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Translocação bacteriana na isquemia-reperfusão hepática com e sem estase venosa intestinal: estudo experimental em ratos; Bacterial translocation in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury with and without intestinal venous stasis: experimental model in rats

Heijden, Karin Marie Van Der
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/08/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.77%
Atualmente, define-se como translocação bacteriana o deslocamento de bactérias e/ou seus produtos, como as endotoxinas, da luz do TGI para sítios estéreis. A ocorrência de translocação bacteriana tem sido sugerida em diversos estudos experimentais e clínicos. Apesar de todos estes estudos sustentarem a hipótese da ocorrência de translocação bacteriana, eles não demonstram que a bactéria detectada no sangue e em sítios estéreis tem efetivamente origem no TGI do animal ou paciente. Portanto, o objetivo da primeira fase deste trabalho, consistiu no desenvolvimento de um modelo experimental que comprovasse que bactérias isoladas em sítios estéreis são realmente de origem intestinal e que pudesse posteriormente viabilizar o estudo da translocação bacteriana. Para isto, realizou-se a colonização de ratos através da inoculação, via gavagem, de solução de Enterococcus faecalis resistente a vancomicina (ERV) e E. coli produtora de Beta-lactamase de espectro estendido (ESBL). O perfil de resistência destas cepas foi utilizado como marcador. Posteriormente, este estudo avaliou a translocação bacteriana em ratos submetidos a isquemia-reperfusão hepática com e sem estase venosa intestinal, utilizando o modelo de colonização. Quarenta e seis animais foram divididos nos seguintes grupos: Grupo I (n=15) ratos submetidos a isquemia hepática e estase intestinal por 30 minutos...

Experimental analysis of an electromagnetic zero-sequence suppressor

De Freitas, S. C L; De Oliveira, L. C O; De Souza, J. B.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.68%
The intent of this paper is to present contributions focused on the analysis and development of harmonic attenuator devices. Among these, highlights here the so-called electromagnetic zero-sequence suppressor. This arrangement consists of a filter and a blocker, both electromagnetic, whose combined operation provides paths for low and high impedance, respectively, which can be conveniently adjusted to the desired performance. In this context, here are present results related to experimental studies that show the behavior of the equipment in front of different operating conditions. The tests were performed on a low-power prototype (1kVA/220V) and the analysis results show the main motivator aspects for the use of these devices. © 2012 IEEE.

Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy after spinal cord injury: systematic review

Falavigna,Asdrubal; Teles,Alisson Roberto; Velho,Maíra Cristina; Kleber,Fabrício Diniz
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Coluna Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Coluna
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2009 EN
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45.74%
OBJECTIVE: to conduct a systematic review of experimental and clinical studies evaluating the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the spinal cord injury. METHODS: ninety-three studies were identified in the database Pubmed. Among these, through a set of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 11 articles published between 1963 and 2009 were selected. In the nine experimental studies, different ways to apply the treatment were observed. The measured outcomes were: functional, histological, biochemical and electrophysiological. RESULTS: in most of the studies, the results show recovery of locomotor function, histology and/or biochemical features. Regarding the two studies in clinical samples, the results are controversial. The samples are heterogeneous and the application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is not the same for all patients in each study. CONCLUSION: considering the results of this review, further studies are necessary to define the role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in acute spinal cord injury.

The Use and Interpretation of Quasi-Experimental Studies in Medical Informatics

Harris, Anthony D.; McGregor, Jessina C.; Perencevich, Eli N.; Furuno, Jon P.; Zhu, Jingkun; Peterson, Dan E.; Finkelstein, Joseph
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
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45.79%
Quasi-experimental study designs, often described as nonrandomized, pre-post intervention studies, are common in the medical informatics literature. Yet little has been written about the benefits and limitations of the quasi-experimental approach as applied to informatics studies. This paper outlines a relative hierarchy and nomenclature of quasi-experimental study designs that is applicable to medical informatics intervention studies. In addition, the authors performed a systematic review of two medical informatics journals, the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association (JAMIA) and the International Journal of Medical Informatics (IJMI), to determine the number of quasi-experimental studies published and how the studies are classified on the above-mentioned relative hierarchy. They hope that future medical informatics studies will implement higher level quasi-experimental study designs that yield more convincing evidence for causal links between medical informatics interventions and outcomes.

