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The Principles of the Law of Software Contracts: At Odds with Copyright, Consumers, and European Law?

Travis, Hannibal B
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.31%
This paper will describe the drafting history of the Principles of the Law of Software Contracts, with particular attention to the extent of consumer and public-interest group representation in the process. The drafting process, I will argue, did not take adequate stock of problems identified in the late 1990s with proposed Article 2B of the Uniform Commercial Code, and then the Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act (“UCITA”), including provisions encouraging terms in violation of public policy, that constitute copyright or patent misuse by attempting to prohibit fair use or withdraw material from the public domain, or that are not properly disclosed before the purchase. The difference between the present situation and the 1990s, however, is the much greater importance today of European Community directives on the subject of consumer protection and electronic commerce, particularly given the explosion in e-commerce between the United States and Europe. This paper will analyze whether the Principles do enough to protect the interests of consumers and the public in four key areas: (1) consistency with U.S. federal and state statutory and common law, (2) clear and conspicuous disclosure of all relevant terms and conditions prior to the sale...

L’ européisation du droit : de l’Élargissement des champs du droit de l’Union européenne à une transformation des droits des États membres

ZILLER, Jacques
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 130673 bytes; application/pdf; digital
EN
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The article - to be published in Guibentif and Gonçalves (eds), Os novos territórios do direito: Globalização, europeização e transformação da regulação juridical, Coimbra : Almedina, 2006 or 2007 – explores a few elements of what may be labelled as the Europeanisation of Law – européisation, as opposed to the word européanisation which is usually used in the French language, but grammatically incorrect? Europeanisation of Law may be understood as a phenomenon of broadening of the scope of European law, as well as the emergence of new legal disciplines in Europe, linked to European integration. In both cases, the impact of Human Rights is particularly important. Apart from the development of new normative contents of law in Europe, Europeanisation has three main consequences: a fundamental change in the systems of sources of law in the legal systems of European countries, a coming closer of legal systems which contributes to the break up of the common law family of legal system as well as of the legal systems derived from continental European countries, and changes in terms of methodology of legal sciences.

Participatory Governance and European Administrative Law: New Legal Benchmarks for the New European Public Order

NICKEL, Rainer
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 167451 bytes; application/pdf; digital
EN
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European Governance is more than just a policy instrument without legal significance. Its regulatory sub-divisions, such as Comitology, the Lamfalussy procedure, and the growing number of European administrative agencies, have colonized substantive parts of the law-shaping and law-making processes. This contribution argues that European Governance is a distinct phenomenon that cannot be easily reconciled with traditional notions of legislation and administration, but needs to be theorized differently. Accordingly, its legal shape has to be adjusted to this new situation, too. Neither a - still only vaguely defined - concept of ‘accountability’, nor a non-binding policy concept of ‘good governance’ can fill this gap. A re-definition of European Governance - as an ‘integrating administration’ – has to take the new developments of a distinct European administrative governance sphere seriously. At the same time, it has to address the specific legitimatory problématique of the new governance structures in a sufficient manner. The specific character of these structures calls for an institutionalization of participatory patterns within the governance structures: by ensuring the involvement of civil society actors, stakeholders and the public in the arguing...

Current Legal Issues in the External Relations of the European Union

PETITE, Michel
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 144825 bytes; application/pdf; digital
EN
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66.2%
This paper is based on a lecture delivered during the Academy of European Law Summer School 2006. It provides an examination from a legal perspective of three current themes in the external relations of the European Union. First, the legal implications of the pillar structure for external relations, including recent case law and practical issues arising from the application of Article 47 TEU, the borderline between Community external policies and the Union’s common foreign and security policy, and practical interpillar cooperation. It concludes that it is easier to combine the pillars by means of pragmatic solutions, whereas it is much more difficult in the case of a strictly legal construction which takes into account the requirements of Union coherence and the separate character of each pillar. Second, the paper turns to the balance between Member States and the European Union/Community in external policy and in particular the application of the “AETR test” in recent case law including the “Open Skies” cases, the Lugano Convention Opinion and the “Mox Plant” case. It concludes that a proper application of the AETR remains a practical challenge that transcends the narrow issue of pure legal deduction as to whether Community competence is “affected” or not. And third...

