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Family disruption in the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights

Almeida, Susana; Gil, Ana Rita
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 05/06/2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
125.93%
Comunicação apresentada na 47th Annual Conference of the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts – Traversing the trail of alienation: mountains of emotion, rocky relationships, mile high conflict, Denver, Colorado, 5th June 2010; This workshop aims to analyse the principles drawn out by the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights in regard to family disruption matters, such as custody and access, children taken into public care and the right to respect for family life of prisoners and immigrants. The right to respect for family life, within the meaning of Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, requires a positive obligation of Member States to act in a manner calculated to allow family ties to develop normally. Furthermore, as the Strasbourg Court often stresses, the mutual enjoyment by parents and children of each other’s company constitutes a fundamental element of family life and thus one of the objectives pursued by Article 8. Therefore, the restriction or non-enforcement of custody and visiting rights, as well as the compulsory taking of children into public care and the implementation of care measures, or the limitation or prohibition of visits from family members to prisoners, or even the refusal of family reunification of immigrants...

Partnering with Strasbourg: Constitutionalization of the European Court of Human Rights, the Accession of Central and East European States to the Council of Europe, and the Idea of Pilot Judgments

SADURSKI, Wojciech
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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The accession of Central and East European States into the European Convention of Human Rights system was both a threat and a promise to the system. The threat resulted not only from the substantial increase of the number of Member States and that of the case-load, but also from the demise of a consensus which was, originally, presupposed by the system of protection of human rights in Western Europe: original members of the Council of Europe were “like-minded” and the Convention system did not represent a challenge to their internal apparatus of human rights protection. This paper, however, focuses on a promise: a possibility for the European Court of Human Rights to abandon once and for all the fiction of it being merely a sort of super-appellate court which scrutinizes individual decisions rather than laws in Member States. This shift towards a quasi-constitutional role, going beyond the simple identification of wrong individual decisions so as to point to systemic legal defects, was triggered by systemic problems within the new Member States, while also facilitated by collaboration between the European Court and national constitutional courts. The emergence of so-called “pilot judgments” is the best and most recent illustration of this trend. The way in which a national court may form a de facto alliance with the European Court effectively “pierces the veil of the State”...

Freedom of Expression: European and American constitutional models for Central and Eastern Europe

BELAVUSAU, Uladzislau
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
115.89%
This doctoral thesis inquires into the role and perspectives of the ‘European’ (mandatory) and ‘USA’ (persuasive) constitutional models of the right to freedom of expression for the constitutional debate in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). This survey is based on the study of socio-legal developments in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland, embracing the period of post-communist transition until 2010. The research focuses on three controversial issues in the realm of freedom of speech, namely (1) hate speech, (2) historical revisionism, and (3) pornography, before the U.S. Supreme Court and European Court of Human Rights. The essential novelty of the project is an assessment of European standards of free speech and non-discrimination beyond the mechanisms of the Council of Europe, encompassing the relevant aspects of EU law (judgements of the European Court of Justice and harmonised instruments) as mandatory standards for courts and legislators, including those in CEE. The research methodology transcends a standard case law assessment (comparative constitutional, public international, and EU law), normative jurisprudence and analytical philosophy, incorporating critical approaches stemming from post-structuralist scrutiny...

Two Concepts of Religious Freedom in the European Court of Human Rights

BHUTA, Nehal
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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155.85%
This paper considers the way in which recent historical work on the history of freedom of religion and freedom of conscience opens up a new interpretation of the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights in the headscarf cases. These decisions have been widely criticized as adopting a militantly secularist approach to the presence of Islamic religious symbols in the public sphere, an approach that seems inconsistent or even overtly discriminatory in light of the court’s recent decision in Lautsi that the compulsory display of crucifixes in the classroom did not breach Italy’s convention obligations. I argue that the headscarf cases turn less on the balance between state neutrality and religious belief, than on an understanding of certain religious symbols as a threat to public order and as harbingers of sectarian strife which undermine democracy.