Epidemiological and experimental studies on the effects of methyl isocyanate on the course of pregnancy.

Varma, D R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1987 EN
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45.7%
Although press reports indicate that the leakage of methyl isocyanate (MIC) on December 3, 1984, in Bhopal has led to an increase in spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, infant mortality, and fetal abnormalities, no clinical or experimental studies on the reproductive toxicity of MIC were reported in scientific journals for several months after the accident. We therefore conducted, 9 months after the accident, a preliminary survey of 3270 families in Bhopal and experimental studies on the effects of MIC in pregnant mice. It was found that 43% of pregnancies in women residing near the Union Carbide pesticide plant did not result in the birth of a live child. Likewise, exposure of mice to relatively low concentrations of MIC (9 and 15 ppm) for 3 hr caused complete resorption in more than 75% of animals. A decrease in fetal and placental weights was observed at 2 to 15 ppm MIC. In general, the experimental findings in mice corroborate the epidemiological data from Bhopal. The mechanism of the fetal toxicity of MIC remains to be established.

Mechanisms of methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity: evidence from experimental studies

Farina, Marcelo; Rocha, João B. T.; Aschner, Michael
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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45.7%
Neurological disorders are common, costly, and can cause enduring disability. Although mostly unknown, a few environmental toxicants are recognized causes of neurological disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. One of the best known neurotoxins is methylmercury (MeHg), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. In the aquatic environment, MeHg is accumulated in fish, which represent a major source of human exposure. Although several episodes of MeHg poisoning have contributed to the understanding of the clinical symptoms and histological changes elicited by this neurotoxicant in humans, experimental studies have been pivotal in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that mediate MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. The objective of this mini-review is to summarize data from experimental studies on molecular mechanisms of MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. While the full picture has yet to be unmasked, in vitro approaches based on cultured cells, isolated mitochondria and tissue slices, as well as in vivo studies based mainly on the use of rodents, point to impairment in intracellular calcium homeostasis, alteration of glutamate homeostasis and oxidative stress as important events in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. The potential relationship among these events is discussed...

Insights into Arbovirus Evolution and Adaptation from Experimental Studies

Ciota, Alexander T.; Kramer, Laura D.
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.73%
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are maintained in nature by cycling between vertebrate hosts and haematophagous invertebrate vectors. These viruses are responsible for causing a significant public health burden throughout the world, with over 100 species having the capacity to cause human disease. Arbovirus outbreaks in previously naïve environments demonstrate the potential of these pathogens for expansion and emergence, possibly exacerbated more recently by changing climates. These recent outbreaks, together with the continued devastation caused by endemic viruses, such as Dengue virus which persists in many areas, demonstrate the need to better understand the selective pressures that shape arbovirus evolution. Specifically, a comprehensive understanding of host-virus interactions and how they shape both host-specific and virus-specific evolutionary pressures is needed to fully evaluate the factors that govern the potential for host shifts and geographic expansions. One approach to advance our understanding of the factors influencing arbovirus evolution in nature is the use of experimental studies in the laboratory. Here, we review the contributions that laboratory passage and experimental infection studies have made to the field of arbovirus adaptation and evolution...

