Página 1 dos resultados de 1578 itens digitais encontrados em 0.013 segundos

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: The impact of clinical variables and psychiatric disorders on executive profile assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery

Moschetta, Sylvie P.; Valente, Kette D.
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE; SAN DIEGO Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE; SAN DIEGO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
Executive dysfunction is reported in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). However, batteries employed in previous studies included no more than three tests of executive function. In this study, we aimed to assess executive and attentional functions in JME using a comprehensive battery of eight tests (encompassing fifteen subtests). We also evaluated neuropsychological profiles using a clinical criterion of severity and correlated these findings with epilepsy clinical variables and the presence of psychiatric disorders. We prospectively evaluated 42 patients with JME and a matched control group with Digit Span tests (forward and backward), Stroop Color-Word Test, Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test, Matching Familiar Figures Test and Word Fluency Test. We estimated IQ with the Matrix Reasoning and Vocabulary subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Intelligence Scale. The patients with JME showed specific deficits in working memory, inhibitory control, concept formation, goal maintenance, mental flexibility, and verbal fluency. We observed attentional deficits in processes such as alertness and attention span and those requiring sustained and divided attention. We found that 83.33% of the patients had moderate or severe executive dysfunction. In addition...

Avaliação neuropsicológica das funções executivas e da atenção em crianças com transtorno do déficit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDAH); Neuropsychological assessment of the executive functions and attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Bolfer, Cristiana Pacheco Martini
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/10/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
INTRODUÇÃO: O Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade (TDAH) é um problema de saúde mental bastante freqüente em crianças, adolescentes e adultos em todo o mundo. É caracterizado pela presença de três grupos de sintomas: desatenção, hiperatividade e impulsividade. As pesquisas internacionais e nacionais indicam que os indivíduos portadores do TDAH podem também apresentar, além dos déficits atencionais, alterações nas funções executivas. As crianças e adolescentes com TDAH apresentam prejuízos claros no seu funcionamento do aprendizado escolar e no desenvolvimento social e emocional. O diagnóstico do TDAH é clínico, baseado nos critérios do DSM-IV, porém os estudos dos prejuízos atencionais e das funções executivas nos pacientes com TDAH têm permitido uma melhor caracterização dos diferentes subtipos clínicos, além de serem fundamentais na elucidação diagnóstica de algumas co-morbidades e na proposta de intervenção e/ou reabilitação. O objetivo desta pesquisa é a utilização de testes neuropsicológicos para auxílio na avaliação da atenção e das funções executivas em pacientes com TDAH. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo transversal realizado entre Setembro de 2006 a Junho de 2008, foram selecionados 23 pacientes do sexo masculino...

Avaliação das funções executivas e mnésticas de crianças e adolescentes com epilepsia de lobo temporal; Evaluation of executive and memory functions in children and adolescents with temporal lobe epilepsy

Tencer, Patrícia Rzezak
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/09/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
Os objetivos deste estudo foram investigar a presença e gravidade de disfunção mnéstica e executiva em crianças com epilepsia do lobo temporal; verificar a influência das variáveis clínicas da epilepsia e o impacto da disfunção executiva sobre a memória. Para tal, comparou-se o desempenho de 32 crianças com epilepsia do lobo temporal e 21 crianças saudáveis com paradigmas de memória, funções atencionais e executivas. Pacientes tiveram pior desempenho do que os controles, em atividades de atenção, memória e funções executivas. Observou-se disfunção mnéstica e executiva grave em 56,25% e 71,88% dos pacientes, respectivamente. A presença de atrofia hipocampal, idade de início precoce, duração e politerapia influenciaram negativamente o desempenho executivo e mnéstico.; The present study aimed to investigate the presence and severity of memory and executive dysfunction in children with temporal lobe epilepsy; evaluate the influence of epilepsy clinical variables and the impact of executive dysfunction in memory. For this purpose, performance on attentional, executive and memory function tests of 32 children with temporal lobe epilepsy were compared to 21 healthy children. Patients had a worse performance than controls in tasks of attention...

