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Evaluation of sun protection factor of cosmetic formulations by a simple visual in vitro method mimicking the in vivo method

Paula, Leonardo R. de; Parussulo, André Luís Araújo; Araki, Koiti; Toma, Henrique Eisi
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; MALDEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; MALDEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
A new concept for in vitro visual evaluation of sun protection factor (SPF) of cosmetic formulations based on a supramolecular ultraviolet (UV) dosimeter was clearly demonstrated. The method closely parallels the method validated for in vivo evaluation and relies on the determination of the slightest perceptible bleaching of an iron-complex dye/nanocrystallinetitanium dioxide interface (UV dosimeter) in combination with an artificial skin substrate simulating the actual human skin in the presence and absence of a cosmetic formulation. The successful evaluation of SPF was ensured by the similarity of the erythema response of our dosimeter and human skin to UV light irradiation. A good linear correlation of in vitro and in vivo data up to SPF 40 confirmed the effectiveness of such a simple, cheap, and fast method. In short, here we unravel a convenient and accessible visual FPS evaluation method that can help improving the control on cosmetic products contributing to the reduction of skin cancer, one of the critical public health issues nowadays. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 101:726732, 2012; FAPESP; FAPESP; CNPq; CNPq; PETROBRAS; PETROBRAS

Um método para avaliação de desempenho de protocolos de sincronização otimistas para simulação distribuída.; A method for the performance evaluation of optimistic synchronisation protocols adopted in distributed simulation programs.

Spolon, Renata
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/06/2001 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
Esta tese propõe um novo método para a avaliação de desempenho de protocolos de sincronização otimistas adotados em programas de simulação distribuída. A utilização do método proposto é atrativa principalmente por permitir um usuário de simulação distribuída otimista optar pelo protocolo que mais se adapta às suas necessidades, sem ter que implementá-lo. O método de avaliação tem o modelo de um processo lógico Time Warp básico como núcleo, levando em consideração as características tanto da aplicação como da plataforma de hardware/software utilizada (o ambiente ALPHA/Sim é utilizado para a modelagem e simulação através de Redes de Petri). As características mais relevantes do protocolo Time Warp básico e suas variações são identificadas, a partir de uma nova taxonomia hierárquica proposta nesta tese, aliada a uma revisão bibliográfica ampla e detalhada. Além disso, domínios de plugins foram identificados, permitindo uma extensão (ou modificação) rápida e direta do modelo do Time Warp básico proposto. Esta tese também contribui apresentando resultados da avaliação de desempenho do protocolo Time Warp básico e do protocolo probabilístico PDSP.; This thesis proposes a novel method for the performance evaluation of optimistic synchronisation protocols adopted in distributed simulation programs. The use of the proposed method is attractive mainly for allowing an optimistic distributed simulation user to choose the protocol that best fits his needs...

SystEM-PLA: um método sistemático para avaliação de arquitetura de linha de produto de software baseada em UML; SystEM-PLA: a systematic evaluation method for UML-based software product line architecture

Oliveira Junior, Edson Alves de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/09/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.87%
A abordagem de linha de produto de software (LP) tem como objetivo principal promover a geração de produtos específicos de um determinado domínio com base na reutilização de uma infraestrutura central, chamada núcleo de artefatos. Um dos principais artefatos do núcleo de uma LP é a Arquitetura de LP (ALP), que representa a abstração de todas as arquiteturas de sistemas únicos que podem ser gerados, para um domínio específico. Avaliações de ALP são importantes, pois permitem aumentar a produtividade e a qualidade dos produtos da LP, bem como, seus resultados permitem a análise de metas de negócio e de retorno de investimento. Este trabalho propõe um método sistemático para avaliação de ALP, o SystEM-PLA (a Systematic Evaluation Method for Software Product Line Architectures). Tal método considera modelos de ALP em UML, por ser uma notação amplamente conhecida e consolidada. SystEM-PLA é composto por um metaprocesso de avaliação, diretrizes que guiam o usuário em como avaliar uma ALP e métricas básicas para modelos UML e atributos de qualidade. O método utiliza a abordagem SMarty (Stereotype-based Management of Variability), para gerenciar variabilidades em LP baseadas em UML. Análises de trade-off com o objetivo de priorizar atributos de qualidade para o desenvolvimento e evolução dos produtos de uma LP são realizadas com base na aplicação e coleta das métricas do SystEM-PLA em configurações de uma ALP. As métricas propostas para os atributos de qualidade complexidade e extensibilidade foram validadas por meio de um estudo experimental. Evidências indicaram a viabilidade de aplicação do método SystEM-PLA na indústria com base em um estudo experimental realizado com profissionais de uma empresa de grande porte no setor de desenvolvimento de software; The software product line (PL) approach aims at promoting the generation of specific products from a particular domain based on the reuse of a central infra-structure...

