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De Tampere ao Programa de Haia: decisões políticas sobre a imigração na União Européia (1999-2004). Uma cidadela revigorada?

Menezes, Lívia Campos de
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 137 f. : gráfs.
POR
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Pós-graduação em História - FCHS; O trabalho aqui apresentado é um estudo acerca das incongruências da configuração de uma política migratória européia. As discussões decorrem dos resultados obtidos através da análise de dois importantes momentos para a questão: os Programas de Tampere (1999) e Haia (2004). As análises desses e de outros documentos tangentes à problemática envolvendo os fluxos migratórios para a União Européia percorrem um caminho tortuoso, entre a necessidade de garantia dos direitos fundamentais e a preocupação extremada com a segurança do bloco político-econômico. O que se pretende, portanto, é destacar a institucionalização da securitização da imigração – e dos imigrantes – apontando os percursos pelos quais alguns órgãos da União, assim como os governantes nacionais e a opinião pública trilharam para tal consumação; The work presented here is a study about the inconsistencies of setting up a European immigration policy. The issues stem from the results obtained through analysis of two important moments: the Programs of Tampere (1999) and Hague (2004). The analyses of those and other documents tangents to the problems surrounding the migration to the European Union through a tortuous path...

Immigration Policy and Foreign Population in Switzerland

Gross, Dominique M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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With more than 20 percent, Switzerland is one of the countries with the largest foreign population. Since 1970 the government has tried to manage the flows of migrants in the hope of reconciling a chronic excess demand for labor with mounting pressures from nationalistic groups to control the level of foreign population. A policy of quotas on work permits has been effective in controlling the entry of new workers. Nevertheless, the overall dynamic of the system has led to an ever-increasing share of newcomers not covered by quotas. Because of institutional and economic changes, the outflow did not react to economic incentives as the government expected. Hence, at the beginning of the 21st century, the link between the instruments of immigration policy and its goal has become very weak and the level of foreign population is at an all time high. However, a new era has begun with an agreement on free mobility with European Union and European Free Trade Area (EFTA) countries.

Immigration to Switzerland : The Case of the Former Republic of Yugoslavia

Gross, Dominique M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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From less than 5 percent in 1980, the share of residents from the former Republic of Yugoslavia in the total foreign population in Switzerland rose to almost 25% in 2000, to become one of the largest foreign communities. The largest increase occurs mostly between 1985 and 1998 and represents a unique development in the composition of immigration to Switzerland, as it coincides with a new policy, which from 1995 gives priority to workers from the European Union for new permits and severely restricts work permits for migrants from the rest of the world. The empirical analysis shows that when there is no discriminatory treatment by immigration policy, immigrant workers from the former Yugoslavia respond to financial and cultural incentives in the same way as their unskilled counterparts from Southern European countries. The restriction on permit availability in the mid-1990s appears to have weakened the financial and cultural attractiveness of Switzerland for immigrants from the former Yugoslavia. This may signal a change in the characteristics of migrants from the region toward higher skill levels.

Ongoing work on the EU’s common Asylum and Immigration Policy

Hunter, Lynne
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 41019 bytes; 357 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Not available; Paper presented to conference entitled The Challenges of Immigration and Integration in the European Union and Australia, 18-20 February 2003, University of Sydney; no

The European Union after 9/11: the demise of a liberal democratic asylum regime?

Levy, Carl
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 214539 bytes; 353 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Introduction:.....This paper will illustrate in a most relevant and painful way the paradoxes of European liberal democracy. The argument is approached by firstly examining the extent to which the rise of the Far or Populist Right has pressurised the European Union into becoming more intolerant, and then it proceeds to examine to what extent the threat of terrorism has undermined the liberal democratic consensus (outlined above). The argument is therefore pitched at two levels: the effects of domestic politics on the national policies of Member States and the inputs of Member States on the joint policies of the European Union. Elsewhere I have used this argument as an illustrative case study in the wider debate about the nature of multi-level governance in the European Union and the associated debate about the extent to which the European Union had taken on the attributes of a sovereign nation-state. Here I can only declare my interest, but of course this interest does shape the way I will pitch my argument.; no

A new paradigm of international migration between the European Union and Australia: patterns and implications

Hugo, Graeme
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 652025 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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International migration between the European Union (EU) and Australia has a long history. However, the pattern of this migrational flow has undergone some profound changes in the last decade. This paper provides an Australian-end perspective on these changes using the 2001 Census of Population and Housing, arrival/departure information and survey results to establish the nature and scale of these changes. Australia is recognised, along with Canada, the United States and New Zealand, as a ‘traditional country of immigration’ and the EU has been one of the largest single suppliers of settlers to Australia with 12 percent of Australians at the 2001 Census being born in the EU and a similar number being Australian-born with a EU-born parent. However, with the massive global shifts occurring in international migration, the migration relationship has become much more complex. On the one hand, Australia has entered a new paradigm of international migration in which non-permanent settlement movements have assumed central significance. The EU has been a major source of such people moving to Australia. There has long been a substantial counter flow of people moving from Australia to the EU among which former settlers have dominated. In recent years the numbers of Australian born moving on a permanent or long-term basis to the EU has increased substantially. It is argued that the bulk of research knowledge in Australia is based on the settlement paradigm which is now only a minor part of migration between Australia and Europe. There is a need to reorient research activity in Australia to encompass the new forms of movement. In addition to identifying the scale of the new forms of international migration influencing movements between the EU and Australia...

