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Expertise in performance assessment: assessors’ perspectives

Berendonk, Christoph; Stalmeijer, Renée E.; Schuwirth, Lambert W. T.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
The recent rise of interest among the medical education community in individual faculty making subjective judgments about medical trainee performance appears to be directly related to the introduction of notions of integrated competency-based education and assessment for learning. Although it is known that assessor expertise plays an important role in performance assessment, the roles played by different factors remain to be unraveled. We therefore conducted an exploratory study with the aim of building a preliminary model to gain a better understanding of assessor expertise. Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted seventeen semi-structured interviews with individual faculty members who differed in professional background and assessment experience. The interviews focused on participants’ perceptions of how they arrived at judgments about student performance. The analysis resulted in three categories and three recurring themes within these categories: the categories assessor characteristics, assessors’ perceptions of the assessment tasks, and the assessment context, and the themes perceived challenges, coping strategies, and personal development. Central to understanding the key processes in performance assessment appear to be the dynamic interrelatedness of the different factors and the developmental nature of the processes. The results are supported by literature from the field of expertise development and in line with findings from social cognition research. The conceptual framework has implications for faculty development and the design of programs of assessment.

Eye Movements as an Index of Pathologist Visual Expertise: A Pilot Study

Brunyé, Tad T.; Carney, Patricia A.; Allison, Kimberly H.; Shapiro, Linda G.; Weaver, Donald L.; Elmore, Joann G.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
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36.05%
A pilot study examined the extent to which eye movements occurring during interpretation of digitized breast biopsy whole slide images (WSI) can distinguish novice interpreters from experts, informing assessments of competency progression during training and across the physician-learning continuum. A pathologist with fellowship training in breast pathology interpreted digital WSI of breast tissue and marked the region of highest diagnostic relevance (dROI). These same images were then evaluated using computer vision techniques to identify visually salient regions of interest (vROI) without diagnostic relevance. A non-invasive eye tracking system recorded pathologists’ (N = 7) visual behavior during image interpretation, and we measured differential viewing of vROIs versus dROIs according to their level of expertise. Pathologists with relatively low expertise in interpreting breast pathology were more likely to fixate on, and subsequently return to, diagnostically irrelevant vROIs relative to experts. Repeatedly fixating on the distracting vROI showed limited value in predicting diagnostic failure. These preliminary results suggest that eye movements occurring during digital slide interpretation can characterize expertise development by demonstrating differential attraction to diagnostically relevant versus visually distracting image regions. These results carry both theoretical implications and potential for monitoring and evaluating student progress and providing automated feedback and scanning guidance in educational settings.

Disentangling the Effects of Cognitive Development and Linguistic Expertise: A Longitudinal Study of the Acquisition of English in Internationally-Adopted Children

Snedeker, Jesse; Geren, Joy; Shafto, Carissa L.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Early language development is characterized by predictable changes in the words children produce and the complexity of their utterances. In infants these changes could reflect increasing linguistic expertise or cognitive maturation and development. To disentangle these factors, we compared the acquisition of English in internationally-adopted preschoolers and internationally adopted infants. Parental reports and speech samples were collected for one year. Both groups showed the qualitative shifts that characterize first-language acquisition. Initially, they produced single-word utterances consisting mostly of nouns and social words. The appearance of verbs, adjectives and multiword utterances was predicted by vocabulary size in both groups. Preschoolers did learn some words at an earlier stage than infants, specifically words referring to the past or future and adjectives describing behavior and internal states. These findings suggest that cognitive development plays little role in the shift from referential terms to predicates but may constrain children’s ability to learn some abstract words.; Psychology

Innovating Development Finance : From Financing Sources to Financial Solutions

Girishankar, Navin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.92%
As early as 2000, development partners embarked on a decade-long search for "innovative" or alternative sources of Official Development Assistance to help finance achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. For their part, developing countries have sought not only more financial flows but better financial solutions, for example, through partnerships that mobilize private finance for public service delivery, risk mitigation efforts that promote private entry in the productive sectors, and support for carbon trading. This paper offers a framework to organize and understand this heterogeneous mix of innovations in fund-raising and financial solutions for development. It also provides, for the first time, a stocktaking of actual innovations that make up the international landscape and highlights the World Bank Group s role to date. The stocktaking shows that innovative finance mechanisms have played a more significant role in supporting financial solutions on the ground than in identifying and exploiting "alternative sources of ODA." Innovative fund-raising therefore should be viewed as a complement to - rather than a substitute for - traditional efforts to mobilize official flows...