Origin of magmas in subduction zones: a review of experimental studies

Kushiro, Ikuo
Fonte: The Japan Academy Publicador: The Japan Academy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
Studies of the origin of magmas in subduction zones, particularly in the Japanese island arc, have been significantly advanced by petrological, geochemical, geophysical and experimental studies during last 50 years. Kuno’s original model1) for magma generation in the Japanese island arc, that tholeiite magmas are formed at relatively shallow levels in the mantle on the Pacific Ocean side whereas alkali basalt magmas are formed in deeper levels on the Japan Sea side, stimulated subsequent studies, particularly high-pressure experimental studies in which the author participated. Recent seismic tomographic studies of regions beneath the Japanese island arc demonstrate that seismic low-velocity zones where primary magmas are formed have finger-like shapes and rise obliquely from the Japan Sea side toward the Pacific Ocean side. Based on experimental studies, it is suggested that the compositions of primary magmas depend mainly on the H2O content and degree of melting in the melting zones, and that primary tholeiite magmas are formed by 10–25% melting of the source mantle containing less than 0.2 wt.% H2O. High-alumina basalt and alkali basalt magmas are formed by smaller degrees of melting of similar mantle, whereas primary boninite magmas are formed by more than 20% melting of the source mantle with more than 0.2 wt.% H2O...

The Impact of Hepatic Steatosis on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Experimental Studies: A Systematic Review

Chu, Michael J. J.; Hickey, Anthony J. R.; Phillips, Anthony R. J.; Bartlett, Adam S. J. R.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
Background. The impact of hepatic steatosis on outcome following hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains controversial with conflicting clinical results. A number of experimental studies have been published examining the relationship between hepatic steatosis and IRI. This systematic review evaluates these experimental studies. Methods. An electronic search of the Medline and Embase databases (January 1946 to June 2012) was performed to identify studies that reported relevant outcomes in animal models of hepatic steatosis subjected to IRI. Results. A total of 1314 articles were identified, of which 33 met the predefined criteria and were included in the study. There was large variation in the type of animal model, duration, and type of IRI and reporting of histological findings. Increased macrovesicular steatosis (>30%) was associated with increased histological damage, liver function derangement, and reduced survival. Increased duration of warm or cold ischemia had a negative impact on all outcomes measured. Microvesicular steatosis did not influence outcome. Conclusions. Findings from this systemic review support the hypothesis that livers with >30% macrovesicular steatosis are less tolerant of IRI. Clinically, it is likely that these findings are applicable to patients undergoing hepatic resection...

Neurotrauma and mesenchymal stem cells treatment: From experimental studies to clinical trials

Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco; Goulart, Camila de Oliveira; Ramalho, Bruna dos Santos; Oliveira, Júlia Teixeira; Almeida, Fernanda Martins
Fonte: Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited Publicador: Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.73%
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has attracted the attention of scientists and clinicians around the world. Basic and pre-clinical experimental studies have highlighted the positive effects of MSC treatment after spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury. These effects are believed to be due to their ability to differentiate into other cell lineages, modulate inflammatory and immunomodulatory responses, reduce cell apoptosis, secrete several neurotrophic factors and respond to tissue injury, among others. There are many pre-clinical studies on MSC treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI) and peripheral nerve injuries. However, the same is not true for clinical trials, particularly those concerned with nerve trauma, indicating the necessity of more well-constructed studies showing the benefits that cell therapy can provide for individuals suffering the consequences of nerve lesions. As for clinical trials for SCI treatment the results obtained so far are not as beneficial as those described in experimental studies. For these reasons basic and pre-clinical studies dealing with MSC therapy should emphasize the standardization of protocols that could be translated to the clinical set with consistent and positive outcomes. This review is based on pre-clinical studies and clinical trials available in the literature from 2010 until now. At the time of writing this article there were 43 and 36 pre-clinical and 19 and 1 clinical trials on injured spinal cord and peripheral nerves...