Human rights require ‘cosmopolitan constitutionalism’ and cosmopolitan law for democratic governance of public goods

PETERSMANN, Ernst-Ulrich
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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56.27%
The more ‘globalization’ transforms ‘national public goods’ demanded by citizens into transnational ‘aggregate public goods’, the stronger becomes the need for reviewing ‘Westphalian governance failures’ and related ‘legal methodologies’ (Section I). Resolving the ‘constitutional problems’ and ‘collective action problems’ of multilevel governance (e.g. in terms of constituting, limiting, regulating and justifying multilevel governance powers, participation and representation of citizens in governance and dispute settlement, rule of law protecting cosmopolitan rights) requires supplementing national Constitutions by ‘multilevel cosmopolitan constitutionalism’ empowering citizens and multilevel governance institutions to realize their collective responsibility for protecting human rights, rule of law and other interdependent public goods across frontiers (Section II). The prevailing ‘political realism’ and ‘constitutional nationalism’ neglect the customary law requirements of interpreting international treaties and settling disputes ‘in conformity with the principles of justice and international law’, including ‘human rights and fundamental freedoms for all’, in order to limit democratic accountability of governments (Section III). Human rights and multilevel protection of ‘principles of justice’ require cosmopolitan law based on constitutional...

Supremacy, direct effect, and dairy products in the early history of European law

PHELAN, William
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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66.26%
As the ECJ’s two most famous decisions, Van Gend en Loos and Costa v. ENEL, which established the direct effect and supremacy of European law, are commemorated on their fiftieth anniversaries, attention has also turned to another of the ECJ’s early decisions. On 13th November 1964, in Commission v. Luxembourg & Belgium, the Dairy Products case, the ECJ rejected the use of ‘self-help’ countermeasures in the Community legal order, and therefore marked the fundamental distinction between European law and general international law. Drawing on writings by Robert Lecourt, Paul Reuter, and Paul Kapteyn, this paper demonstrates that a direct causal link between these three cases was recognized by ECJ judges and legal scholars as early as 1965. The historical evidence presented here therefore supports previous comparative analysis that has argued that these three decisions – Van Gend, Costa, and Luxembourg & Belgium – should be acknowledged as profoundly inter-connected, in that national court application of European obligations should be understood as a substitute for the enforcement of European obligations through inter-state countermeasures.

Democracy and European Integration: A Legacy of Tensions, a Re-conceptualisation and Recent True Conflicts?

JOERGES, Christian
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
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56.28%
This paper seeks to synthesise two concerns which are usually discussed separately One concerns the much discussed democracy deficit of the European polity. In this respect, it is considered that the democratic quality of the EU needs to be discussed in conjunction with Europe’s potential to enable European citizens to see themselves as the sovereigns of the economic and social order. The decoupling of Europe’s economic constitution from the social constitutions of Member States by the 1957 EEC Treaty has created a 'social deficit' of the European construction which needs to be overcome if the EU is to gain full democratic legitimacy. The second concern is with the modes of governance that Europe has established in order to respond to irrefutable regulatory needs, including the quests for a European social model. Here, Europe is, especially in areas of social policy, resorting to soft law and non-legal governance techniques, which seem hardly reconcilable with Europe’s commitment to the rule of law. Before paying the high price of de-legalisation, Europe should try out the alternative of re-conceptualising European law as new type of conflict of laws. This law would seek to attain what the Constitutional Treaty had called the 'motto of the Union'...

Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law (Yearbook), 1992, Vol. III - Book 1: European Community Law

Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit européen. The Academy of European Law (1992), directed by Antonio CASSESE, Renaud DEHOUSSE and Joseph H. H. WEILER.; -- Emile Noël, Perspectives institutionnelles à la suite du traité de Maastricht sur l'Union européenne, 1 -- Sir Leon Brittan, Subsidiarity in the Constitution of the European Community, 19 -- Robert Badinter, Conférence Winston Churchill. L'Europe du droit, 33 -- Roland Bieber, Bettina Kahil-Wolff et Laurence Muller, Cours général de droit communautaire, 49 -- Renaud Dehousse, The Legacy of Maastricht: Emerging Institutional Issues, 181 -- Josephine Steiner, EC Law - Problems of Enforcement, 241 -- Index of Decisions by Transnational Courts, 289

Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law (Yearbook), 1992, Vol. III - Book 2: The Protection of Human Rights in Europe

Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit européen. The Academy of European Law (1992), directed by Antonio CASSESE, Renaud DEHOUSSE and Joseph H. H. WEILER.; -- Louis-Edmond Pettiti, L'évolution de la Convention européenne des droits de l'homme et son application, 1 -- Claude Klein, Protection des droits de l'homme et circonstances exceptionnelles, 91 -- Danilo Türk, Protection of Minorities in Europe, 143 -- Carlo Russo, La justiciabilité des droits économiques et sociaux, 207 -- Andrew Clapham and Joseph H.H. Weiler, Human Dignity Shall Be Inviolable: The Human Rights of Lesbians and Gay Men in the European Community Legal Order, 237 -- Duncan Kennedy, A Semiotics of Legal Argument, 309 -- Catharine A. MacKinnon, Equality and Speech, 367 -- Index of Decisions by Transnational Courts, 397

Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law (Yearbook), 1993, Vol. IV - Book 1: European Community Law

