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Interleukin 1 beta and corticotropin-releasing factor inhibit pain by releasing opioids from immune cells in inflamed tissue.

Schäfer, M; Carter, L; Stein, C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/05/1994 EN
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26.38%
Local analgesic effects of exogenous opioid agonists are particularly prominent in painful inflammatory conditions and are mediated by opioid receptors on peripheral sensory nerves. The endogenous ligands of these receptors, opioid peptides, have been demonstrated in resident immune cells within inflamed tissue of animals and humans. Here we examine in vivo and in vitro whether interleukin 1 beta (IL-1) or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is capable of releasing these endogenous opioids and inhibiting pain. When injected into inflamed rat paws (but not intravenously), IL-1 and CRF produce antinociception, which is reversible by IL-1 receptor antagonist and alpha-helical CRF, respectively, and by the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A. In vivo administration of antibodies against opioid peptides indicates that the effects of IL-1 and CRF are mediated by beta-endorphin and, in addition, by dynorphin A and [Met]enkephalin, respectively. Correspondingly, IL-1 effects are inhibited by mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid antagonists, whereas CRF effects are attenuated by all except a kappa-antagonist. Finally, IL-1 and CRF produce acute release of immunoreactive beta-endorphin in cell suspensions freshly prepared from inflamed lymph nodes. This effect is reversible by IL-1 receptor antagonist and alpha-helical CRF...

N-METHYL-d-ASPARTATE RECEPTORS AND LARGE CONDUCTANCE CALCIUM-SENSITIVE POTASSIUM CHANNELS INHIBIT THE RELEASE OF OPIOID PEPTIDES THAT INDUCE μ-OPIOID RECEPTOR INTERNALIZATION IN THE RAT SPINAL CORD

SONG, B.; MARVIZÓN, J. C. G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.45%
Endogenous opioids in the spinal cord play an important role in nociception, but the mechanisms that control their release are poorly understood. To simultaneously detect all opioids able to activate the μ-opioid receptor, we measured μ-opioid receptor internalization in rat spinal cord slices stimulated electrically or chemically to evoke opioid release. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal horn in the presence of peptidase inhibitors produced μ-opioid receptor internalization in half of the μ-opioid receptor neurons. This internalization was rapidly abolished by N-methyl-d-aspartate (IC50=2 μM), and N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists prevented this effect. μ-Opioid receptor internalization evoked by high K+ or veratridine was also inhibited by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activation. N-methyl-d-aspartate did not affect μ-opioid receptor internalization induced by exogenous endomorphins, confirming that the effect of N-methyl-d-aspartate was on opioid release. We hypothesized that this inhibition was mediated by large conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels BK(Ca2+). Indeed, inhibition by N-methyl-d-aspartate was prevented by tetraethylammonium and by the selective BK(Ca2+) blockers paxilline, penitrem A and verruculogen. Paxilline did not increase μ-opioid receptor internalization in the absence of N-methyl-d-aspartate...

Involvement of μ- and κ-, but not δ-, opioid receptors in the peristaltic motor depression caused by endogenous and exogenous opioids in the guinea-pig intestine

Shahbazian, Anaid; Heinemann, Akos; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Beubler, Eckhard; Holzer-Petsche, Ulrike; Holzer, Peter
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2002 EN
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26.58%
Opiates inhibit gastrointestinal propulsion, but it is not clear which opioid receptor types are involved in this action. For this reason, the effect of opioid receptor – selective agonists and antagonists on intestinal peristalsis was studied.Peristalsis in isolated segments of the guinea-pig small intestine was triggered by a rise of the intraluminal pressure and recorded via the intraluminal pressure changes associated with the peristaltic waves.μ-Opioid receptor agonists (DAMGO, morphine), κ-opioid receptor agonists (ICI-204,448 and BRL-52,537) and a δ-opioid receptor agonist (SNC-80) inhibited peristalsis in a concentration-related manner as deduced from a rise of the peristaltic pressure threshold (PPT) and a diminution of peristaltic effectiveness.Experiments with the δ-opioid receptor antagonists naltrindole (30 nM) and HS-378 (1 μM), the κ-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (30 nM) and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist cyprodime (10 μM) revealed that the antiperistaltic effect of ICI-204,448 and BRL-52,537 was mediated by κ-opioid receptors and that of morphine and DAMGO by μ-opioid receptors. In contrast, the peristaltic motor inhibition caused by SNC-80 was unrelated to δ-opioid receptor activation.Cyprodime and nor-binaltorphimine...