Estudo piloto randomizado e controlado para avaliar a eficácia da terapia ocupacional na reabilitação de funções executivas em pacientes com esquizofrenia refratária; Randomized controlled pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of occupational therapy in the rehabilitation of executive functions in patients with resistent schizophrenia

Vizzotto, Adriana Dias Barbosa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/12/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
Introdução: Estudos baseados em evidências estimam que grande parte dos pacientes com esquizofrenia apresentam prejuízos cognitivos significantes quando comparados com pessoas saudáveis. Os déficits cognitivos, como de atenção, de memória e, principalmente, das funções executivas, são os domínios fortemente prejudicados em pacientes que desenvolveram a doença. Déficits cognitivos são fortes preditores de resultados funcionais a longo prazo, tais como desempenho nas atividades básicas e instrumentais de vida diária, atividades sociais e profissionalizantes, mais do que os sintomas positivos e negativos. O tratamento farmacológico pode ser efetivo nos sintomas positivos e previnem recaídas, mas não tem o mesmo impacto nos déficits cognitivos, sintomas negativos e na funcionalidade. Algumas evidências sugerem que a combinação farmacológica e psicossocial podem ser eficazes na melhora de certas dimensões específicas da psicopatologia da esquizofrenia. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a eficácia da Terapia Ocupacional baseada no Método Occupational Goal Intervention na reabilitação de funções executivas de pacientes com esquizofrenia refratária. Trata-se de um estudo randomizado, simples-cego e controlado. Método: Vinte e cinco pacientes com diagnóstico de esquizofrenia refratária foram randomizados e distribuídos em dois grupos: experimental e controle (placebo). O grupo experimental recebeu 30 sessões de terapia ocupacional baseada no método Occupational Goal Intervention (OGI) e o grupo controle recebeu 30 sessões de atividades artesanais de livre escolha...

Hipodontia do incisivo lateral mesial da fissura de lábio e palato unilateral e avaliação neuropsicológica das funções executivas; Hypodontia of mesial lateral incisor in unilateral cleft lip and palate and neuropsychological evaluation of executive functions

Pernambuco, Renata de Almeida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/08/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
Objetivo: Investigar as funções neuropsicológicas executivas de sujeitos com fissura de lábio e palato unilateral, com agenesia do incisivo lateral mesial à área da fissura, na dentição permanente. Metodologia: A amostra foi constituída de 66 indivíduos, de ambos os sexos, na faixa etária de 7 a 12 anos, sem síndromes ou anomalias associadas, sendo o grupo experimental, G1 composto por 46 sujeitos com fissura de lábio e palato unilateral completa, operados em época oportuna, com agenesia de incisivo lateral mesial à área da fissura, na dentição permanente e G2, como grupo controle, com 20 sujeitos sem fissura e com presença clínica de incisivos laterais superiores permanentes. Foram avaliadas radiografias panorâmicas e periapicais da região da fissura do G1 disponíveis nos arquivos do HRAC-USP. Para avaliação neuropsicológica foram utilizados os seguintes instrumentos: Teste das Matrizes Progressivas Coloridas, Teste Stroop de Cores e Palavras, Escala de inteligência Wechsler para crianças, Teste Wisconsin de Classificação de Cartas e Teste de Atenção Visual. Resultados: Quando avaliada a flexibilidade cognitiva em termos da função executiva, ambos os grupos apresentaram boa performance. As habilidades relacionadas à resistência à distração e à velocidade de processamento tiveram performances com prejuízos estatisticamente significantes para o G1. Conclusões: Os indivíduos com fissura de lábio e palato unilateral com agenesia do incisivo lateral mesial à área da fissura na dentição permanente...

Attentional performance and executive functions in children with learning difficulties

Lima,Ricardo Franco de; Azoni,Cíntia Alves Salgado; Ciasca,Sylvia Maria
Fonte: Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
Studies have described changes in visual attention and executive function in children with developmental dyslexia. This study intended to compare the performance of children with and without learning difficulties on tasks of visual attention and executive functions. The participants were 23 students, aged between 9 and 14 years old, with a mean age of 10.8 years. They were divided into three groups: (a) with learning difficulties; (b) with dyslexia; and (c) control (without any difficulty). For the evaluation, Tests of Cancellation, Trail Making Test, Stroop Color-Word Test and Tower of London Test were used. The results indicated that children with dyslexia had the worst performance on different measures of attention and executive functions, indicating that such changes may be characteristic of the disorder and keep the deficit in the phonological component of language.