Usabilidade universal na arquitetura : método de avaliação baseado em heurísticas; Universal usability in architecture : evaluation method based on heuristics

Lucy Ana Vilela Staut Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/08/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
Como utilizar um edifício de maneira eficiente, eficaz e satisfatória? Esta questão envolve atributos de qualidade funcional e facilidade de uso, aliados ao desenho universal entendido como valor de utilidade, eficiência e conforto do espaço construído amplamente utilizável. Esta pesquisa coloca-se na interface entre componentes da acessibilidade espacial e avaliação heurística, como método de inspeção sistemático de usabilidade. O objetivo geral é analisar o potencial de aplicação de uma avaliação heurística modificada como método de inspeção de usabilidade universal, aliada ao percurso pluralístico. A partir do assunto proposto e do contexto no qual se insere, optou-se por realizar um estudo de caso com avaliação através do método baseado em heurísticas modificado em conformação aos princípios do Desenho Universal, em Centro Comercial Planejado, caso selecionado devido à complexidade espacial e escala. A avaliação é composta por três sessões consecutivas: na sessão I, pré-entrevista, cinco avaliadores especialistas interdisciplinares na área de arquitetura e construção foram convidados a responder um formulário, entrevista estruturada, através da análise dos projetos arquitetônicos do centro comercial planejado (plantas...

Evaluation of license-plate location algorithms

Sequeira, Manuel Menezes de; Brandão, Tomás; Albuquerque, Miguel
Fonte: Instituto Superior Técnico Publicador: Instituto Superior Técnico
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /04/2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
We propose a new evaluation method for license-plate location algorithms. As a first step towards a comparison of the algorithms described in the literature over the years, we have implemented some relevant algorithms with different approaches and compared them using the proposed evaluation method. The software used for evaluation and a set of annotated evaluation images are both readily available, making the reproduction of the presented results possible. The availability of both software and an evaluation set allows the results presented in this paper to be used as benchmarks when developing plate location algorithms.

Organizational communication and performance appraisal: the organizational communication under 360º evaluation

Mourão, R.; Miranda, S.
Fonte: Common Ground Publishing Publicador: Common Ground Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Organizational communication and performance appraisal are essential to human resources management. Organizational communication has been relevant in organizations, especially because globalization and competitiveness create more permanent contact between employees (Miller, 2011). In turn, performance appraisal has been shown to be essential to organizational effectiveness (Proctor and Doukakis, 2003). However, traditional performance evaluation has some limitations (e.g. quotation mistakes associated with the subjectivity of evaluators) (Caetano, 2008). To prevent these limitations, it is important to be aware of 360° evaluation, a specific evaluation method that considers more than one appraiser (Brutus and Gorriti, 2005), and permits to control any eventual idiosyncrasies (Oh and Mount, 2011). This evaluation method is more frequent in organizations with a hierarchical structure of bottom-up (i.e., greater sharing of power) (Brutus and Brassard, 2005). It is expected that the 360° evaluation may be useful to create a better organizational communication, because communication failures tend to occur in organizations with a strong hierarchical structure, due to lower sharing of power among different organizational actors (Felts, 1992). In this case...