Endogenous opioid analgesia in peripheral tissues and the clinical implications for pain control

Kapitzke, Daniel; Vetter, Irina; Cabot, Peter J
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.41%
Opioid receptors are widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system as well as in numerous nonneuronal tissues. Both animal models and human clinical data support the involvement of peripheral opioid receptors in analgesia, particularly in inflammation where both opioid receptor expression and efficacy are increased. Immune cells have been shown to contain numerous opioid peptides such as β-endorphin (END), met-enkephalin (ENK), and dynorphin-A (DYN), although the predominant opioid peptide involved in immune-cell mediated antinociception is thought to be END. These opioid-containing immune cells migrate to inflamed tissues during a complex process of recruitment by chemokines, adhesion, and extravasation. In these tissues, opioid peptide is released from the immune cells upon stimulation with corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), noradrenaline, and interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and the immune cells return to the local lymph node depleted of peptide. Consistent with this model, systemic immunosuppression may lead to impaired endogenous analgesia as competent immune cells are essential to achieve release of endogenous opioid peptides within inflamed tissue. A further level of complexity is added by the observation that exogenous opioids may impair immune cell function...

Delta-opioid receptors mediate inhibition of fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials in cat parasympathetic colonic ganglia.

Kennedy, C.; Krier, J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1987 EN
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26.38%
1 The effects of opioids on synaptic transmission in cat sacral parasympathetic colonic ganglia were studied in vitro, using intracellular electrophysiological techniques. Electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve evoked fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (e.p.s.ps), which were blocked by hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin. 2 [D-Pen2, D-Pen5] enkephalin and [Met5]enkephalinamide, delta-opioid receptor agonists, caused concentration-dependent, reversible depression of fast e.p.s.ps, but had no effect on depolarizations evoked by pressure ejection of the nicotinic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium. Cell transmembrane potential and membrane input resistance were also unaffected. 3 U-50,488H, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, had a very small depressant action while [D-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly-ol5] enkephalin, a mu-opioid receptor agonist, had no effect on fast e.p.s.p. amplitude. Neither compound affected cell transmembrane potential or membrane input resistance. 4 The inhibitory actions of [D-Pen2, D-Pen5] enkephalin were antagonized by both naloxone, an antagonist at each of the three opioid receptor types, and by ICI 174,864, an antagonist selective for delta-opioid receptors. 5 Naloxone and ICI 174,864 both also potentiated fast e.p.s.p. amplitude per se in 50% of cells tested. 6 It is concluded that exogenous opioids act at presynaptic delta-opioid receptors to inhibit sacral parasympathetic synaptic transmission in cat colonic ganglia in vitro. Furthermore...

Role of kappa opioid receptors in modulating cholinergic twitches in the circular muscle of guinea-pig colon.