Tracking Results in Agriculture and Rural Development in Less-Than-Ideal Conditions : A Sourcebook of Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation

Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Fonte: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Publicador: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
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55.93%
The purpose of this sourcebook is to pull together into a single document a collection of common sense tips and recommendations based on actual practices and experience around the world. The sourcebook aims first and foremost to help strengthen Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) capacity at the national and sub-national levels, and to ensure a consistency of approach and methodology so that, at the global level, sufficient reliable and timely information can be accessed from the different countries and used to make cross-country comparisons and to calculate development indicators at the global level. The sourcebook is specifically targeted towards countries where conditions are less-than-ideal, particularly with respect to the availability of relevant information. The sourcebook also shows how a service delivery approach can be used to select indicators which can generate useful, easy-to-measure early outcome measures. It suggests that greater use be made of qualitative indicators, such as access, use and satisfaction. The sourcebook devotes considerable attention to the need for a strong statistical infrastructure and reviews the range of different statistical instruments available.

Tracking Results in Agriculture and Rural Development in Less-Than-Ideal Conditions : A Sourcebook of Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation

Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; FAO Statistics Division
Fonte: Bonn: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development Publicador: Bonn: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
The purpose of this sourcebook is to pull together into a single document a collection of common sense tips and recommendations based on actual practices and experience around the world. The sourcebook aims first and foremost to help strengthen Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) capacity at the national and sub-national levels, and to ensure a consistency of approach and methodology so that, at the global level, sufficient reliable and timely information can be accessed from the different countries and used to make cross-country comparisons and to calculate development indicators at the global level. The sourcebook is specifically targeted towards countries where conditions are less-than-ideal, particularly with respect to the availability of relevant information. The sourcebook also shows how a service delivery approach can be used to select indicators which can generate useful, easy-to-measure early outcome measures. It suggests that greater use be made of qualitative indicators, such as access, use and satisfaction. The sourcebook devotes considerable attention to the need for a strong statistical infrastructure and reviews the range of different statistical instruments available.

The Transport Sector : A Laboratory for Good Practices in Capacity Development?

Davis, Deborah
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
As articulated in the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2005), country capacity is at the core of sustainable development. The concepts of capacity and capacity development (CD) are so all-encompassing, however, that practitioners have often found it difficult to make operational sense of them. Practitioners should focus on the specific capacities needed to reach well-defined goals, while keeping in mind several basic principles: (a) capacity development is a long-term process and requires a long-term view, (b) it must be country led, (c) donors should coordinate their CD support activities, (d) good diagnostics should inform the program design, and (e) learning activities must be comprehensive. This brief looks at how three ongoing World Bank projects in the transport sector worked to put these ideas into practice. Within very different country contexts, all incorporate three or more of these core principles. All are country led and based on good diagnostics; all are being carried out in a five-year period with ample time and budget for capacity development; all focus on developing capacity simultaneously at the individual...

Early Childhood Development Operations in Latin and Caribbean Region (LCR) : Jamaica, Mexico, and Brazil in Focus

Holland, Peter; Evans, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.92%
The rationale and evidence of the effectiveness of investing early in children is compelling: early childhood is the most rapid period of development in a human life, with incredible brain development occurring (85 percent of the brain is wired by age 5). Investments in Early Childhood Development (ECD) are among the most effective and cost-effective investments a country can make in its people. Simply put, investing in ECD is an investment for life. Children who participate in ECD programs demonstrate improved school readiness, success, and completion; improved health; reduced risky behavior and crime; and higher productivity and income. Perhaps most importantly for public policy, delays in early childhood are difficult and costly to reverse later in life. The World Bank is particularly well-poised to help clients further the ECD agenda in their countries and improve medium and long-term development for generations to come. Given the inherently multi-sectoral nature of ECD interventions, including inter alia health...