European immigration and integration : Finland

Koivukangas, Olavi
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 45800 bytes; 357 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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The 1990s witnessed a period of strong immigration in Finland with the number of foreign arrivals increasing five-fold during the course of the decade. A major reason was the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the arrival of the Ingrians and other ethnic Finns. A significant proportion (roughly one-fifth) of the immgratory flow were refugees. Yet Finland remains an homogeneous society, with the proportion of foreign citizens accounting for only 1.9 per cent, the lowest among EU countries. Nevertheless, the challenge Finland faces is one of transition from a monolithic to a polyvalent culture. The recent increase in immigration has created a number of problems. Unemployment among foreign citizens is still over 30 per cent; it is eight per cent nationally. Negative attitudes and xenophobia among the native population towards foreigners remains. The varied composition of migration - refugees, asylum seekers, displaced persons, ordinary migrants and family members – places unique pressures on policy-makers and the citizenry alike. The flows have become more flexible, and the incidence of illegal migration and people smuggling is increasing. To address these challenges, the EU is gradually moving towards adopting a common policy on immigration and refugee issues as flagged under the 1992 Maastricht Treaty. This shift to greater supra-national authority is inevitable. Finland is currently alone among EU states in having a Russian border. However...

Dynamics in highly skilled Migration: A European Perspective; Internationale Migration Hochqualifizierter Arbeitskräfte aus Europäischer Sicht

Avato, Johanna
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
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This thesis contributes to the research in highly skilled migration and takes special interest in questions and concerns of the European Union. The research will look at the causes of migration and what factors cause the selection of migrants. In particular, it will present three empirical studies. The first analyzes the role of foreign education in the migration and subsequent integration processes. It investigates if the place of education has a uniform effect on migrants or whether there are selectivity differentials by place of education. The second studies the impact of selective migration policies and their ability to effectively over-ride existing migration patterns. As it becomes clear that there are persistent factors that reinforce migration patterns that have evolved over the past decades, the third study analyzes network effects and presents evidence of a multiplier effect that is new to the migration literature. It is evident that these questions are particularly relevant to the European Union (EU), which is a major player in international migration. The EU receives relatively low skilled immigrants compared to other major migrant destinations like the US, Canada and Australia, and migrant networks have reinforced these patterns due to strong historical linkages with many sending regions. At the same time...

Institutional and policy dynamics of EU migration law

PAPAGIANNI, Georgia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
EN
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The main objective of this dissertation is to present the on-going process of European integration via a comprehensive analysis of the institutional dynamics of, and politics linked with, the emerging migration law and policy of the European Union. More specifically, it presents the historical evolution, the main institutional legislative and policy steps, the position of, and interactions among, the different actors, and the factors impeding the formation of a common policy at EU level. On this basis a critical analysis is provided of the main institutional problems, the current policy framework, the overarching rationale as well as of the content and quality of the nascent EU migration law.; Defence date: 22 October 2004; Examining board: Prof. Bruno de witte (Supervisor, European University Institute) ; Prof. Gráinne de Búrca (European University Institute) ; Mr. Charles Elsen (Honorary Director-General, Council of the European Union) ; Prof. Takis Tridimas (University of Southampton/College of Europe)

Los derechos de los extranjeros en situación irregular: reflexiones a la luz de la práctica de los sistemas de protección derechos humanos en el ámbito europeo y americano / The Rights of Undocumented Migrants in the Light of Recent International Practice in Europe and America

OLMOS GIUPPONI, Maria Belen
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
ES
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The purpose of this paper is to analyze recent developments in the protection of human rights of undocumented migrants and identify unresolved controversial issues in this field. In the current international situation, undocumented migrants continue clearly to face problems concerning their status and their rights, in particular, those who have entered the territory of the State illegally (illegal entrants) or have stayed illegally even if they initially entered legally (migrants who have stayed longer than the law or their permits allow). At the UN level, the tendency in the last twenty years has been towards a gradual development of a more precise framework regarding in particular the situation of migrant workers. Furthermore, regional bodies and regional human rights law provide general standards applicable to specific cases. In particular, the European system of human rights and the inter-American system of human rights offer mechanisms to assess the respect of the commitments by States under international human rights law. It should be pointed out that European Union has been also developing a practice to handle the situation of undocumented migrants. Thus, this paper deals with the protection of human rights of undocumented migrants in two different contexts: Europe and America...