Giuliani, S.; Lecci, A.; Tramontana, M.; Maggi, C. A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.36%
1. Single pulse electrical field stimulation (EFS, 0.5 ms pulse width, 60 V at a frequency of 0.05 Hz) induced twitch contractions of mucosa-free circular muscle strips from the guinea-pig proximal colon which were abolished by atropine (0.3 microM), tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM) or omega-conotoxin GVIA (0.1 microM). 2. Various opioid receptor agonist concentration-dependently inhibited twitches with the following rank order of potency (EC50 values in brackets): U 50488 (0.31 nM) > dermorphin (4.3 nM) = dynorphin A (1-13) (6.2 nM) > [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO, 33.5 nM) = [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin (DADLE, 60 nM) > [D-Pen2, D-Pen2, D-Pen5]-enkepahlin (DPDPE, 1144 nM). 3. Peptidase inhibitors (captopril, thiorphan and bestatin, 1 microM each) did not modify the amplitude of twitches. In the presence of peptidase inhibitors the concentration-response curve to dynorphin A (1-13) was displaced to the left to yield an EC50 of 0.35 nM, comparable to that of the selective kappa receptor agonist, U50488. The curves to the other opioid receptor agonist were unaffected by peptidase inhibitors. 4. DPDPE, DADLE, dermorphin and DAMGO consistently induced a concentration-unrelated transient increase in basal tone and a small and transient facilitation of twitches before development of their inhibitory effect. These transient excitatory effects were not observed upon application of dynorphin A (1-13) or U 50488. The contraction produced by DPDPE (30 nM) was largely inhibited (> 80%) by 1 microM atropine. 5. Twitches suppression induced by dynorphin A (1-13) (30 nM) was partly reversed (46 +/- 8%...

EXOGENOUS NERVE GROWTH FACTOR ATTENUATES OPIOID-INDUCED INHIBITION OF VOLTAGE-ACTIVATED Ba2+ CURRENTS IN RAT SENSORY NEURONS

MCDOWELL, T. S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.51%
Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes the survival of embryonic sensory neurons and maintains the phenotypic characteristics of primary nociceptive neurons postnatally. NGF also contributes to nociceptor activation and hyperalgesia during inflammatory pain states. The purpose of this study was to determine whether NGF might have an additional pronociceptive action by interfering with opioid-mediated analgesia in primary nociceptive neurons. Sensory neurons were isolated from the dorsal root ganglia of weanling rats and kept in standard culture conditions either with or without exogenous NGF (50 ng/ml). Currents through voltage-gated calcium channels were recorded from individual neurons using the whole cell patch clamp technique with Ba2+ as the charge carrier (IBa). The μ-opioid agonist fentanyl (1 μM) and the GABAB agonist baclofen (50 μM) were used to test G protein-dependent inhibition of IBa. Fentanyl inhibited IBa by an average of 38±4% in untreated cells vs. 25±2% in NGF-treated cells (P<0.01). NGF had no effect on IBa current magnitude or kinetics. The NGF-induced attenuation of opioid action was observed as early as 4 h after exposure, but was not seen when NGF was applied by bath perfusion for up to 40 min, suggesting that the effect was not mediated by a rapid phosphorylation event. The effect of NGF was prevented by K-252a (100 nM)...

Expansion of the human μ-opioid receptor gene architecture: novel functional variants

Shabalina, Svetlana A.; Zaykin, Dmitri V.; Gris, Pavel; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y.; Gauthier, Josee; Shibata, Kyoko; Tchivileva, Inna E.; Belfer, Inna; Mishra, Bikashkumar; Kiselycznyk, Carly; Wallace, Margaret R.; Staud, Roland; Spiridonov, Nikolay A.; Max, Mi
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
The μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) is the principal receptor target for both endogenous and exogenous opioid analgesics. There are substantial individual differences in human responses to painful stimuli and to opiate drugs that are attributed to genetic variations in OPRM1. In searching for new functional variants, we employed comparative genome analysis and obtained evidence for the existence of an expanded human OPRM1 gene locus with new promoters, alternative exons and regulatory elements. Examination of polymorphisms within the human OPRM1 gene locus identified strong association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs563649 and individual variations in pain perception. SNP rs563649 is located within a structurally conserved internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in the 5′-UTR of a novel exon 13-containing OPRM1 isoforms (MOR-1K) and affects both mRNA levels and translation efficiency of these variants. Furthermore, rs563649 exhibits very strong linkage disequilibrium throughout the entire OPRM1 gene locus and thus affects the functional contribution of the corresponding haplotype that includes other functional OPRM1 SNPs. Our results provide evidence for an essential role for MOR-1K isoforms in nociceptive signaling and suggest that genetic variations in alternative OPRM1 isoforms may contribute to individual differences in opiate responses.