Fonte: Kluwer Law International/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Law International/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.27%
Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit européen. The Academy of European Law (1993), directed by Antonio CASSESE, Renaud DEHOUSSE and Joseph H. H. WEILER.; -- Emile Noël, Conférence inaugurale. Après Maastricht: Une relance de l'Europe, 1 -- Robert Kovar, La contribution de la Cour de justice à l'édification de l'ordre juridique communautaire. Cours général de droit communautaire, 15 -- Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann, International and European Trade and Environmental Law after the Uruguay Round, 123 -- Bruno de Witte, The Cultural Dimension of Community Law, 229 -- Silvana Sciarra, European Social Policy and Labour Law - Challenges and Perspectives, 301 -- William James Adams, Economic Analysis of European Integration, 341 -- Index of Decisions by Transnational Courts, 379

Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law (Yearbook), 1993, Vol. IV - Book 2: The Protection of Human Rights in Europe

Fonte: Kluwer Law International/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Law International/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.13%
Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit européen. The Academy of European Law (1993), directed by Antonio CASSESE, Renaud DEHOUSSE and Joseph H. H. WEILER.; -- Theo Van Boven, General Course on Human Rights -- Philip Alston, Establishing a Right to Petition under the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights -- Bruno Simma, International Human Rights and General International Law: A Comparative Analysis -- Lawrence M. Friedman, Law and Social Change: Culture, Nationality, and Identity -- Index of Decisions by Transnational Courts

Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law (Yearbook), 1994, Vol. V - Book 1: European Community Law

Fonte: Kluwer Law International/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Law International/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.3%
Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit européen. The Academy of European Law (1994), directed by Antonio CASSESE, Renaud DEHOUSSE and Joseph H. H. WEILER.; -- Emile Noël, Conférence inaugurale. Perspectives de développement de l'Union européenne, 1 -- José Luis da Cruz Vilaça, The Development of the European Judicial System before and after Maastricht, 21 -- David O'Keeffe, General Course in European Community Law. The Individual and European Law, 55 -- Leigh Hancher, Towards a European Common Future? The Evolving European Environmental Constitutional Framework, 151 -- Trevor C. Hartley, Introduction to the Brussels Jurisdiction and Judgments Convention, 223 -- José María Beneyto, Transforming Competition Law Through Subsidiarity?, 267 -- Giandomenico Majone, The European Community as a Regulatory State, 321 -- Index of Decisions by Transnational Courts

Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law (Yearbook), 1994, Vol. V - Book 2: The Protection of Human Rights in Europe

Fonte: Kluwer Law International/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Law International/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.13%
Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit européen. The Academy of European Law (1994), directed by Antonio CASSESE, Renaud DEHOUSSE and Joseph H. H. WEILER.; -- René Jean Dupuy, L'Europe planétaire, 1 -- Christine Chinkin, Women's Human Rights: Guaranteed by Universal Standards or Discounted by Cultural Bias?, 11 -- Michele de Salvia, Principes directeurs d'une procédure pénale européenne: la contribution des organes de la Convention européenne des droits de l'homme, 59 -- Peter Leuprecht, General Course on Human Rights, 135 -- Alain Pellet, Les fondements juridiques internationaux du droit communautaire/The Legal Bases of Community Law in International Law, 193

Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law (Yearbook), 1995, Vol. VI - Book 1: European Community Law

Fonte: Kluwer Law International/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Law International/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.23%
Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit européen. The Academy of European Law (1995), directed by Philip ALSTON, Renaud DEHOUSSE, Francis SNYDER and Joseph H. H. WEILER.; -- Emile Noël, La Conférence intergouvernementale de 1996 vers un nouvel ordre institutionnel, 1 -- Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa, The Genesis of EMU: A Retrospective View, 23 -- Francis Snyder, General Course. Constitutional Law of the European Union, 41 -- Norbert Reich, 'System der subjectiven öffentlichen Rechte' in the Union: A European Constitution for Citizens of Bits and Pieces, 157 -- Jo Shaw, Citizenship of the Union: Towards Post-National Membership?, 237 -- Index of Decisions by Transnational Courts, 349

Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law (Yearbook), 1995, Vol. VI - Book 2: The Protection of Human Rights in Europe

Fonte: Kluwer Law International/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Law International/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.16%
Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit européen. The Academy of European Law (1995), directed by Philip ALSTON, Renaud DEHOUSSE, Francis SNYDER and Joseph H. H. WEILER.; -- Pieter van Dijk, General Course. The Law of Human Rights in Europe. Instruments and Procedures for a Uniform Implementation, 1 -- Andrew Drzemczewski, A Major Overhaul of the European Human Rights Convention Control Mechanism: Protocol No. 11, 121 -- Roger Errera, Extradition et droits de l'homme, 245 -- Patrick Thornberry, Minority Rights, 307 -- Index of Decisions by Transnational Courts, 391