Demographic trends in the European Union: political and strategic implications

Rasco, Clark Joseph
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 47 p.
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; This thesis analyzes adverse demographic trends in the European Union, including sub-replacement birthrates and increasing median ages. It investigates the implications of these trends for the EU's prospects for becoming a stronger and more influential actor in international affairs. Pressures arising from population trends in and near the EU could ultimately affect national and EU cohesion, governmental effectiveness, and social stability. Absent remedial measures, social programs in some EU countries will be unsustainable due to the mounting financial burden of pensions and health care for growing elderly populations. Such financial obligations hinder funding other national programs, including modernized military capabilities. Nationalism and national identity are at issue in immigrant integration and assimilation efforts. The role of population trends with regard to the growing threat of radical Islamic fundamentalism is explored. The thesis concludes with policy recommendations that might be considered to avert the looming economic, social, and security crises that may result from these demographic trends. In short, the security and financial consequences foreshadowed by the current demographic trends of an aging...

Interest Group Politics in the European Union: Migrant Inclusion Organizations and Political Behavior Across Levels of Governance

Schnyder, Melissa
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
EN
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Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, Political Science, 2006; This project explores why similar organizations located in similar countries in the European Union (EU) working on behalf of similar interests will undertake very different strategies to achieve their policy goals. I focus on organizations working toward a migrant inclusion policy agenda across twenty EU countries, and compare their political activities across levels of governance. I develop an integrative model based on group interconnectedness to explain activity. In particular, I examine how an organization's ties with a range of other actors shape activity levels and activity choice, as compared to more traditional social movement explanations. A broad range of activities are examined, including lobbying, protest, judicial action, media use, and collaborative efforts with others. The findings support the proposition that the nature and strength of an organization's connections strongly influences its political activity across each level of governance. At the national level, increasingly strong connections to other like-minded actors serve to increase and moderate activity. Moreover, groups that maintain strong connections with actors beyond the state are more likely to expand their activities across levels of governance...

Redefining Nations: Nationhood and immigration in Italy and Spain

FREITAS CORREIA, Any
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Defense date: 08/07/2010; Examining Board: Maurizio Ambrosini (Univ. Milan), Margarita Gomez-Reino Cachafeiro, UNED, Madrid), Virginie Guiraudon (CERAPS-CNRS, Lille Centre for Politics) (External Co-Sipervisor), Peter Mair (EUI) (Supervisor); In the early 1990s, Italy and Spain, traditional labor exporters, started to acknowledge their new position as ‘immigration countries’. This dissertation examines how both states have coped with the consequences of this rapid and unexpected shift. Combining discourse and policy analysis, we look mainly at political elites’ (parties and their members) discourses and practices, during the first decade of the immigration turn (from early 1990s until the early 2000s). The literature has often treated Italy and Spain as examples of the same ‘Mediterranean’ group, also usually assuming that they have followed a very similar route towards immigrants’ criminalization and a populist mobilization of the immigration theme. Adopting an innovative analytical perspective, this thesis arrives at an original understanding of both immigrants’ representation and immigration politics in Italy and Spain. The predominant categories mobilized by Spanish and Italian political elites in the construction of the immigration ‘problem'...

The politics of immigrant integration in post-enlargement Europe migrants : co-ethnics and European citizens in Italy and Spain

BARBULESCU, Roxana
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
Examining Board: Professor Rainer Bauböck, European University Institute (EUI Supervisor) Professor Kitty C. Calavita, University of California, Irvine Professor Andrew Geddes, University of Sheffield Professor Claire Kilpatrick, European University Institute.; Defence date: 11 June 2013; In migration studies, it is taken for granted that states do not only attempt to control overall numbers of immigrants, but also establish different regulatory regimes for refugees, labour migrants, family reunification, co-ethnics and many other categories of migrants. In studies of immigrant integration, however, most analyses have assumed that each state pursues a single and coherent national approach. The aim of this dissertation is to challenge this assumption by examining how states pursue integration differently for different categories of migrants in post-enlargement Europe. In addition to third country nationals I consider also migrants who have a special cultural and historical bond with their host countries, such as emigrants and descendants of emigrants or migrants from the former colonies (co-ethnics), as well as European Union citizens from old and new member states. The dissertation builds on empirical evidence collected from 1985 to 2012 at national...