Identification of Toxoplasma gondii SUB1 Antigen as a Marker for Acute Infection by Use of an Innovative Evaluation Method▿

Hruzik, A.; Asif, A. R.; Groß, U.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
By the separation of Toxoplasma lysate using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and its analysis with human serum samples and mass spectrometry, the subtilisin-like protein (SUB1) was identified to be a potential marker for acute toxoplasmosis. Following expression of the C-terminal domain of SUB1 in Escherichia coli, it was tested in a line blot assay using a total of 80 human serum samples. Two computer programs based on different evaluation strategies were used for judgment of the line blot results: (i) a time-dependent method with a predefined cutoff value and (ii) a fixed-time-point method with a calculated cutoff. Thereby, SUB1 was proven to be rather reactive with specific immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG of patients with an acute infection. This finding makes this antigen an attractive candidate for improving diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and demonstrates that not only the selection of respective antigens but also the evaluation method chosen are important for the evaluation of new diagnostic markers.

A Novel Evaluation Method for Building Construction Project Based on Integrated Information Entropy with Reliability Theory

Bai, Xiao-ping; Zhang, Xi-wei
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/02/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
Selecting construction schemes of the building engineering project is a complex multiobjective optimization decision process, in which many indexes need to be selected to find the optimum scheme. Aiming at this problem, this paper selects cost, progress, quality, and safety as the four first-order evaluation indexes, uses the quantitative method for the cost index, uses integrated qualitative and quantitative methodologies for progress, quality, and safety indexes, and integrates engineering economics, reliability theories, and information entropy theory to present a new evaluation method for building construction project. Combined with a practical case, this paper also presents detailed computing processes and steps, including selecting all order indexes, establishing the index matrix, computing score values of all order indexes, computing the synthesis score, sorting all selected schemes, and making analysis and decision. Presented method can offer valuable references for risk computing of building construction projects.

Método de avaliação de necessidades e prioridades de reabilitação de edifícios de instituições federais de ensino superior; Method of assessment of needs and priorities for rehabilitation of buildings federal institutions of higher education

Oliveira, Marco Antônio de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Geotecnia, Estruturas e Construção Civil (EEC); Escola de Engenharia Civil - EEC (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Geotecnia, Estruturas e Construção Civil (EEC); Escola de Engenharia Civil - EEC (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
Any edification starts to deface itself soon after its construction is finalized, which leads to the necessity of physical interventions, such as maintenance and rehabilitation. Building’s rehabilitation in Brazil is a little explored field by the civil construction sector, having the objective of general improvement of a building through conservation and performance intervention. It is justified, among other reasons, by its low cost in comparison to a new construction and the aspects of environmental sustainability and patrimony preservation. It is of fundamental importance the conservation state evaluation to identify anomalies and propose interventions that contribute to raise of the life cycle of the functional elements of the building. The Federal Institutions of Higher Education (Instituições Federais de Ensino Superior – IFES) have a considerable construction park and one of its physical space management difficulties is the establishment of an objective priority criteria. The finality of this work is the development of an evaluation method to determinate the rehabilitation needs and define the its priorities as a support tool to the IFES construction park managers on decision taking, named REAB-IFES. Methodologically, it was taken the option for the adaptation of a Portuguese method elaborated by the Civil Engineering National Lab (Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil – LNEC). The application field was five buildings of Goiás Federal University (Universidade Federal de Goiás – UFG)...

An Energy Based Nanomechanical Properties Evaluation Method for Cementitious Materials

Jha, Kaushal K
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
Advances in multiscale material modeling of structural concrete have created an upsurge of interest in the accurate evaluation of mechanical properties and volume fractions of its nano constituents. The task is accomplished by analyzing the response of a material to indentation, obtained as an outcome of a nanoindentation experiment, using a procedure called the Oliver and Pharr (OP) method. Despite its widespread use, the accuracy of this method is often questioned when it is applied to the data from heterogeneous materials or from the materials that show pile-up and sink-in during indentation, which necessitates the development of an alternative method. In this study, a model is developed within the framework defined by contact mechanics to compute the nanomechanical properties of a material from its indentation response. Unlike the OP method, indentation energies are employed in the form of dimensionless constants to evaluate model parameters. Analysis of the load-displacement data pertaining to a wide range of materials revealed that the energy constants may be used to determine the indenter tip bluntness, hardness and initial unloading stiffness of the material. The proposed model has two main advantages: (1) it does not require the computation of the contact area...