Assessing executive functions in older adults: a comparison between the manual and the computer-based versions of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

Wagner,Gabriela Peretti; Trentini,Clarissa Marceli
Fonte: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
Executive functions (EF) are a group of high-level cognitive processes that control and direct lower-level abilities in order to produce goal-directed behavior. Because these functions are a multidimensional entity, they can be assessed using different tests. One of the tests often used to evaluate EF is the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The WCST is a task that involves hypothesis testing, identification of concepts, resistance to interference, switching categories, and inhibition. Two versions of the task have been used in neuropsychological testing, but little is known about their equivalence. In this study, we investigated the performance of two groups of elderly people in two versions of the task: manual (cards) and computer-based. Fifty-four healthy elderly participants took part in this study; half of the sample was assessed with the computer-based version of the WCST, while the other half performed the manual version. There were no differences between the two versions of the task in our sample of elderly participants (total number correct, perseverative errors, percent conceptual level responses, and number of categories completed). In this sense, the results provide evidence for the equivalence of both versions in the assessment of EF in healthy elderly participants.

Executive functions in late childhood: age differences among groups

Pureza,Janice R.; Gonçalves,Hosana A.; Branco,Laura; Grassi-Oliveira,Rodrigo; Fonseca,Rochele Paz
Fonte: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
Executive functions (EF) have been a major focus of interest in neuropsychology. However, there are few studies about their development in healthy children. To fill this gap in the literature, the current study aims to compare the performance in EF tasks in children from 6 to 12 (n=90) years old. Three age groups (6-7, 8-10 and 11-12 years-old) were assessed using the following instruments: verbal fluency, narrative discourse, random number generation, N-Back, Bells Test and Hayling Test. Analyses of variance were used to compare the scores among groups. There was a significant effect of age in all executive performance scores, especially between the youngest and oldest groups. The most significant differences were observed in the central executive component of working memory and inhibition, which showed a marked development between 6-7 and 8-10 years of age. In addition, a remarkable peak was observed in the tasks that assess planning and processing speed in the group of 11-12 year-old children. The current results suggest that the development of all components of EF should be further investigated in school-aged children in normative studies so that possible dissociations in the development of these abilities can be better understood.

Attention and Executive Functions Performance in Postsecondary Students with AD/HD and Dyslexia

SILVESTRI, ROBERT JOSEPH
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
There is a dearth of studies investigating attention and cognitive executive functions (EFs) in adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), dyslexia, and AD/HD with comorbid dyslexia. Of the available studies, few have compared cognitive performance based on comprehensive theoretical models of attention and EFs and addressed methodological limitations of past research (e.g., sample inclusion and task validity confounds). This dissertation reports the findings from two studies which examined attention performance and performance pertaining to EFs and related cognitive processes of vigilance and processing speed for four groups of postsecondary students, those with AD/HD, dyslexia, AD/HD with comorbid dyslexia, and normal controls. Using a diagnostically referred sample to ensure distinct disability groups and attention and EFs measures with demonstrated construct validity, cognitive task performance was examined in Study 1 based on Posner and Raichle’s (1994) model of attention which is composed of alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks. In Study 2, Pennington and Ozonoff’s (1996) conceptualization of EFs that includes inhibition, set shifting, and working memory components was applied to the students’ performance on attention...

Rehabilitation of executive functions: Implications and strategies; Rehabilitación de las funciones ejecutivas: implicaciones y estrategias; Reabilitação das funções executivas: Implicações e estratégias

Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Azevedo-Souza, Leo Schuch; Rigoli, Marcelo Montagner; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/02/2013 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
Executive Functions (EF) concern a range of abilitiesincluding problem-solving, planning, initiation, selfmonitoring,conscious attention, cope with new situationsand the ability to modify plans if necessary. It’s ahigh cognitive function that is crucial for a person to getengaged and maintain daily activities whilst keeping agood quality of life. Problems in the EF were formerlyknown as Dysexecutive Syndrome (DS). There are manymodels concerning DS, although the literature on thesubject still remains unclear. Several works appoint theeffects brought by elderly life, as well as abuse of drugsand some psychopathologies. These factors are knownto increase the distress of the frontal circuits and thatcould be associated to executive deficits. The effects ofDS would compromise individuals in day-to-day routine,academic, social and labor fields. There is a growingbody of studies trying to determine the causes, implications,associations and the best way to take care of theseeffects. This work intends to review DS, focusing on themost important fields related to this area, such as psychopathologyassociations, cognitive reserve, assessmentand cognitive rehabilitation programs.; Las funciones ejecutivas constituyen un conjunto de habilidades que incluye la resolución de problemas...

