms’ willingness to explore new opportunities and/or to exploit existing products and capabilities across borders. We suggest that firms in nationalist home country cultures are more likely to pursue exploitation strategies, whereas those in cosmopolitan cultures are more likely to pursue exploration strategies. For firms embedded in patriotic or internationalist cultures, a mix of exploitation and exploration internationalization strategies might be the more likely choice. We conclude that these political culture dimensions may be useful to understand and predict many firm-level strategic choices, such as the type of internationalization strategy pursued, the choice of foreign entry mode and location, and decisions concerning the management of foreign subsidiaries.

Microrefuge exploitation by subtidal encrusting sponges: patterns of settlement and post-settlement survival; Microrefuge exploitation by subtidal encrusting sponges

Maldonado, Manuel; Uriz, María Jesús
Fonte: Inter Research Publicador: Inter Research
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 1022703 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
The larvae of many sessile marine invertebrates are able to locate and settle selectively in physical microrefuges where the survival of the post-larval stage may be enhanced. However, it has been suggested that clonal encrusting organisms with unlimited attachment to the substratum do not rely heavily on microrefuges for post-larval survival, since they quickly outgrow refuges and then suffer partial rather than total mortality. Consequently, the larva of such organisms is predicted to show little selectivity at the time of settlement. This prediction, verified for some bryozoans and ascidians, has also been extrapolated to sponges despite the fact that there IS virtually no field information on patterns of settlement and post-settlement mortality in this group. In the present study, we investigated patterns of settlement and juvenile mortality in 2 common Mediterranean encrusting sponges, Crambe crambe and Scopalina lophyropoda. We placed a set of grooved plates (providing microrefuges for larval settlement) and a set of smooth plates (without refuges) in the natural community, mapped larval settlement on plates at 3 d intervals, and recorded the fate of each settled larva for 10 wk. The total number of larvae of C. crambe that settled on the plates was significantly higher than that of S lophyropoda...

Frontiers of change and governance in contractual agreements: the possible role of exploitation - Uniting Reformed Church De Doorns v President of the Republic of South Africa 2013 5 SA 205 (WCC)

Hawthorne,L
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
In the South African common law of contract there appears to be support for the open norm of public policy as a general clause to ameliorate the effects of unfair contracts and terms which are contrary to public policy. The courts have on several occasions held that contracts or terms would be regarded as contrary to public policy had they come about where the parties were in an unequal bargaining relationship and this inequality was linked with another factor(s). In this case note it is argued that the element of unequal bargaining position may be contrary to public policy if it is linked with exploitation as the other factor. The element of exploitation was highlighted in the recent court decision of Uniting Reformed Church, De Doorns v President of the Republic of South Africa 2013 5 SA 205 (WCC). In this case the applicant church owned three properties on which were three schools under the control of the State. The church and the State had concluded 20-year notarial leases in respect of each of the properties. A term in the contract provided that after the expiration of the lease period the church would transfer the properties to the State free of charge. After the expiration of the leases the State demanded the transfer of the properties. The church disputed the claim...