A literatura tem mostrado que as deteriorações proprioceptivas relacionadas ao envelhecimento podem ter consequências funcionais graves na realização de tarefas sensório-motoras como postura e marcha. A avaliação do limiar de percepção cinestésica é uma forma de avaliação da acuidade proprioceptiva e representa uma tarefa sensório-motora, com envolvimento de receptores e vias periféricas bem como de níveis superiores do sistema nervoso central. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avançar no método de quantificação proprioceptiva do tornozelo em jovens e idosos e foi dividida em dois capítulos. O primeiro capítulo investigou aspectos eletrofisiológicos corticais associados à percepção cinestésica do tornozelo. O protocolo experimental consistiu de aquisição de sinais eletrencefalográficos durante a avaliação do tempo de resposta à percepção de movimento passivo de tornozelo em velocidades baixa (0,5º/s) e alta (22º/s). Foram realizadas análises de potencial relacionado a evento (ERP do inglês Event-Related Potential) e de dessincronização e sincronização relacionados a evento (ERD/ERS do inglês Event-Related Desynchronization/Synchronization) na faixa beta (14 a 37 Hz). Os resultados mostraram atrasos nos tempos de resposta à percepção cinestésica dos idosos correlacionados aos atrasos de ativação cortical. O componente inicial do ERP (N1) foi menor e mais tardio em idosos e pode indicar uma chegada de influxo aferente proprioceptivo atrasada e de menor magnitude ao córtex. Os idosos também apresentaram maior ativação cerebral (maior ERD)...
It is of wide interest to study the brain activity that correlates to the control of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). In the present study, we have developed an approach to image the cortical rhythmic modulation associated with motor imagery using minimum-norm estimates in the frequency domain (MNEFD). The distribution of cortical sources of mu activity during online control of BCI was obtained with the MNEFD. Contralateral decrease (event-related desynchronization, ERD) and ipsilateral increase (event-related synchronization, ERS) are localized in the sensorimotor cortex during online control of BCI in a group of human subjects. Statistical source analysis revealed that maximum correlation with movement imagination is localized in sensorimotor cortex.
Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) or Event-Related
Oscillations (EROs) have been widely used to
study emotional processing, mainly on the theta and gamma
frequency bands. However, the role of the slow
(delta) waves has been largely ignored. The aim
of this study is to provide a framework that
combines EROs with Event-Related
Synchronization (ERS), and peak amplitude
analysis of delta activity, evoked by the
passive viewing of emotionally evocative
pictures. Results showed that this kind of
approach is sensitive to the effects of gender,
valence, and arousal, as well as, the study of
interhemispherical disparity, as the two-brain
hemispheres interplay roles in the detailed
discrimination of gender. Valence effects are
recovered in both the central electrodes as well
as in the hemisphere interactions. These
findings suggest that the temporal patterns of
delta activity and the alterations of delta
energy may contribute to the study of emotional
processing. Finally the results depict the
improved sensitivity of the proposed framework
in comparison to the traditional ERP techniques...
Brains were built by evolution to react swiftly to environmental challenges. Thus, sensory stimuli must be processed ad hoc, i.e., independent—to a large extent—from the momentary brain state incidentally prevailing during stimulus occurrence. Accordingly, computational neuroscience strives to model the robust processing of stimuli in the presence of dynamical cortical states. A pivotal feature of ongoing brain activity is the regional predominance of EEG eigenrhythms, such as the occipital alpha or the pericentral mu rhythm, both peaking spectrally at 10 Hz. Here, we establish a novel generalized concept to measure event-related desynchronization (ERD), which allows one to model neural oscillatory dynamics also in the presence of dynamical cortical states. Specifically, we demonstrate that a somatosensory stimulus causes a stereotypic sequence of first an ERD and then an ensuing amplitude overshoot (event-related synchronization), which at a dynamical cortical state becomes evident only if the natural relaxation dynamics of unperturbed EEG rhythms is utilized as reference dynamics. Moreover, this computational approach also encompasses the more general notion of a “conditional ERD,” through which candidate explanatory variables can be scrutinized with regard to their possible impact on a particular oscillatory dynamics under study. Thus...