Executive functions in school-aged children: age and socioeconomic status effects; Funciones Ejecutivas en Niños Escolarizados: Efectos de la Edad y del Estrato Socioeconómico

Arán Filippetti, Vanessa
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/04/2011 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
Lately, the study of prefrontal executive functions in grade scholars has noticeably increased. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of age and socioeconomic status (sEs) on executive tasks performance and to analyze those socioeconomic variables that predict a better execution. A sample of 254 children aged between 7 and 12 years from the city of santa Fe, Argentina and belonging to different socioeconomic status were tested. A bat- tery of executive functions sensitive to prefrontal function was used to obtain the results. These in- dicate a significant influence of age and SES on executive functions. The cognitive patterns follow a different path according to the development and sEs effect. Besides, it is revealed a pattern of low cognitive functioning in low-sEs children in all executive functions. Finally, from the variables included in this study, it was found that only the educational level of the mother and the housing conditions are associated to the children’s executive function. The results are discussed in terms of the influence of the cerebral maturation and the envi- ronmental variables in the executive functioning.; En los últimos años, se ha incrementado notoriamente el estudio sobre las funciones ejecutivas prefrontales en niños de edad escolar. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar la influencia de la edad y del estrato socioeconómico (EsE) en el desempeño de tareas ejecutivas y conocer cuáles son las variables socioeconómicas que predicen una mejor ejecución. Participaron 254 niños de 7 a 12 años de edad de diferentes estratos socio-económicos de la ciudad de santa Fe...

Diferencias en funciones ejecutivas en escolares normales, con trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad, trastorno del cálculo y condición comórbida; Diferenças em funções executivas em escolares normais, com transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade, de cálculo e condição comorbidade; Executive functions differences in normal scholars, with Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, disorder of arithmetical skills and comorbid condition

Gaitán Chipatecua, Alexandra; Rey-Anacona, Cesar Armando
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/02/2013 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
El objetivo del presente estudio descriptivo-comparativo fue comparar el desempeño en funciones ejecutivas de escolares entre ocho y trece años con trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), trastorno del cálculo (TC), TDAH+TC y controles normales. Los diagnósticos se confirmaron a través de una entrevista clínica semiestructurada, un cuestionario clínico de déficit atencional y pruebas de cálculo matemático. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos en atención visual y auditiva, fluidez verbal fonémica, flexibilidad cognitiva, organización y planeación. Los resultados indican, de manera similar que investigaciones anteriores, que los escolares con TDAH+TC presentan mayores déficits en funciones ejecutivas que los niños normales.; O objetivo deste estudo descritivo e comparativo foicomparar a atuação em funções executivas de escolaresentre oito e treze anos com transtorno de déficit deatenção e hiperatividade (TDAH), transtorno de cálculo(TC), TDAH+TC e controis normais. Os diagnósticosforam confirmados através de uma entrevista clínicasemiestruturada, um questionário clínico de déficitda atenção e probas de cálculo matemático. Foramencontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativasentre os grupos em atenção visual e auditiva...