‘Carba’-Analogues of Fentanyl are Opioid Receptor Agonists‡

Weltrowska, Grazyna; Chung, Nga N.; Lemieux, Carole; Guo, Jianxin; Lu, Yixin; Wilkes, Brian C.; Schiller, Peter W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/04/2010 EN
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36.34%
There is evidence to indicate that the Asp residue in the third transmembrane helix (TMH) of opioid receptors forms a salt bridge with the positively charged nitrogen of endogenous and exogenous opioid ligands. To further examine the role of this electrostatic interaction in receptor binding and activation, we synthesized ‘carba’-analogues of a published fentanyl analogue containing a 3-(guanidinomethyl)-benzyl group in place of the phenyl moiety attached to the ethylamido group (C. Dardonville et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2006, 14, 6570–6580 (1)), in which the piperidine ring nitrogen was replaced with a carbon. As expected, the resulting cis and trans isomers (8a and 8b) showed reduced μ and κ opioid receptor binding affinities as compared to 1, but surprisingly, retained opioid full agonist activity with about half the potency of leucine-enkephalin in the guinea pig ileum assay. In conjunction with performed receptor docking studies, these results indicate that the electrostatic interaction of the protonated nitrogen in the piperidine ring of fentanyl analogues with the Asp residue in the third TMH is not a conditio sine qua non for opioid receptor activation.

Opioid-Independent Mechanisms Supporting Offset Analgesia and Temporal Sharpening of Nociceptive Information

Martucci, K. T.; Eisenach, J. C.; Tong, C.; Coghill, R. C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.36%
The mechanisms supporting temporal processing of pain remain poorly understood. To determine the involvement of opioid mechanisms in temporal processing of pain, responses to dynamic noxious thermal stimuli and offset analgesia were assessed following administration of naloxone, a μ-opioid antagonist, and on a separate day, during and following intravenous administration of remifentanil, a μ-opioid agonist, in 19 healthy human volunteers. Multiple end points were sampled from real time computerized visual analog scale ratings (VAS, 1–10) to assess thermal sensitivity, magnitude and duration of offset analgesia, and painful after sensations. It was hypothesized that the magnitude of offset analgesia would be reduced by direct opioid antagonism and during states of acute opioid-induced hypersensitivity (OIH), as well as diminished by the presence of exogenous opioids. Surprisingly, the magnitude of offset analgesia was not altered following naloxone administration, during remifentanil infusion, or following the termination of remifentanil infusion. Since thermal hyperalgesia was observed following both drugs, 8 of the original 19 subjects returned for an additional session without drug administration. Thermal hyperalgesia and increased magnitude of offset analgesia were observed across conditions of remifentanil...

In Vivo Regulation of the μ Opioid Receptor: Role of the Endogenous Opioid Agents

Gonzalez-Nunez, Veronica; González, Ada Jimenez; Barreto-Valer, Katherine; Rodríguez, Raquel E
Fonte: ScholarOne Publicador: ScholarOne
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.38%
It is well known that genotypic differences can account for the subject-specific responses to opiate administration. In this regard, the basal activity of the endogenous system (either at the receptor or ligand level) can modulate the effects of exogenous agonists as morphine and vice versa. The μ opioid receptor from zebrafish, dre-oprm1, binds endogenous peptides and morphine with similar affinities. Morphine administration during development altered the expression of the endogenous opioid propeptides proenkephalins and proopiomelanocortin. Treatment with opioid peptides (Met-enkephalin [Met-ENK], Met-enkephalin-Gly-Tyr [MEGY] and β-endorphin [β-END]) modulated dre-oprm1 expression during development. Knocking down the dre-oprm1 gene significantly modified the mRNA expression of the penk and pomc genes, thus indicating that oprm1 is involved in shaping penk and pomc expression. In addition, the absence of a functional oprm1 clearly disrupted the embryonic development, since proliferation was disorganized in the central nervous system of oprm1-morphant embryos: mitotic cells were found widespread through the optic tectum and were not restricted to the proliferative areas of the mid- and hindbrain. Transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining revealed that the number of apoptotic cells in the central nervous system (CNS) of morphants was clearly increased at 24-h postfertilization. These findings clarify the role of the endogenous opioid system in CNS development. Our results will also help unravel the complex feedback loops that modulate opioid activity and that may be involved in establishing a coordinated expression of both receptors and endogenous ligands. Further knowledge of the complex interactions between the opioid system and analgesic drugs will provide insights that may be relevant for analgesic therapy.