We performed simultaneous acquisition of EEG-fMRI in seven patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) and in six healthy controls using self-paced finger extension as a motor task. The event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis showed a greater and more diffuse alpha desynchronization in central regions and a strongly reduced post-movement beta-ERS in patients compared with controls, suggesting a significant dysfunction of the mechanisms regulating active movement and movement end. The event-related hemodynamic response obtained from fMRI showed delayed BOLD peak latency in the contralateral primary motor area suggesting a less efficient activity of the neuronal populations driving fine movements, which are specifically impaired in ULD.
Poor discrimination of non-linguistic sounds has been implicated in language-learning problems in children, but research evidence has been inconsistent. This study included 32 participants with specific language impairment (SLI) and 32 typically-developing controls aged 7 to 16 years. Frequency discrimination thresholds were estimated in a task where participants had to distinguish a higher-frequency tone from a 1000 Hz tone. Neurophysiological responses were assessed in an oddball paradigm. Stimuli were either (a) 1030- or 1200-Hz pure tones (deviants) presented in a series of standard 1000-Hz tones, or (b) syllables: deviant [da] or [bi] in a series of standard [ba]. On the behavioural task, children (7 to 11-year-olds) had high thresholds, regardless of language status, but teenagers (12-16 yr) with SLI had higher thresholds than their controls. Conventional analysis of electrophysiological responses showed no difference between groups for the mismatch negativity (MMN), but the late discriminative negativity (LDN) was reduced in amplitude for smaller deviants in participants with SLI. Time-frequency analysis revealed that whereas the MMN reflected enhanced inter-trial coherence in the theta frequency band, the LDN corresponded to a period of event-related desynchronization extending across a wide low-frequency band including delta...
In electroencephalography, the classical event-related potential model often proves to be a limited method to study complex brain dynamics. For this reason, spectral techniques adapted from signal processing such as event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) – and its variant event-related synchronization and event-related desynchronization – have been used over the past 20 years. They represent average spectral changes in response to a stimulus. These spectral methods do not have strong consensus for comparing pre- and post-stimulus activity. When computing ERSP, pre-stimulus baseline removal is usually performed after averaging the spectral estimate of multiple trials. Correcting the baseline of each single-trial prior to averaging spectral estimates is an alternative baseline correction method. However, we show that this method leads to positively skewed post-stimulus ERSP values. We eventually present new single-trial-based ERSP baseline correction methods that perform trial normalization or centering prior to applying classical baseline correction methods. We show that single-trial correction methods minimize the contribution of artifactual data trials with high-amplitude spectral estimates and are robust to outliers when performing statistical inference testing. We then characterize these methods in terms of their time–frequency responses and behavior compared to classical ERSP methods.
Recent findings indicated that both P300 and alpha event-related desynchronization (α-ERD) were associated, and similarly involved in cognitive brain functioning, e.g., attention allocation and memory updating. However, an explicit causal influence between the neural generators of P300 and α-ERD has not yet been investigated. In the present study, using an oddball task paradigm, we assessed the task effect (target vs. non-target) on P300 and α-ERD elicited by stimuli of four sensory modalities, i.e., audition, vision, somatosensory, and pain, estimated their respective neural generators, and investigated the information flow among their neural generators using time-varying effective connectivity in the target condition. Across sensory modalities, the scalp topographies of P300 and α-ERD were similar and respectively maximal at parietal and occipital regions in the target condition. Source analysis revealed that P300 and α-ERD were mainly generated from posterior cingulate cortex and occipital lobe respectively. As revealed by time-varying effective connectivity, the cortical information was consistently flowed from α-ERD sources to P300 sources in the target condition for all four sensory modalities. All these findings showed that P300 in the target condition is modulated by the changes of α-ERD...