The legal dimension of the migration-development nexus in the European Union policy framework

SILGA, Janine
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
Examining Board: Professor Bruno de Witte, European University Institute/Maastricht University (Supervisor) Professor Marise Cremona, European University Institute Professor Vincent Chétail, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva Doctor Georgia Papagianni, European External Action Service, Brussels.; Defence date: 5 September 2013; This thesis enquires into the legal dimension of the Migration-Development Nexus (MDN) within the policy framework of the European Union (EU). Departing from the observation of the paradoxical absence of more legal analyses of this notion in the current context, this research aims at defining the contours of the MDN as both a policy and legal notion. In particular, this thesis looks at the evolution of the notion and its various meanings in the EU policy context. This analysis reveals the existence of different policy practices to implement the MDN, whether at the supranational or national level. By examining such practices, I intend to show that the way in which the MDN is conceptually framed and concretely implemented is influenced by competing 'policy logics’ underlying the understanding of the nexus by different policy actors. The aim of such an analysis is to identify ways for genuine policy integration of both migration and development in the EU context. To achieve this purpose...

The Foreign-born Population in the European Union and Its Contribution to National Tax and Benefit Systems : Some Insights from Recent Household Survey Data

Barbone, Luca; Bontch-Osmolovsky, Misha; Zaidi, Salman
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Despite the purported surge in internal migration following the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, data from the 2006 European Union Survey of Income and Living Conditions show that internal migrants are a relatively small share of the European Union's population. Depending on the exact definition used, only about 1 to 2 percent of the population of European Union-13 countries (members prior to the 2004 enlargement, not including Germany and Luxembourg) were born in other European Union countries, while the corresponding share for European Union-4 countries (Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia) is even lower. By contrast, about 6 percent of the population of European Union-13 countries was born outside the European Union. On examining the demographic and socio-economic background of the migrant population (both from within as well as outside the European Union), this paper finds that migrants tend to include a concentration of both low as well as highly educated workers. Both sets of migrants uniformly contribute to raising the working-age population of receiving countries. Using data on average incomes and taxes paid and benefits received by migrant and non-migrant households...

Taking Stock of Recent Migration Flows in the European Union

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Expanded employment opportunities across the continent have been one of the most significant changes to have taken place in Europe during the past 50 years. Since the inception of the European Economic Community in 1957 involving 6 countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany) with a combined population of less than 200 million, the European Union (EU) has grown to encompass nearly 500 million people across 27 member countries that produce, in total, about 30 percent of the world's total gross domestic product. May 2010 marked the six-year anniversary of the inclusion of eight countries from Central and Eastern Europe (Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia) into the EU, followed by Romania and Bulgaria in January 2007. An important consequence of these 10 new member states (henceforth EU10) joining the EU has been to expand the internal EU labor market, albeit to varying extents for nationals of different member countries. Migration flows out of the EU10 following the 2004 enlargement is hampered by various technical and data constraints. As a result...

Skilled Labor Flows : Lessons from the European Union

Kahanec, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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This study evaluates European Union (EU) experience of the mobility of skilled labor migrants after the 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements and from the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) countries. The study concludes that migration generally improves the allocated efficiency of labor markets and there is little if any evidence of statistically significant or economically relevant negative aggregate effects of migration on receiving labor markets. While outflow of young and skilled workers may pose risks to sending countries' economic prospects and public finance, circular migration, brain gain, and remittances attenuate such risks, and have the potential to become powerful engines of convergence. Obstructive legislation and ill-designed migration policies impede migration and deprive sending and receiving of such potential benefits.

Citizenship Configuration and Public Opinion towards Out-groups in the European Union

Nayar, Menaka
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 04/05/2011 EN_US
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66.03%
This paper examines the sources of public opinion towards out-groups (including ethnic minorities and immigrants) in the European Union, using Eurobarometer data from the November-December 2006 survey on Social Reality, E-Communications, Common Agricultural Policy, Discrimination and the Media, and Medical Research. In particular, it investigates one national-level explanatory variable of interest– the state’s policy-based citizenship configuration (either segregationist, assimilationist, multiculturalist or universalist) based on a framework expounded by Koopmans, et al in Contested Citizenship: Immigration and Cultural Diversity in Europe. The study uses a hierarchical ordered logit model, analyzing over 25,000 individual responses from 25 different countries, in order to ascertain the effect that living under a particular citizenship configuration has on an individual’s attitude towards out-groups. Results, though mixed, indicate nominal support for the hypothesis that respondents in segregationist and multiculturalist countries exhibit higher tendencies towards positive opinions of out-groups than respondents in assimilationist countries. This finding has important implications for policymakers attempting to redress negative public opinion towards out-groups in their country.; Honors thesis

Seeking asylum in Europe

Hatton, Timothy
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
Over the last three decades the annual number of applications for asylum in the countries of the European Union has increased from about 15 000 to more than 300 000. This has sparked a political backlash, a revolution in policy, a lively academic debate,