Strategic Electronic Government Procurement : Strategic Planning Guide

Asian Development Bank; Inter-American Development Bank; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.04%
Many countries have discovered that the transition to e-government, and all the benefits that this entails, can require the extensive re-engineering of public sector management, service design and delivery, legislation and even community expectations. E-government is a reform program which exploits the potential of online technology, but is not delivered merely through the design, acquisition and application of this technology. Like other parts of an e-government program, implementing e-GP is a reform strategy, and like any reform strategy, will be developed, customized and owned by each jurisdiction if it is to succeed. An e-GP implementation strategy is sensitive to all of the elements that distinguish one jurisdiction from another including management and leadership culture, regulations, skills and expertise, etcetera. This guide is intended to provide an awareness of the issues and critical success factors that will generally be found in any successful e-GP strategy and is aimed at assisting jurisdictions and organizations develop their own implementation strategy for this sensitive and high value activity of government.

Expanding Access to Early Childhood Development : Using Interactive Audio Instruction

World Bank Group; Education Development Center
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
The returns to investments in early childhood development (ECD) are manifold and can include improved school readiness, reduced drop-out rates, higher labor force productivity and greater social cohesion. Despite these high returns, enrollment in early childhood education is just 18 percent across Africa, with disproportionately high enrollment from children in urban areas and from wealthier families. Interactive Audio Instruction (IAI) is a distance learning technology that can deliver low-cost, culturally appropriate education via radio or mobile audio technology. It is a highly effective tool to reach children who can be hard to reach through conventional programs, including the rural poor and children with disabilities. IAI can also be an effective form of service delivery in unstable and conflict-affected regions.

From the laboratory to the real world : Evaluating the impact of impostors, expertise and individual differences on human face matching performance.

Calic, Dragana
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Evaluating Human Operator face matching performance in applied settings, such as airports, surveillance and access control settings would not only be logistically difficult, but it may not be possible due to many unknowns, such as the presence of impostors. Consequently, Human Operator performance has most commonly been evaluated experimentally, in well controlled laboratory settings. However, the question is, do the results obtained in the well controlled laboratory settings sufficiently reflect, and can they explain what happens in the real world? This applied problem has motivated the principal aim of this research to evaluate the feasibility of extrapolating one-to-one face matching performance findings from laboratory to the real world access control setting, and, in the process, support the development of an ecologically motivated performance evaluation methodology that could be used for future performance assessments, beyond the research reported this thesis. The approach taken to address this aim stemmed from the focus on identity verification or one-to-one face matching task, predominantly performed within access control settings. This focus helped identify numerous factors that may affect face matching performance within access control settings. As a result...

Touching up on faces -A multisensory perspective on acquiring expertise with faces-; Gesichter neu erfassen -Eine multisensorische Perspektive auf die Erlangung von Expertise für Gesichter-

Whittingstall, Lisa
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
Faces are often considered to be different from other object categories both because of the sociobiological necessity for humans to differentiate members of their own group, and because of the differences in cognitive demands for face perception relative to general object recognition. A tremendous amount of research has shown that human observers are experts at visual face recognition due to specialized visual mechanisms for face processing that evolve with perceptual expertise. In this Ph.D. thesis, we introduce haptic face processing as a tool for studying the mechanisms underlying face processing expertise from new angles. In the first study, we tested face recognition within and across the haptic and visual modalities. We showed that both the haptic and visual systems have the capacity to process faces, and that face-relevant information can be shared across sensory modalities. Interestingly, we found this information transfer across modalities to be asymmetric and limited by haptic face processing. In the second study, we investigated whether and how the way in which haptic information is gathered affects the encoding, processing and storage of that information and consequently how it affects face recognition performance. This was achieved by using a gaze-restricted display to constrain the visual system to sequential...

Government as an informed buyer: recognising technical expertise as a crucial factor in the success of engineering contracts

Yates, Athol
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 181009 bytes; 69 bytes; 2777 bytes; 865 bytes; text/html; image/gif; image/gif; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
To be an informed buyer in government, two distinct skill sets are required: contracting skills and subject matter expertise. For goods and services which have complex engineering inputs, the subject matter knowledge required is engineering expertise. While government procurement and contracting guidelines recognise the importance of both skill sets, their emphasis is on contracting skills with only passing reference to subject matter expertise Access to technical expertise is becoming a more critical issue for governments due to changes in the administration and type of contracts, and the skills available in the public sector. Devolution and decentralisation of government procurement powers are increasing the decision making power of individual agencies and contract staff, mega-contracts and the increasing technological complexity of contracts are increasing the penalties for making uninformed decisions, and a 20% reduction in the number of engineers in the public sector over the last decade has reduced significantly government's in-house engineering expertise. There is no universal amount of engineering expertise required for a contract which has complex engineering inputs. The appropriate type and level of engineering expertise varies with the type of contract and at different stages of the contract. Based on research...