Protecting European law from international law

LAVRANOS, Nikolaos
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
This contribution analyses the relationship between international law and Community law in the light of two recent European Court of Justice (ECJ) cases on Article 307 EC, that is, the Kadi and bilateral investment treaties (BITs) judgments. The analysis discusses two concepts: (1) the concept of the 'very foundations of the Community legal order' and (2) the concept of 'hypothetical incompatibility'. The main argument that is advanced in this contribution is that with these two concepts, the ECJ has identified a constitutional dimension of Article 307 EC that hitherto has not been generally recognized. More specifically, it is argued that the main aim and result of this new line of jurisprudence is to protect the autonomy of European law from international law interferences by excluding as much as possible any conflicts between European and international law. In this sense, Article 307 EC is a tool for the ECJ to act as a gatekeeper by regulating the relationship between international law and Community law. Moreover, it is argued that the concept of the 'very foundations of the Community legal order' very much resembles the approach of the Federal German Constitutional Court, which in turn illustrates that the ECJ is performing the function of a true constitutional court of Europe. Accordingly...

Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law (Yearbook), 1996, Vol. VII - Book 1: European Community Law

Fonte: Kluwer Law International/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Law International/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.26%
Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit européen. The Academy of European Law (1996), directed by Philip ALSTON, Renaud DEHOUSSE, Francis SNYDER and Joseph H. H. WEILER.; • Emile Noël, Conférence inaugurale. Quelques réflexions sur les perspectives politico-institutionnelles de l'intégration européenne en 2000 et au-delà • Klaus Hänsch, Reasserting the Political Will to Move Europe Forward • Gil Carlos Rodriguez Iglesias, Le pouvoir judiciaire de la Communauté européenne au stade actuel de l'évolution de l'Union • Ricardo Alonso Garcia, General Course. Community and National Legal Orders: Autonomy, Integration and Interaction • Deirdre M. Curtin, 'Civil Society' and the European Union: Opening Spaces for Deliberative Democracy? • Christian Joerges, Challenges of European Integration to Private Law • Stephen Weatherill, European Football Law • Index of Decisions by Transnational Courts

Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law (Yearbook), 1996, Vol. VII - Book 2: The Protection of Human Rights in Europe

Fonte: Kluwer Law International/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Law International/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.13%
Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit européen. The Academy of European Law (1996), directed by Philip ALSTON, Renaud DEHOUSSE, Francis SNYDER and Joseph H. H. WEILER.; • Henry G. Schermers, General Course. European Convention on Human Rights, 1 • Patrick Weil, The Transformation of Immigration Policies. Immigration Control and Nationality Laws in Europe: A Comparative Approach, 87 • Andrew Clapham, Mainstreaming Human Rights at the United Nations - The Challenges for the First High Commissioner for Human Rights, 159 • Index of Decisions by Transnational Courts, 235

Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law (Yearbook), 1997, Vol. VIII - Book 1: European Community Law

Fonte: Kluwer Law International Publicador: Kluwer Law International
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.29%
Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit européen. The Academy of European Law (1997), directed by Philip ALSTON, Grainne DE BURCA and Bruno DE WITTE.; • Carol Harlow, Citizen Access to Political Power in the European Union, 1 • Adelina Adinolfi, New Modalities for the Preliminary References Procedure: The Amsterdam Treaty and the Conventions among Member States, 57 • Spiros Simitis, Data Protection in the European Union - The Quest for Common Rules, 95 • Giuliano Amato, Distinguished Lecture. A European Cartel Office?, 143 • Mireille Delmas-Marty, The European Union and Penal Law, 155 • Lawrence Lessig, The Law of the Horse: What Cyberlaw Might Teach, 199 • Walter van Gerven, General Course. Of Rights and Remedies in the Enforcement of European Community Law before National Courts, 241 • Index of Decisions by Transnational Courts, 361

Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law (Yearbook), 1997, Vol. VIII - Book 2: The Protection of Human Rights in Europe

Fonte: Kluwer Law International Publicador: Kluwer Law International
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.09%
Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit européen. The Academy of European Law (1997), directed by Philip ALSTON, Grainne DE BURCA and Bruno DE WITTE.; • Thomas Risse, International Institutions, Non-State Actors, and Domestic Change: The Case of Human Rights, 1 • Susan Marks, Human Rights, Democracy and Ideology, 51 • James C. Hathaway, The International Refugee Rights Regime, 91 • Manfred Nowak, Lessons for the International Human Rights Regime from the Yugoslav Experience, 141 • Wilhelm Höynck, Distinguished Lecture. The Human Rights Dimension of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe as Part of the International Human Rights Regime, 209