Although event-related potentials (ERPs) are widely used to study sensory, perceptual and cognitive processes, it remains unknown whether they are phase-locked signals superimposed upon the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) or result from phase-alignment of the EEG. Previous attempts to discriminate between these hypotheses have been unsuccessful but here a new test is presented based on the prediction that ERPs generated by phase-alignment will be associated with event-related changes in frequency whereas evoked-ERPs will not. Using empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which allows measurement of narrow-band changes in the EEG without predefining frequency bands, evidence was found for transient frequency slowing in recognition memory ERPs but not in simulated data derived from the evoked model. Furthermore, the timing of phase-alignment was frequency dependent with the earliest alignment occurring at high frequencies. Based on these findings, the Firefly model was developed, which proposes that both evoked and induced power changes derive from frequency-dependent phase-alignment of the ongoing EEG. Simulated data derived from the Firefly model provided a close match with empirical data and the model was able to account for i) the shape and timing of ERPs at different scalp sites...
Neuroimaging data demonstrate that carpal tunnel syndrome, a peripheral neuropathy, is accompanied by maladaptive central neuroplasticity. To further investigate this phenomenon, we collected magnetoencephalography data from 12 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and 12 healthy control subjects undergoing somatosensory stimulation of the median nerve-innervated Digits 2 and 3, as well as Digit 5, which is innervated by the ulnar nerve. Nerve conduction velocity and psychophysical data were acquired to determine whether standard clinical measures correlated with brain response. In subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome, but not healthy controls, sensory nerve conduction velocity for Digits 2 and 3 was slower than Digit 5. However, somatosensory M20 latencies for Digits 2 and 3 were significantly longer than those of Digit 5. The extent of the M20 delay for median nerve-innervated Digit 2 was positively correlated with decreasing nerve conduction velocity and increasing pain severity. Thus, slower peripheral nerve conduction in carpal tunnel syndrome corresponds to greater delays in the first somatosensory cortical response. Furthermore, spectral analysis demonstrated weaker post-stimulus beta event-related desynchronization and earlier and shorter event-related synchronization in subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome. The extent of the decreased event-related desynchronization for median nerve-innervated digits was positively correlated with paraesthesia severity. We propose that ongoing paraesthesias in median nerve-innervated digits render their corresponding sensorimotor cortical areas ‘busy’...
We examined the effect of hand grip on object recognition by studying the modulation of the mu rhythm when participants made object decisions to objects and non-objects shown with congruent or incongruent hand-grip actions. Despite the grip responses being irrelevant to the task, mu rhythm activity on the scalp over motor and pre-motor cortex was sensitive to the congruency of the hand grip—in particular the event-related desynchronization of the mu rhythm was more pronounced for familiar objects grasped with an appropriate grip than for objects given an inappropriate grasp. Also the power of mu activity correlated with RTs to congruently gripped objects. The results suggest that familiar motor responses evoked by the appropriateness of a hand grip facilitate recognition responses to objects.
A primate study reported the existence of neurons from the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex which fired prior to executing categorical action sequences. The authors suggested these activities may represent abstract level information. Here, we aimed to find the neurophysiological representation of planning categorical action sequences at the population level in healthy humans. Previous human studies have shown beta-band event-related desynchronization (ERD) during action planning in humans. Some of these studies showed different levels of ERD according to different types of action preparation. Especially, the literature suggests that variations in cognitive factors rather than physical factors (force, direction, etc) modulate the level of beta-ERD. We hypothesized that the level of beta-band power will differ according to planning of different categorical sequences. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) from 22 subjects performing 11 four-sequence actions - each consisting of one or two of three simple actions - in 3 categories; ‘Paired (ooxx)’, ‘Alternative (oxox)’ and ‘Repetitive (oooo)’ (‘o’ and ‘x’ each denoting one of three simple actions). Time-frequency representations were calculated for each category during the planning period...