The N-Terminally Truncated µ3 and µ3-Like Opioid Receptors Are Transcribed from a Novel Promoter Upstream of Exon 2 in the Human OPRM1 Gene

Andersen, Sonja; Baar, Cecilie; Fladvad, Torill; Laugsand, Eivor Alette; Skorpen, Frank
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/08/2013 EN
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36.27%
The human µ opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, produces a multitude of alternatively spliced transcripts encoding full-length or truncated receptor variants with distinct pharmacological properties. The majority of these transcripts are transcribed from the main promoter upstream of exon 1, or from alternate promoters associated with exons 11 and 13. Two distinct transcripts encoding six transmembrane domain (6TM) hMOR receptors, µ3 and µ3-like, have been reported, both starting with the first nucleotide in exon 2. However, no mechanism explaining their initiation at exon 2 has been presented. Here we have used RT-PCR with RNA from human brain tissues to demonstrate that the µ3 and µ3-like transcripts contain nucleotide sequences from the intron 1-exon 2 boundary and are transcribed from a novel promoter located upstream of exon 2. Reporter gene assays confirmed the ability of the novel promoter to drive transcription in human cells, albeit at low levels. We also report the identification of a “full-length” seven transmembrane domain (7TM) version of µ3, hMOR-1A2, which also contains exon 1, and a novel transcript, hMOR-1Y2, with the potential to encode the previously reported hMOR-1Y receptor, but with exon Y spliced to exon 4 instead of exon 5 as in hMOR-1Y. Heterologous expression of GFP-tagged hMOR variants in HEK 293 cells showed that both 6TM receptors were retained in the intracellular compartment and were unresponsive to exogenous opioid exposure as assessed by their ability to redistribute or affect cellular cAMP production...

Morphine treatment selectively regulates expression of rat pituitary POMC and the prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2

Nie, Ying; Ferrini, Monica G.; Liu, Yanjun; Anghel, Adrian; Paez Espinosa, Enma V.; Stuart, Ronald C.; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Nillni, Eduardo A.; Friedman, Theodore C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.49%
The prohormone convertases, PC1/3 and PC2 are thought to be responsible for the activation of many prohormones through processing including the endogenous opioid peptides. We propose that maintenance of hormonal homeostasis can be achieved, in part, via alterations in levels of these enzymes that control the ratio of active hormone to prohormone. In order to test the hypothesis that exogenous opioids regulate the endogenous opioid system and the enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis, we studied the effect of short-term morphine or naltrexone treatment on pituitary PC1/3 and PC2 as well as on the level of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor gene for the biosynthesis of the endogenous opioid peptide, beta-endorphin. Using ribonuclease protection assays, we observed that morphine down-regulated and naltrexone up-regulated rat pituitary PC1/3 and PC2 mRNA. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis confirmed that the protein levels changed in parallel with the changes in mRNA levels and were accompanied by changes in the levels of phosphorylated cyclic-AMP response element binding protein. We propose that the alterations of the prohormone processing system may be a compensatory mechanism in response to an exogenous opioid ligand whereby the organism tries to restore its homeostatic hormonal milieu following exposure to the opioid...

Targeting peripheral opioid receptors to promote analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions

Iwaszkiewicz, Katerina S.; Schneider, Jennifer J.; Hua, Susan
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/10/2013 EN
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36.38%
Mechanisms of endogenous pain control are significant. Increasing studies have clearly produced evidence for the clinical usefulness of opioids in peripheral analgesia. The immune system uses mechanisms of cell migration not only to fight pathogens but also to control pain and inflammation within injured tissue. It has been demonstrated that peripheral inflammatory pain can be effectively controlled by an interaction of immune cell-derived opioid peptides with opioid receptors on peripheral sensory nerve terminals. Experimental and clinical studies have clearly shown that activation of peripheral opioid receptors with exogenous opioid agonists and endogenous opioid peptides are able to produce significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, without central opioid mediated side effects (e.g., respiratory depression, sedation, tolerance, dependence). This article will focus on the role of opioids in peripheral inflammatory conditions and the clinical implications of targeting peripheral opioid receptors.