Real versus Simulated Mobile Phone Exposures in Experimental Studies

Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
We examined whether exposures to mobile phone radiation in biological/clinical experiments should be performed with real-life Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) emitted by commercially available mobile phone handsets, instead of simulated EMFs emitted by generators or test phones. Real mobile phone emissions are constantly and unpredictably varying and thus are very different from simulated emissions which employ fixed parameters and no variability. This variability is an important parameter that makes real emissions more bioactive. Living organisms seem to have decreased defense against environmental stressors of high variability. While experimental studies employing simulated EMF-emissions present a strong inconsistency among their results with less than 50% of them reporting effects, studies employing real mobile phone exposures demonstrate an almost 100% consistency in showing adverse effects. This consistency is in agreement with studies showing association with brain tumors, symptoms of unwellness, and declines in animal populations. Average dosimetry in studies with real emissions can be reliable with increased number of field measurements, and variation in experimental outcomes due to exposure variability becomes less significant with increased number of experimental replications. We conclude that...

Disorder Prediction Methods, Their Applicability to Different Protein Targets and Their Usefulness for Guiding Experimental Studies

Atkins, Jennifer D.; Boateng, Samuel Y.; Sorensen, Thomas; McGuffin, Liam J.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/08/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.72%
The role and function of a given protein is dependent on its structure. In recent years, however, numerous studies have highlighted the importance of unstructured, or disordered regions in governing a protein’s function. Disordered proteins have been found to play important roles in pivotal cellular functions, such as DNA binding and signalling cascades. Studying proteins with extended disordered regions is often problematic as they can be challenging to express, purify and crystallise. This means that interpretable experimental data on protein disorder is hard to generate. As a result, predictive computational tools have been developed with the aim of predicting the level and location of disorder within a protein. Currently, over 60 prediction servers exist, utilizing different methods for classifying disorder and different training sets. Here we review several good performing, publicly available prediction methods, comparing their application and discussing how disorder prediction servers can be used to aid the experimental solution of protein structure. The use of disorder prediction methods allows us to adopt a more targeted approach to experimental studies by accurately identifying the boundaries of ordered protein domains so that they may be investigated separately...

Avaliando a dívida técnica em produtos de código aberto por meio de estudos experimentais; Assesing the technical debt in open source products through experimental studies

Vieira, Igor Rodrigues
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência da Computação (INF); Instituto de Informática - INF (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência da Computação (INF); Instituto de Informática - INF (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/octet-stream; application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.66%
The metaphor of technical debt (TD) is very useful for Software Engineering, it is directly related to the context of evolution and maintenance in the life cycle of a product. It can be understood as a relation between costs and effects, of short and long term, associated with project decisions during the software development process. Currently, large companies and some government sectors still have restrictions in adopting open source products by uncertainties related to its quality and reliability. In this context, this study aims to evaluate the technical debt in open source products in order to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to evaluate the software quality. For this, were performed experimental studies, contemplating the automated data collection for a significant set of products open source, having as input its source code. These products were evaluated by SonarQube Platform, which enables collect several metrics about the quality of the source code - including the technical debt. The interpretation of the collected data allowed the analysis of the TD evolution for these products, the classification of the projects and the verification of the representativeness of the quality axis that make up the TD. The results suggest that most of the projects evaluated have shown decreased TD along their versions and they showed slightly elevated values of the metric. Another contribution is that the quality axis Coverage...

How Do Ex Ante Simulations Compare with Ex Post Evaluations? Evidence from the Impact of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs

Leite, Phillippe; Narayan, Ambar; Skoufias, Emmanuel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.72%
This paper compares the ex ante simulation of the impacts of conditional cash transfer programs against the ex post estimates of impacts obtained from experimental evaluations. Using data on program-eligible households in treatment areas from the same baseline surveys that are used for experimental evaluations of conditional cash transfer programs in Mexico and Ecuador, the authors use a micro-simulation model to derive ex ante estimates of the impact of the programs on enrollment rates and poverty. The estimates reveal that ex ante predictions of certain impacts of conditional cash transfer programs match up well against the benchmark estimates of ex post experimental studies. The findings seem to support the use of this model to assess the potential impact and cost efficiency of a conditional cash transfer program ex ante, in order to inform decisions about how the program would be designed.

NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF NATURAL CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER FROM VERTICAL AND INCLINED NARROW FLAT PLATES AND SHORT CYLINDERS

KALENDAR, ABDULRAHIM
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.7%
Natural convective heat transfer from flat plates and short cylinders inclined at an angle to the vertical in laminar and transition flow regions with isothermal or constant heat flux conditions have been numerically and experimentally studied. When the width of the plate is relatively small compared to its height, i.e., the plate is narrow, the heat transfer rate can be considerably greater than that predicted by these two-dimensional flow results. When the narrow plate is inclined to the vertical, pressure changes normal to the plate surface arise and these pressure changes can alter the nature and the magnitude of the edge effects. When two narrow inclined rectangular flat plates of the same size separated vertically or horizontally, the flow interaction between these heated plates can have a significant effect on the heat transfer. When relatively small square and circular cylinders with exposed top surfaces inclined to the vertical are used, the interaction of the flow over the surfaces that make up the cylinder and inclination angle have, in general, a considerable effect on the magnitude of the mean heat transfer rate and on the nature of the flow over the cylinder surfaces. In the present numerical studies it has been assumed that the fluid properties are constant except for the density change with temperature which gives rise to the buoyancy forces...

Novel, Low Cost, Highly Effective, Handmade Steroid Pellets for Experimental Studies

Sahores, Ana; Luque, Guillermina Maria; Wargon, Victoria; May, Maria; Molinolo, Alfredo; Becu, D; Lanari, Claudia Lee Malvina; Lamb, Caroline Ana
Fonte: Public Library Science Publicador: Public Library Science
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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55.72%
The basic component of SilasticH glue (Dow Corning) used to prepare SilasticH pellets is polydimethylsiloxane. This compound is also present in other commercial adhesives such as FASTIXH (Akapol SA) that are available in any store for that category. In the present study we developed low cost, easy to prepare handmade steroid pellets (HMSP) by mixing 17bestradiol, progesterone or other synthetic steroids with FASTIXH adhesive. We assessed serum levels of 17b-estradiol, progesterone, prolactin and luteinizing hormone in ovariectomized mice treated for 24 and 48 h or 7, 14 and 28 days with 20 mg or 5 mg of 17b-estradiol or 5 mg progesterone HMSP. We found a time dependent and significant increase in the levels of both natural hormones, and a downregulation of serum luteinizing hormone levels, while both 17b-estradiol doses increased serum prolactin. Uterine weights at sacrifice and histological examination of the uteri and the mammary glands correlated with estrogen or progestin action. Finally, we evaluated the biological effects of HMSP compared to commercial pellets or daily injections in the stimulation or inhibition of hormone dependent mammary tumor growth, and found that HMSP were as effective as the other methods of hormone administration. These data show that HMSP represent a useful...

Methodological quality assessment tools of non-experimental studies : a systematic review

Jarde, Alexander; Losilla Vidal, Josep Maria; Vives Brosa, Jaume
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.72%
The evaluation of the methodological quality of primary studies in systematic reviews is of great importance in order to guarantee the validity and reliability of their results, but there is no agreement on which tool should be used. Our aim is to analyze the tools proposed so far for the assessment of cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies in psychology and health sciences. A systematic review was performed using 5 electronic databases and Google®. In order to analyze the tools’ content, 6 domains of quality were defined based on reporting guidelines, the established bibliography, and previous similar studies. 74 tools were identified and analyzed. Few reported their reliability (20%) or validity (14%). The most frequently addressed content domains were Data collection (71.6%), Selection (67.6%), Statistics and data analysis (67.6%), and Measurement (58.1%); only 35.1% addressed Representativeness, and 6.8% addressed Funding. Despite the strengths we found scattered among the tools, there is no single obvious choice if we had to make any recommendation. Methodological quality assessment tools of non-experimental studies should meet standardized development criteria, but previously it is necessary to reach an agreement on which content domains they should take into account; La evaluación de la calidad metodológica de los estudios primarios en una revisión sistemática es importante para garantizar la validez y fiabilidad de sus resultados...