An integrated risk evaluation model for mineral deposits.

Nicholas, Grant Deon
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
The core asset of most mining companies is its mineral resources and reserves. The company produces ore from its reserves, which is a subset of its mineral resources associated with varying levels of geoscientific confidence and uncertainty. One of the key evaluation challenges is to distil technical complexity into a financial model that is usually designed to focus only on one or two key valuation indicators, such as net present value (NPV) or internal rate of return (IRR). The driver behind this research was whether conventional evaluation techniques for mineral projects can evaluate accurately both the spatial and temporal characteristics of project risks in financial terms, due to their inherent nature to understate the true variance, and under-value or over-value the actual NPV. How can conventional evaluation methods be compared to an innovative, integrated evaluation technique that quantifies the non-linear impacts of spatial resource variables on production constraints in financial terms, measured at the appropriate temporal scale? To answer these questions, this research focused on developing an innovative risk evaluation methodology for two different diamond deposits and one gold deposit to incorporate spatial, non-spatial and financial data across the evaluation pipeline. The author developed an integrated evaluation modelling (IEM) framework based on a unique bottom-up methodology that follows every estimation block through the mining and processing value chain...

Selbstevaluation als Methode der Qualitätsentwicklung in der Sozialen Arbeit. Konzeptionelle, strukturelle, und personelle Voraussetzungen am Beispiel der Heimerziehung.; Self-evaluation as a method of quality development in the field of social work. Conceptual, structural and personnel requirements explored in the case of children’s homes.

Weidner, Gerald
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
Ziel der vorgelegten Dissertation ist es, einen Beitrag zur Professionalisierung der Sozialen Arbeit zu leisten. Es geht um Möglichkeiten zur Reflexion durch Selbstevaluation der eigenen Arbeit durch die Fachkräfte in der Heimerziehung. Im Rahmen von Feldforschung werden eigene Selbstevaluationsbögen erprobt und es wird die Wirkung dieser Selbstreflexions- initiative analysiert. Im theoretischen Teil werden die für eine Selbstreflexion notwendigen Voraussetzungen, bezogen auf das Praxisfeld der Heimerziehung, geklärt und die Fragestellungen der empirischen Untersuchung entwickelt. Es wird der besondere Stellenwert der Selbstevaluation im Vergleich zu anderen Verfahren der Qualitäts¬entwicklung für die Professionalisierung der Sozialen Arbeit verdeutlicht. Im empirischen Teil wird im Kontext der Evaluationsmethode EVAS und der eigenen Ergänzungen dieses Verfahrens die Einlösung des Anspruches der Selbstevaluation in vier Erziehungsheimen untersucht. Insgesamt wurden ca. 100 Fachkräfte über Befragungen und Interviews in die empirische Studie einbezogen. Ziel war es, EVAS mit einrichtungs- spezifischen Systemen der Selbstevaluation zu verkoppeln. Folgende Erhebungen wurden dabei jeweils durchgeführt: Standardisierte Befragung...