Hydrogen Sulfide Attenuates Opioid Dependence by Suppression of Adenylate Cyclase/cAMP Pathway

Yang, Hai-Yu; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Wood, Mark; Whiteman, Matthew; Bian, Jin-Song
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.38%
Aims: The best-established mechanism of opioid dependence is the up-regulation of adenylate cyclase (AC)/cAMP pathway, which was reported to be negatively regulated by hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel endogenous neuromodulator. The present study was, therefore, designed to determine whether H2S is able to attenuate the development of opioid dependence via down-regulating AC/cAMP pathway. Results: We demonstrated that application of sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) and GYY4137, two donors of H2S, significantly alleviated naloxone-induced robust withdrawal jumping (the most sensitive and reliable index of opioid physical dependence) in morphine-treated mice. Repeated treatment with NaHS inhibited the up-regulated protein expression of AC in the striatum of morphine-dependent mice. Furthermore, NaHS also attenuated morphine/naloxone-elevated mRNA levels of AC isoform 1 and 8, production of cAMP, and phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in mice striatum. These effects were mimicked by the application of exogenous H2S or over-expression of cystathione-β-synthase, an H2S -producing enzyme, in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells on treatment with [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin, a selective μ-opioid receptor agonist. Blockade of extracellular-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) with its specific inhibitor attenuated naloxone-induced CREB phosphorylation. Pretreatment with NaHS or stimulation of endogenous H2S production also significantly suppressed opioid withdrawal-induced ERK1/2 activation in mice striatum or SH-SY5Y cells. Innovation: H2S treatment is important in prevention of the development of opioid dependence via suppression of cAMP pathway in both animal and cellular models. Conclusion: Our data suggest a potential role of H2S in attenuating the development of opioid dependence...

Role of the mu opioid receptor in opioid modulation of immune function

Ninković, Jana; Roy, Sabita
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.55%
Endogenous opioids are synthesized in vivo in order to modulate pain mechanisms and inflammatory pathways. Endogenous and exogenous opioids mediate analgesia in response to painful stimuli by binding to opioid receptors on neuronal cells. However, wide distribution of opioid receptors on tissues and organ systems outside the CNS, such as the cells of the immune system, indicate that opioids are capable of exerting additional effects in the periphery, such as immunomodulation. The increased prevalence of infections in opioid abusers based epidemiological studies further highlights the immunosuppressive effects of opioids. In spite of their many debilitating side effects, prescription opioids remain a gold standard for treatment of chronic pain. Therefore, given the prevalence of opioid use and abuse, opioid mediated immune suppression presents a serious concern in our society today. It is imperative to understand the mechanisms by which exogenous opioids modulate immune processes. In this review we will discuss the role of opioid receptors and their ligands in mediating immune suppressive functions. We will summarize recent studies on direct and indirect opioid modulation of the cells of the immune system as well as the role of opioids in exacerbation of certain disease states.

Multiple ligands in opioid research

Ballet, S.; Pietsch, M.; Abell, A.
Fonte: Bentham Science Publ Ltd Publicador: Bentham Science Publ Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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36.38%
The observation in 1979 that opioid receptors interact, led to the design of bivalent ligands in an attempt to improve selectivity and affinity towards the different subtypes (i.e. μ, δ and κ). Dimers of monovalent “parent” opioid structures have been evaluated and include: (a) endogenous (e.g. enkephalins) or exogenous (e.g. dermorphin) peptide dimer analogues (b) mixed peptidic-non-peptidic bivalent ligands and (c) dual non-peptidic dimers. Chimeric structures, using an opioid pharmacophore in combination with a non-opioid pharmacophore, have also been prepared. The common aim in all these studies is to improve the pharmacological profile of potential analgesics to minimize common opioid-induced side-effects, such as physical dependence and tolerance. Here we present a brief overview of efforts to develop bivalent opioid ligands for use in pain-related research.; Ballet, Steven; Pietsch, Markus and Abell, Andrew D.