Mnesic performance and executive functions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS); Desempeño mnésico y funciones ejecutivas en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple (EM)

Introzzi, Isabel; López-Ramón, Fernanda; Urquijo, Sebastián
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/10/2009 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
The Episodic Memory (EM) and the Executive Functions (EF) are cognitive areas that are affected in patients with diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Nowadays there exists scarce works destined to explore the infl uence of the EF on measures of mnesic performance in MS. For this reason, we analyze the effect of the EF on the performance in a set of memory measures. We worked with a clinical group (n=36) and with a control group (n=36) compared by age and educational level. The results show that the clinical group obtained significantly low average values in all the mnesic indexes (with exception of recognition) and in all the executive measures. All the executive indexes showed significant associations with some of the indexes of mnesic performance. These findings suggest that the problems in the episodic memory in EM patients could be analyzed as the manifestation of a global disorder that could be similar to the one that involves the EF. ; La Memoria Episódica (ME) y las Funciones Ejecutivas (FE) son áreas cognitivas afectadas en pacientes con diagnóstico de Esclerosis Múltiple (EM). Actualmente, son escasos los trabajos destinados a explorar la influencia de las FE sobre las distintas medidas de desempeño mnésico en EM. Por ello...

Relationships between executive functions tasks in late childhood

Pureza,Janice R.; Jacobsen,Geise M.; Oliveira,Rodrigo G.; Fonseca,Rochele P
Fonte: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
Executive functions (EF) is a general term that refers to cognitive processes designed to organize and adapt human behavior in situations that require planning and decision making, problem solving, initiation and inhibition of actions, and adapting to changes. Among the main components of executive processes, we can emphasize the ability to inhibit and to present cognitive flexibility due to changes. Understanding the relationships among the various components of EF in adults and children has been a focus in the literature. However, these processes are complex and multiple. The present study sought to determine whether correlations exist among performances measured by different tools used to evaluate EF in school-age children. The sample comprised 59 children aged 8 to 12 years attending public schools. Participants were assessed using verbal fluency tasks and narrative discourse with the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Communication-MAC Battery, random-number generation, the Hayling Test, the Bells Test, and the n-back test. Correlation analyses were performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results suggested a closer relationship among some components of the evaluation of EF, especially among tasks that assess inhibition and cognitive flexibility.

Executive functions as predictors of functional performance in mild Alzheimer's dementia and mild cognitive impairment elderly

Paula,Jonas Jardim de; Malloy-Diniz,Leandro Fernandes
Fonte: Programa de Pós-graduação em Psicologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte Publicador: Programa de Pós-graduação em Psicologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
Cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms are associated with worse functionality phenotype in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) elderly. The present study aims to investigate the association between the impairment of executive functions and episodic memory, the presence of depressive symptoms with the functionality of these patients. One hundred and eighteen participants diagnosed with AD or MCI who underwent neuropsychological examination covering various domains of episodic memory and executive functions and the answered the Geriatric Depression Scale. Caregivers answered a scale of Activities of Daily Living. The cognitive variables were reduced through factor analysis to three components (Executive Functions, Memory Episodic and Working Memory) and, along with depressive symptoms, used as predictors in a linear regression model, where only Executive Functions were related to functionality (R²= 0.30). The results suggest that executive functions are particularly relevant for functionality in these patients.

The effects of bilingualism and multilingualism on executive functions; Los efectos del bilingüismo y del multilingüismo en las funciones ejecutivas; The effects of bilingualism and multilingualism on executive functions

Limberger, Bernardo Kolling; PUC- RS; Buchweitz, Augusto; PUC - RS
Fonte: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Linguística - UFSC Publicador: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Linguística - UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; avaliado por pares; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/09/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-8412.2014v11n3p261 Studies have shown that bilinguals and multilinguals have superior performance compared to monolinguals in nonlinguistic tasks that tap into executive functioning. However, studies of bilingual and multilingual advantages in linguistic tasks are fewer and the results are less consensual. In Brazil, the positive effects of executive functions in bilingualism have not been consistently identified in the bilingual populations, especially in speakers of the minority language Hunsrückisch (a German dialect). The main goal of this study was to investigate the performance of bilinguals and multilinguals speakers of Hunsrückisch compared to monolinguals in a nonlinguistic task, the Attentional Network Task, and in a linguistic task, the Sentence Comprehension Task. The results show that multilinguals were faster in comparison to monolinguals in the nonlinguistic task. The results for the linguistic task, in turn, show that the monolinguals had more facility to inhibiting the linguistic interference.; Investigaciones encontraron que bilingües y multilingües tienen un rendimiento superior en comparación a monolingües en tareas no lingüísticas de procesamiento ejecutivo. No obstante, las investigaciones sobre ventaja bilingüe y multilingüe en tareas lingüísticas son más escasas y los resultados son menos consensuales. En Brasil...