The Effect of a Clinical Practicum on Elementary Education Preservice Teachers' Development of Reading Expertise

Robbins, Helen Jean
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
The purpose of the study was to measure gains in the development of elementary education teachers’ reading expertise, to determine if there was a differential gain in reading expertise, and last, to examine their perceptions of acquiring reading expertise. This research is needed in the field of teacher education, specifically in the field of reading. A quasi-experimental design with a comparison group using pretest-posttest mixed-method, repeated measures was utilized. Quantitative data analysis measured the development of reading expertise of elementary preservice teachers compared to early childhood preservice teachers; and, was used to examine the differential gains in reading expertise. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted on pre- and posttest responses on a Protocol of Questions. Further analysis was conducted on five variables (miscue analysis, fluency analysis, data analysis, inquiry orientation and intelligent action) using a univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). A one-way ANOVA was carried out on gain scores of the low and middle groups of elementary education preservice teachers. Qualitative data analysis suggested by Merriam (1989) and Miles and Huberman (1994) was used to determine if the elementary education preservice teachers perceived they had acquired the expertise to teach reading. Elementary education preservice teachers who participated in a supervised clinical practicum made significant gains in their development of reading expertise as compared to early childhood preservice teachers who did not make significant gains. Elementary education preservice teachers who were in the low and middle third levels of expertise at pretest demonstrated significant gains in reading expertise. Last...

Bangladesh Policy Note : Procurement Management Capacity Development in Bangladesh

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Bangladesh has reshaped the landscape of procurement policy reform and capacity development over the last several years, and has taken lead in the South Asia region. Though reasonably good progress has been made in policy reform, yet its application has proven to be relatively inconsistent. Effective implementation of the law requires a public and a private sector that have the skills and ability to plan, execute, monitor, and manage procurement. Efficient management of public procurement is largely dependent on the adequacy of understanding and skill of procurement professionals involved in the process. The World Bank supported Government's procurement reform as part of its strategy to improve governance. Yet efforts to improve procurement systems will have little effect to ensure best value for money if these systems are not implemented by professionals of adequate knowledge and expertise. Skill gap in the area of procurement is a recognized fact. And continuation of the capacity development activity is crucial to bring about an effective change in the system. The policy note is designed to provide guidance/ advice to Government of Bangladesh (GOB) in: (i) developing a robust framework for procurement capacity development...

Capturing Technology for Development : An Evaluation of World Bank Group Activities in Information and Communication Technologies, Volume 2. Appendixes

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
Technological innovation drives economic progress. Information and communication technologies (ICT) can be leveraged for development, but harnessing this potential depends on an enabling environment for their production, diffusion, and use. Otherwise, technology can widen rather than narrow existing inequalities. Over the past decade developing countries have seen rapid but uneven growth in ICT access and use. The unprecedented spread of mobile technologies, driven by private sector investment and supported by reforms to promote competition, enabled the growth of phone services for the underserved and poor to levels unseen before. But outside mobile telephony, large gaps exist in high-speed Internet access and broadband connectivity and in the diffusion and use of ICT in business, services, and government the areas where ICT can deliver the largest developmental impacts. The World Bank Group's strategy has sought development results in ICT by promoting (i) sector reform, (ii) access to information infrastructure...

Precursors to successful youth-adult partnerships: The role of adult warmth and expertise

MacIntosh, Ashley N.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
Youth-Adult Partnerships (Y-APs) have been found to foster youth engagement and positive youth development. However, existing research tends to confound the characteristics of Y-APs with their general outcomes and the existing methods of evaluating Y-APs tend to be based on correlational methodologies. I sought to create a measure of Y-AP success that did not confound the characteristics of a successful Y-AP with outcomes. Using the existing literature as a guide, three components were selected for inclusion in the Y-AP success measure: 1) perceptions of productivity; 2) positive affect; and 3) having one's contributions welcomed and considered. Using this new measure, I tested a model to assess how adult warmth and expertise interacted with task difficulty to influence three components of Y-AP success. Participants included 402 university students (M = 19.27, SD = 1.28, 89.1 % female) from Brock University and Cape Breton University. Video clips of an adult, depicting all possible combinations of warmth and expertise were created for this study, as well as a pair of hypothetical tasks designed to elicit differential degrees of perceived difficulty. Participants were exposed to one video of a hypothetical adult and two hypothetical tasks and responded to the Y-AP success measures twice...