The human mirror neuron system (hMNS) has been associated with various forms of social cognition and affective processing including vicarious experience. It has also been proposed that a faulty hMNS may underlie some of the deficits seen in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the present study we set out to investigate whether emotional facial expressions could modulate a putative EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) and if so, would this differ according to the individual level of autistic traits [high versus low Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score]. Participants were presented with 3 s films of actors opening and closing their hands (classic hMNS mu-suppression protocol) while simultaneously wearing happy, angry, or neutral expressions. Mu-suppression was measured in the alpha and low beta bands. The low AQ group displayed greater low beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) to both angry and neutral expressions. The high AQ group displayed greater low beta ERD to angry than to happy expressions. There was also significantly more low beta ERD to happy faces for the low than for the high AQ group. In conclusion, an interesting interaction between AQ group and emotional expression revealed that hMNS activation can be modulated by emotional facial expressions and that this is differentiated according to individual differences in the level of autistic traits. The EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) seems to be a sensitive measure of the variability in facial processing in typically developing individuals with high and low self-reported traits of autism.
Everyday painful experiences are usually single events accompanied by tissue damage, and yet most experimental studies of cutaneous nociceptive processing in the brain use repeated laser, thermal, or electrical stimulations that do not damage the skin. In this study the nociceptive activity in the brain evoked by tissue-damaging skin lance was analyzed with electroencephalography (EEG) in 20 healthy adult volunteers (13 men and 7 women) aged 21–40 yr. Time-frequency analysis of the evoked activity revealed a distinct late event-related vertex potential (lance event-related potential, LERP) at 100–300 ms consisting of a phase-locked energy increase between 1 and 20 Hz (delta-beta bands). A pairwise comparison between lance and sham control stimulation also revealed a period of ultralate stronger desynchronization after lance in the delta band (1–5 Hz). Skin application of mustard oil before lancing, which sensitizes a subpopulation of nociceptors expressing the cation channel TRPA1, did not affect the ultralate desynchronization but reduced the phase-locked energy increase in delta and beta bands, suggesting a central interaction between different modalities of nociceptive inputs. Verbal descriptor screening of individual pain experience revealed that lance pain is predominantly due to Aδ fiber activation...
Studies show that patients with schizophrenia exhibit impaired responses to sensory stimuli, especially at the early stages of neural processing. In particular, patients’ alpha-band (8–14 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) and visual P1 event-related potential (ERP) component tend to be significantly reduced, with P1 ERP deficits greater for visual stimuli biased towards the magnocellular system. In healthy controls, studies show that pre-stimulus alpha (background alpha) plays a pivotal role in sensory processing and behavior, largely by shaping the neural responses to incoming stimuli. Here, we address whether patients’ ERD and P1 deficits stem from impairments in pre-stimulus alpha mechanisms. To address this question we recorded electrophysiological activity in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls while they engaged in a visual discrimination task with low, medium, and high contrast stimuli. The results revealed a significant decrease in patients’ ERDs, which was largely driven by reductions in pre-stimulus alpha. These reductions were most prominent in right-hemispheric areas. We also observed a systematic relationship between pre-stimulus alpha and the P1 component across different contrast levels. However...
Prior research suggests that event-related potentials (ERP) obtained during active and passive auditory paradigms, which have demonstrated abnormal neurocognitive function in schizophrenia, may provide helpful tools in predicting transition to psychosis. In addition to ERP measures, reduced modulations of EEG alpha, reflecting top-down control required to inhibit irrelevant information, have revealed attentional deficits in schizophrenia and its prodromal stage. Employing a three-stimulus novelty oddball task, nose-referenced 48-channel ERPs were recorded from 22 clinical high-risk (CHR) patients and 20 healthy controls detecting target tones (12% probability, 500 Hz; button press) among nontargets (76%, 350 Hz) and novel sounds (12%). After current source density (CSD) transformation of EEG epochs (−200 to 1000 ms), event-related spectral perturbations were obtained for each site up to 30 Hz and 800 ms after stimulus onset, and simplified by unrestricted time-frequency (TF) principal components analysis (PCA). Alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD) as measured by TF factor 610–9 (spectral peak latency at 610 ms and 9 Hz; 31.9% variance) was prominent over right posterior regions for targets, and markedly reduced in CHR patients compared to controls...