Cognitive and Executive Functions in Colombian School Children with Conduct Disorder: Sex Differences

Urazán-Torres,Gina Rocío; Puche-Cabrera,Mario José; Caballero-Forero,Mangelli; Rey-Anacona,César Armando
Fonte: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría Publicador: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
Abstract Introduction: Most of the studies that have examined cognitive and executive functions in conduct disorders (CD) have been conducted on institutionalized male adolescents. In this research the cognitive and executive functions of non-institutionalized Colombian school children with CD were compared with normal school children, all between 6 and 12 years-old. Materials and methods: We used a case-control design. The cases were participants who met the diagnostic criteria for CD (n=39) and controls who did not meet these criteria (n=39), according to reports of a professional of the participants' institution, and a structured interview for childhood psychiatric syndromes. The two groups were selected from educational institutions, and there were no differences in age, school grade, or socioeconomic level. The IQ was reviewed, as well as the presence of other mental disorders, serious physical illnesses, and more serious neurological signs.The cognitive and executive functions were evaluated using a child neuropsychological test battery. Results: We found that participants with CD had significantly lower scores in construction abilities, perceptual abilities (tactile, visual and auditory), differed in verbal memory, differed in visual memory...

Cognitive models of executive functions development: methodological limitations and theoretical challenges

Stelzer,Florencia; Mazzoni,Cecilia C.; Cervigni,Mauricio A.
Fonte: Anales de Psicología Publicador: Anales de Psicología
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Executive functions (EF) have been defined as a series of higher-order cognitive processes which allow the control of thought, behavior and affection according to the achievement of a goal. Such processes present a lengthy postnatal development which matures completely by the end of adolescence. In this article we make a review of some of the main models of EF development during childhood. The aim of this work is to describe the state of the art related to the topic, identifying the main theoretical difficulties and methodological limitations associated with the different proposed paradigms. Finally, some suggestions are given to cope with such difficulties, emphasizing that the development of an ontology of EF could be a viable alternative to counter them. We believe that futture researches should guide their efforts toward the development of that ontology.

Improving some cognitive functions, specifically executive functions in grade R learners

Esterhuizen,Stef; Grosser,Mary
Fonte: South African Journal of Childhood Education Publicador: South African Journal of Childhood Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
This study established the effects of a researcher-developed curriculum-based intervention programme. The intervention was grounded on principles of Feuerstein's ideas about 'mediated learning'. The aim of the intervention was specifically to address children's executive functions, which are generally regarded as prerequisites for cognitive development. We studies a selected group of South African grade R learners (n = 20). A quasi-experimental design was employed to collect quantitative data on rotational basis from experimental groups A and B, by means of dynamic assessment with the Children's Inferential Thinking Modifiability (CITM) test during pretest, post-test and delayed post-test occasions. The test data was intended to elicit the extent to which the intervention that had focused on enhancing executive functions had contributed to the participants' application of cognitive and metacognitive skills and strategies. Qualitative data captured participants' application of cognitive processes in the input, elaboration, and output phases of the designed learning process, as well as the characteristics of their inhibitory control functions. A striking finding was the improvement noted in the children's application of the following executive functions...

Bridging the gap between advantaged and disadvantaged children: Why should we be concerned with executive functions in the South African context?

Fitzpatrick,Caroline
Fonte: South African Journal of Childhood Education Publicador: South African Journal of Childhood Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.38%
Reducing the economic and social burden associated with poor academic achievement represents an urgent concern in South Africa. Increasingly research suggests that child characteristics in kindergarten play an important role in charting courses towards academic success and educational attainment by early adulthood. Although math and reading skills are important predictors of later achievement, executive function skills which underlie children's ability to focus attention and become autonomous, selfdirected learners also play a key role in later adjustment to school. Disadvantaged children perform more poorly on tests of achievement and executive functions. Furthermore, executive functions have been found to partially account for the relationship between socioeconomic status and later achievement. It is possible to target executive functions in at-risk children using specific interventions. These programs are generally cost-effective. It is proposed that increasing efforts towards promoting executive functions in preschool-aged children represents a promising strategy for reducing economically based disparities in the education and eventual life chances of individuals.