Evaluating causal relationships between urban built environment characteristics and obesity a methodological review of observational studies

Martin, Adam; Ogilvie, David; Suhrcke, Marc
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.7%
This is the final published version. It originally appeared at http://www.ijbnpa.org/content/11/1/142/abstract.; Background Existing reviews identify numerous studies of the relationship between urban built environment characteristics and obesity. These reviews do not generally distinguish between cross-sectional observational studies using single equation analytical techniques and other studies that may support more robust causal inferences. More advanced analytical techniques, including the use of instrumental variables and regression discontinuity designs, can help mitigate biases that arise from differences in observable and unobservable characteristics between intervention and control groups, and may represent a realistic alternative to scarcely-used randomised experiments. This review sought first to identify, and second to compare the results of analyses from, studies using more advanced analytical techniques or study designs. Methods In March 2013, studies of the relationship between urban built environment characteristics and obesity were identified that incorporated (i) more advanced analytical techniques specified in recent UK Medical Research Council guidance on evaluating natural experiments, or (ii) other relevant methodological approaches including randomised experiments...

Boundary slip in Newtonian liquids: a review of experimental studies

Neto, Chiara; Evans, Drew; Bonaccurso, Elmar; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Craig, Vincent
Fonte: Institute of Physics Publishing Publicador: Institute of Physics Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
For several centuries fluid dynamics studies have relied upon the assumption that when a liquid flows over a solid surface, the liquid molecules adjacent to the solid are stationary relative to the solid. This no-slip boundary condition (BC) has been applied successfully to model many macroscopic experiments, but has no microscopic justification. In recent years there has been an increased interest in determining the appropriate BCs for the flow of Newtonian liquids in confined geometries, partly due to exciting developments in the fields of microfluidic and microelectromechanical devices and partly because new and more sophisticated measurement techniques are now available. An increasing number of research groups now dedicate great attention to the study of the flow of liquids at solid interfaces, and as a result a large number of experimental, computational and theoretical studies have appeared in the literature. We provide here a review of experimental studies regarding the phenomenon of slip of Newtonian liquids at solid interfaces. We dedicate particular attention to the effects that factors such as surface roughness, wettability and the presence of gaseous layers might have on the measured interfacial slip. We also discuss how future studies might improve our understanding of hydrodynamic BCs and enable us to actively control liquid slip.

Loxoscelismo en Chile: estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y experimentales; Loxoscelism in Chile: epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies

Schenone, Hugo; Saavedra, Tirza; Rojas, Antonio; Villarroel, Fernando
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/1989 SPA
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55.7%
Se presenta un enfoque panorámico de estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y experimentales referentes a Loxosceles laeta y loxoscelismo efectuados en 1955-1988 en Santiago, Chile. Se estudiaron 216 casos de loxoscelismo. Los hechos más relevantes fueron: 52,8% correspondió a mujeres; edad entre 7 meses y 78 años; 84,3% fué loxoscelismo cutáneo (LO y 15,7% loxoscelismo cutáneo-visceral (LCV); 73,6% sucedió en época calurosa; en 86,6% el accidente ocurrió en la vivienda, especialmente en dormitorios, mientras la persona dormía o se vestía. La araña fué vista en 60,2% de los casos e identificada en laboratorio como L. laeta en 17,7% (10,6% de los 216 casos). Los sitios más frecuen temente afectados fueron las extremidades con 67,6%, lancetazo urente fué el síntoma inicial más frecuente. Dolor, edema y placa livedoide, la cual posteriormente se transformaría en escara necrótica, fueron las manifestaciones locales predominantes. En LCV hematuria y hemoglobinuria fueron constantes, ictericia, fiebre y compromiso de conciencia se presentaron en la mayoría de los casos. Tratamiento: LC con antihistamínicos o corticoides inyectables, LCV con corti-coides inyectables. La condición de los pacientes en el último control fué: curación completa en 75...