Sensory gating (SG), referring to an attenuated neural response to the second identical stimulus, is considered as preattentive processing in the central nervous system to filter redundant sensory inputs. Insufficient somatosensory SG has been found in the aged adults, particularly in the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII). However, it remains unclear which variables leading to the age-related somatosensory SG decline. There has been evidence showing a relationship between brain oscillations and cortical evoked excitability. Thus, this study used whole-head magnetoencephalography to record responses to paired-pulse electrical stimulation to the left median nerve in healthy young and elderly participants to test whether insufficient stimulus 1- (S1-) induced event-related desynchronization (ERD) contributes to a less-suppressed stimulus 2- (S2-) evoked response. Our analysis revealed that the minimum norm estimates showed age-related reduction of SG in the bilateral SII regions. Spectral power analysis showed that the elderly demonstrated significantly reduced alpha ERD in the contralateral SII (SIIc). Moreover, it was striking to note that lower S1-induced alpha ERD was associated with higher S2-evoked amplitudes in the SIIc among the aged adults. Conclusively...
Introduction: This paper presents a detection method for upper limb movement intention as part of a brain-machine interface using EEG signals, whose final goal is to assist disabled or vulnerable people with activities of daily living. Methods EEG signals were recorded from six naïve healthy volunteers while performing a motor task. Every volunteer remained in an acoustically isolated recording room. The robot was placed in front of the volunteers such that it seemed to be a mirror of their right arm, emulating a Brain Machine Interface environment. The volunteers were seated in an armchair throughout the experiment, outside the reaching area of the robot to guarantee safety. Three conditions are studied: observation, execution, and imagery of right arm’s flexion and extension movements paced by an anthropomorphic manipulator robot. The detector of movement intention uses the spectral F test for discrimination of conditions and uses as feature the desynchronization patterns found on the volunteers. Using a detector provides an objective method to acknowledge for the occurrence of movement intention. Results When using four realizations of the task, detection rates ranging from 53 to 97% were found in five of the volunteers when the movement was executed...
Changes in the level of synchronization and desynchronization in coupled
oscillator systems due to an external stimulus is called event related
synchronization or desynchronization (ERS/ERD). Such changes occur in real life
systems where the collective activity of the entities of a coupled system is
affected by some external influence. In order to understand the role played by
the external influence in the occurrence of ERD and ERS, we study a system of
coupled nonlinear oscillators in the presence of an external stimulus signal.
We find that the phenomena of ERS and ERD are generic and occur in all types of
coupled oscillator systems. We also find that the same external stimulus signal
can cause ERS and ERD depending upon the strength of the signal. We identify
the stability of the ERS and ERD states and also find analytical and numerical
boundaries between the different synchronization regimes involved in the
occurrence of ERD and ERS.; Comment: Accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. E
We seek explanation for the neurophysiological phenomenon of event related
desynchronization (ERD) by using models of diffusively coupled nonlinear
oscillators. We demonstrate that when the strength of the event is sufficient,
ERD is found to emerge and the accomplishment of a behavioral/functional task
is determined by the nature of the desynchronized state. We illustrate the
phenomenon for the case of limit cycle and chaotic systems. We numerically
demonstrate the occurrence of ERD and provide analytical explanation. We also
discuss possible applications of the observed phenomenon in real physical
systems other than the brain.; Comment: Accepted in Physical Review Letters