CERTS: a comparative evaluation method for risk management methodologies and tools

Garrabrants, William M.; Ellis, Alfred W. III
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; This thesis develops a comparative evaluation method for computer security risk management methodologies and tools. The subjective biases inherent to current comparison practices are reduced by measuring unique characteristics of computer security risk management methodologies. Standardized criteria are established and described by attributes which in turn are defined by metrics that measure the characteristics. The suitability of a method or tool to a particular organizational situation can then be analyzed objectively. Additionally, our evaluation method facilitates the comparison of methodologies and tools to each other. As a demonstration of its effectiveness, our method is applied to four distinct risk management methodologies and four risk management tools. Alternative models for utilizing the evaluation method are presented as well as possible directions for their application. Without an adequate means of comparing and evaluating risk management decision-making methodologies, the metadecision (the selection of a risk management method or tool) becomes arbitrary and capricious, thereby making an inappropriate selection more likely. Selection of an inappropriate method or tool could lead to excessive costs...

An Evaluation Method for Context-Aware Systems in U-Health

Sánchez-Pi, Nayat; Carbó, Javier; Molina, José M.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.85%
Evaluations for context-aware systems can not be conducted in the same manner evaluation is understood for other software systems where the concept of large corpus data, the establishment of ground truth and the metrics of precision and recall are used. Evaluation for changeable systems like context-aware and specially developed for AmI environments needs to be conducted to assess the impact and awareness of the users. E-Health represents a challenging domain where users(patients, patients' relatives and healthcare professionals) are very sensitive to systems' response. If system failure occurs it can conducts to a bad diagnosis or medication, or treatment. So a user-centred evaluation system is need to provide the system with users' feedback. In this paper, we present an evaluation method for context aware systems in AmI environments and specially to u-Heatlh domain; Funded by projects CICYT TIN2008-06742-C02-02/TSI, CICYTTEC2008-06732 C02-02/TEC, SINPROB, CAM MADRINET S-0505/TIC/0255 and DPS2008-07029-C02-02.; Proceedings of: 3rd International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence (ISAmI 2012) Salamanca, March 28-30, 2012

The World Bank Group and Public Procurement--An Independent Evaluation : Volume 2: Achieving Development Effectiveness through Procurement in Bank Financial Assistance

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.82%
Good public procurement practices are a major determinant of the effectiveness of public expenditure. On behalf of their citizens, governments typically spend as much as 5-20 percent of their gross domestic product on procurement of goods and services, and effective procurement policies enable better use of government budgets. Good national procurement practices are therefore an essential element of the poverty reduction focus of the Bank. Good procurement in Bank projects is also associated with better development outcomes. Equally, sound public procurement in client countries is a prerequisite for the success of the Bank's newly introduced program for results lending instrument. The Bank seeks to ensure that its funds are used for the purpose intended and that they support development effectively and efficiently. Thus, the twin issues that underpin this Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluation are first, how effectively has the World Bank helped build well-functioning public procurement systems in client countries and second...

The World Bank Group and Public Procurement--An Independent Evaluation : Appendixes to Volume 2

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Good public procurement practices are a major determinant of the effectiveness of public expenditure. On behalf of their citizens, governments typically spend as much as 5-20 percent of their gross domestic product on procurement of goods and services, and effective procurement policies enable better use of government budgets. Good national procurement practices are therefore an essential element of the poverty reduction focus of the Bank. Good procurement in Bank projects is also associated with better development outcomes. Equally, sound public procurement in client countries is a prerequisite for the success of the Bank's newly introduced program for results lending instrument. The Bank seeks to ensure that its funds are used for the purpose intended and that they support development effectively and efficiently. Thus, the twin issues that underpin this Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluation are first, how effectively has the World Bank helped build well-functioning public procurement systems in client countries and second...

On evaluation of XML documents using fuzzy linguistic techniques

Peis, E.; Herrera-Viedma, E.; Herrera, J.C.
Fonte: ISKO Conference Publicador: ISKO Conference
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.83%
Recommender systems evaluate and filter the great amount of information available on the Web to assist people in their search processes. A fuzzy evaluation method of XML documents based on computing with words is presented. Given an XML document type (e.g. scientific article), we consider that its elements are not equally informative. This is indicated by the use of a DTD and defining linguistic importance attributes to the more meaningful elements of the DTD designed. Then, the evaluation method generates linguistic recommendations from linguistic evaluation judgements provided by different recommenders on meaningful elements of DTD.