The opioid growth factor-opioid growth factor receptor axis regulates cell proliferation of human hepatocellular cancer

Avella, Diego M.; Kimchi, Eric T.; Donahue, Renee N.; Tagaram, Hephzibah Rani S.; McLaughlin, Patricia J.; Zagon, Ian S.; Staveley-O'Carroll, Kevin F.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.36%
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, with a mortality rate approximating its incidence. Understanding the biology of these tumors, as well as treatment modalities, has been challenging. The opioid growth factor (OGF; [Met5]-enkephalin) and the OGF receptor (OGFr) form an endogenous growth-regulating pathway in homeostasis and neoplasia. In this investigation, we examined the relationship of the OGF-OGFr axis in HCC and define its presence, function, and mechanism. Using SK-HEP-1, Hep G2, and Hep 3B human HCC cell lines, we found that OGF and OGFr were present and functional. Exogenous OGF was observed to have a dose-dependent, reversible, and receptor-mediated inhibitory action on cell proliferation. Endogenous OGF was found to be constitutively produced and tonically active on cell replicative activities, with neutralization of this peptide accelerating cell proliferation. Silencing of OGFr using siRNA stimulated cell replication, even when exogenous OGF was added to the cultures, documenting its importance in mediating OGF activity. The mechanism of OGF-OGFr action on cell number was related to inhibition of DNA synthesis and not to apoptotic or necrotic pathways. Both OGF and OGFr were detected in surgical specimens of HCC...

Evolving paradigms in the treatment of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction

Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Brock, Christina; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Nilsson, Matias; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2015 EN
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26.39%
In recent years prescription of opioids has increased significantly. Although effective in pain management, bothersome gastrointestinal adverse effects are experienced by a substantial proportion of opioid-treated patients. This can lead to difficulties with therapy and subsequently inadequate pain relief. Collectively referred to as opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, these adverse effects are the result of binding of exogenous opioids to opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This leads to disturbance of three important gastrointestinal functions: motility, coordination of sphincter function and secretion. In the clinic this manifests in a wide range of symptoms such as reflux, bloating, abdominal cramping, hard, dry stools, and incomplete evacuation, although the most known adverse effect is opioid-induced constipation. Traditional treatment with laxatives is often insufficient, but in recent years a number of novel pharmacological approaches have been introduced. In this review the pathophysiology, symptomatology and prevalence of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction is presented along with the benefits and caveats of a suggested consensus definition for opioid-induced constipation. Finally, traditional treatment is appraised and compared with the latest pharmacological developments. In conclusion...

Farmacología de los opioides

Alvarez García, Yolanda; Farré Albaladejo, Magí
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 SPA
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En los últimos años se ha avanzado en el conocimiento de la farmacología de los opioides. Los opioides endógenos y exógenos se unen a receptores específicos. Existen cuatro tipos de receptores opioides; mu, kappa, delta y nociceptina. Todos ellos pertenecen a la familia de receptores de membrana acoplados a proteína G. Los opioides se clasifican según su afinidad y eficacia en agonistas puros, agonistas-antagonistas, agonistas parciales y antagonistas. Los principales efectos farmacológicos tras la administración de un agonista son sedación, euforia, analgesia, náusea y vómito, miosis, supresión de la tos, depresión respiratoria, rigidez, estreñimiento, enrojecimiento facial y prurito, retención urinaria y la posibilidad de dependencia (tolerancia y abstinencia). La tolerancia y dependencia física parecen deberse a una regulación por incremento de la adenilciclasa y aumento del AMPc. Los opioides además producen efectos duraderos que parecen relacionados con un aumento de la concentración de factores de transcripción como el CREB y ΔFosB y que son relevantes para las recaídas. Se revisan la farmacocinética de los principales opioides, las interacciones farmacológicas y su utilización en terapéutica; Endogenous and exogenous opioid bind to specific receptors. There are four different types of opioid receptors: mu...