Development paths of university teachers during a pedagogical development course

Postareff, Liisa; Nevgi, Anne
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
El presente estudio tiene como objetivo analizar el desarrollo de la experticia pedagógica del profesorado universitario durante un curso de formación pedagógica de diez ECTS de cinco meses de duración. Los datos recogidos consisten en un diario reflexivo de los dieciocho participantes en el curso. El método de análisis de contenido sirvió para identificar las diferentes trayectorias de desarrollo del profesorado desde sus diarios reflexivos. Las trayectorias difieren unas de otras en términos de desarrollo de las prácticas, concepciones docentes e identidad profesional. Los resultados muestran cómo algunos profesores se resisten a cambiar sus concepciones acerca de la enseñanza y el aprendizaje, mientras que otros describen importantes cambios tanto en sus concepciones sobre la enseñanza y el aprendizaje, como en su identidad docente. Estos resultados están en consonancia con la teoría del boundary crossing de Akkerman y Bakker (2011).; Aquest estudi té com a objectiu analitzar el desenvolupament de l’expertesa pedagògica del professorat universitari durant un curs de formació pedagògica de deu ECTS de cinc mesos de durada. Les dades recollides consisteixen en un diari reflexiu dels divuit participants en el curs. El mètode d’anàlisi de contingut va servir per identificar les diferents trajectòries de desenvolupament del professorat des dels seus diaris reflexius. Les trajectòries difereixen les unes de les altres en termes de desenvolupament de les pràctiques...

Design expertise: how knowledge, experience, and skills set expert architects apart from novices; Expertise en proyeto: cómo conocimientos, experiencias y habilidades diferencian arquitectos expertos de los novatos.; Expertise em projeto: como conhecimentos, experiências e habilidades diferenciam arquitetos expertos dos novatos

Florio, Wilson; Mateus, Rafael Peres
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/12/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
The analysis of the design process under the cognitive theory proposes an understanding of internal mental processes, based on the processing of information derived from the knowledge, experience, and skills of the architect. Although it is difficult to trace the sources of the architects’ thoughts, the drawings they produce facilitate the identification of the successive approaches used during the design process. Since cognition, or the act of thinking, itself cannot be observed, we can only analyze the results of the thought that guided cognitive actions. The steps of the research conducted by the authors of this article were as follows: 1) three experienced architects and three novices were filmed individually, for 60 minutes, while they carried out a project; 2) these professionals were interviewed for 30 minutes after the end of the project; 3) physical, perceptual, functional, and conceptual cognitive actions were identified by segmenting and codifying the actions performed during the filming; 4) these data were translated into graphs; 5) the differences between novices and experts were identified from the response time in each of the four levels of cognitive actions; and 6) the qualitative analysis of actions and effectiveness were assessed. Experienced architects quickly recovered from their memory-specific knowledge and...

Textual genres and expertise in translation; Los géneros textuales y la pericia en traducción

Conde, Tomás; Universidade do Vasco
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Revisión de literatura; Propuesta de investigación Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/12/2014 SPA
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36.05%
http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2014v2n34p167This paper deals with the implications that a potential relationship between textual genres and expertise would have both on translation teaching and research. Firstly, the concepts are defined separately, then problems inherent to translation competence are discussed, finally several ideas are introduced on how textual genres on experts and novices are to be used, and vice versa. Using textual genres might accelerate the development of the expertise levels, by automating mental processes, paving the way for metacognitive mecanisms, and allowing for the possibility that subjects work on pseudorreal situations. Scientific initiatives are proposed to shed some light on the differences among experts and novices regarding the way they use textual genres. This interconnection would be thus reinforced and justified with empirical data.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2014v2n34p167El presente trabajo versa sobre las posibilidades que, en el ámbito de la traducción, abre tanto para la docencia como para la investigación la interconexión entre géneros textuales y pericia. Se tratan primero los conceptos de forma aislada, se comentan luego los problemas que entraña la competencia traductora y...