ANÁLISES DE MÉTODOS DE AVALIAÇÃO DE PROJETOS; ANALISYS OF DESIGN EVALUATION METHODS

Kowaltowski, Doris Catharine Cornelie Knatz; Pereira, Paula Roberta Pizarro
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Arquitetura e Urbanismo Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Arquitetura e Urbanismo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado Por Pares; estudos de caso e análise de ferramentas da literatura Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/06/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
Proposal: Studies on the State Foundation for the Development of Education (Fundação para o Desenvolvimento da Educação – FDE) design process show that professionals working for this foundation need support during the design process, especially to verify designs under development. This paper analyses design evaluation methods to verify the applicability for the construction of a specific method to evaluate school building designs in the State of São Paulo. Methods: A survey was held and three methods were selected for analysis: DQI for Schools (Design Quality Indicator), (DQI, 2010), the method called “Evaluation method for school building design with optimization of aspects of environmental comfort” (GRAÇA & KOWALTOWSKI, 2004) and Comparative floorplan analysis (VOORDT, VRIELINK & WEGEN, 1997). The sample is composed of school building designs documented by FDE (2006). Results: The results of the analysis of the three methods highlight the necessities for a school building design evaluation method that includes specific instruments to analyse both objective and subjective data within its structure. Design evaluation requires objectivity both in the application of the method and in result visualization, alongside a quick return of information to support the architectural design process. Essential also is the inclusion of specific design requirements for local conditions.; Proposta: Estudos sobre o processo de projeto da Fundação para o Desenvolvimento da Educação (FDE) mostraram que os profissionais necessitam de apoio...

Evaluation methods among corporate travel managers

Larsson, Eva B.
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
This study examined whether corporate travel planners performed any kind of evaluation among their clients and in that case what that evaluation revealed about the different air lines' performance. A questionnaire was sent out to 100 members of National Business Travel Association (NBTA) all over the U.S. In this questionnaire the respondents were asked to answer 10 questions about if and how the evaluated the performance of the airlines. In the survey, 25% of the respondents said that they did not perform any evaluation at all. The most commonly used evaluation method was to hand-out questionnaires which was used by 37.5%. Focus groups were used by 11% of the respondents as an evaluation method. When asked why they did not perform focus groups 40% said it was too time consuming. None of the respondents indicated that it was too expensive or that they did not have the knowledge. When conducting focus groups the most commonly used method was to pick out participators from a frequent flier list provided by the airlines. The top issued brought up in their evaluation whether they used focus groups or any other kind of evaluation method, was arrival time of the airlines. The highest rated U. S carrier was USAir followed by United and the highest rated transatlantic carrier was British Airways followed by SAS.

Urban forests: evaluation method to management of green area; FLORESTAS URBANAS: MÉTODO DE AVALIAÇÃO PARA GESTÃO DAS ÁREAS VERDES

Mazzarotto, Angelo de Sá; Cubas, Selma; Maranho, Leila Teresinha
Fonte: FUPEF DO PARANÁ Publicador: FUPEF DO PARANÁ
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/09/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
This method aims to evaluate a group of indices by interaction and balance; it considers qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of Urban Forests for evaluation of elements such as: forests, wooden streets and wooden squares. In order to develop such proposal, several indices had been selected from specialized literature, mainly the ones that reveal the contribution of Urban Forests to society in relation to aesthetic aspects, quality of air, as well as flood and temperature control. Such indices had been certified in relation to their trustworthiness and relevance and they had been grouped in two sets: macro and micro ambient. The first group was composed to evaluate wider characteristics that are inherent to a set of individuals; the second one was proposed to evaluate characteristics of the vegetal individual itself, such as aspects of the root. Different weight had been attributed to the indices, in order to differentiate them by their relevance up to the method. As result it produced a method that uses a sustainability barometer for intersection of two axes, macro and micro ambient, in order to diagnose sustainability condition. It had been tested in two different areas, campus of Positivo University and Botanical Garden...