Multilevel judicial governance in European and international economic law

PETERSMANN, Ernst-Ulrich
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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Law and governance need to be justified vis-à-vis citizens in order to be accepted as legitimate and supported by civil society. This contribution argues that the legal and judicial methodologies of multilevel governance for international public goods need to be changed in order to protect basic needs and human rights of citizens more effectively. I define legal methodology in terms of the conceptions of the sources and ‘rules of recognition’ of law, the methods of interpretation, the functions and systemic nature of multilevel legal systems like IEL, and of the relationships between rules, principles, political and legal institutions and related practices. Section I recalls the historical evolution from ‘good governance’ to third-party adjudication and individual rights of access to justice. Section II discusses eight models of multilevel judicial governance in Europe. Section III uses constitutional and ‘public goods’ theories in order to explain the multiple functions of courts of justice and the increasing importance of judicial cooperation (comity) in protecting transnational rule of law in European and international economic law (IEL). Section IV argues that the diverse ‘constitutional methods’ applied by the EU Court of Justice (CJEU)...

The European Convention on Human Rights and the economic crisis : the issue of poverty

TULKENS, Françoise
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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The European Convention on Human Rights is more than ever our common heritage (patrimoine commun) and we share in this respect a common responsibility at national and international level, between judges and scholars. That is why I really appreciate this kind of meeting since it gives us an opportunity to discuss the rights and freedoms enshrined in the Convention as they are interpreted by the European Court of Human Rights in the context of our contemporary society. That’s really the intelligence of the Convention: through the Court’s interpretation, the rights written in 1950 can have a meaning today in 2013. As legal theorists have observed, the law must be stable yet it cannot stand still. Adaptation and modification have been constant features of the Convention since 1950 and continue to be so today. In this lecture, I will examine the contribution of the European Court of Human Rights to the fight against poverty and social exclusion. I argue in favour of a reading of the European Convention on Human Rights that is aligned with the necessities of the times. In the face of the global financial and economic crisis that developed since 2008, this does not mean sacrificing human rights in the name of austerity and macro-economic discipline; it means improving the protection of the most vulnerable and marginalized segments of the population...

To segregate or not to segregate? : educational rights of the Roma children in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights

ULASIUK, Iryna
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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For years, Roma children have been put into special, segregated classes or schools where they have been taught a limited, low-level curriculum. The experience has left these students unqualified for all but the most basic jobs and has trapped generations of people of Roma ethnicity in a cycle of poverty and hopelessness. Since 2007 the European Court of Human Rights has examined six cases which addressed the compatibility of segregated education of Roma children with the rights enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights. This working paper illustrates the approach the Court has adopted in this recent case-law and its possible repercussions for future litigation and development both for Roma children but also for those who have experienced discrimination in education and in other areas protected by the European Convention.

Defensa preventiva de la democracia: la posición del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos; Preventive defense of the democracy: the position of the European Court of Human Rights

Solar Cayón, José Ignacio
Fonte: Universidad Autónoma de Bogotá Publicador: Universidad Autónoma de Bogotá
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
SPA; ENG
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RESUMEN. Las libertades de expresión y de asociación son esenciales para garantizar la apertura del sistema democrático, pero también pueden ser utilizadas para minar sus fundamentos. Por esta razón, el Consejo de Europa decidió establecer un sistema capaz de defenderse frente a posibles amenazas antidemocráticas. Y este espíritu quedó reflejado en el Convenio Europeo de Derechos Humanos. El Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos, a la hora de evaluar si un determinado programa político puede tomar parte en el proceso democrático, ha establecido una doble exigencia: que los medios utilizados sean pacíficos y que el proyecto político propugnado sea democrático. Por tanto, puede excluirse legítimamente la defensa democrática de un proyecto antidemocrático. En virtud de ello, el Tribunal ha formulado en Refah Partisi v. Turkey una doctrina de la defensa preventiva de la democracia que suscita complejas y delicadas cuestiones.; ABSTRACT. Freedom of expression and association are essentials to guarantee the opening of the democratic system, but they can also be exercised to undermine its foundations. For this reason, the Council of Europe was determined to establish a system capable of defending itself from the antidemocratic threats. And this spirit is reflected in the European Convention on Human Rights. The European Court of Human Rights...

La jurisprudencia del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos sobre la libertad religiosa: un análisis jurídico-político; European Court of Human Rights case-law on religious freedom: a legal and political analysis

Arlettaz, Fernando
Fonte: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto de Derechos Humanos Bartolomé de las Casas; Dykinson Publicador: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto de Derechos Humanos Bartolomé de las Casas; Dykinson
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /06/2012 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Este artículo analiza los rasgos generales de la jurisprudencia del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos en relación con el artículo 9 del Convenio Europeo de Derechos Humanos, sobre la libertad religiosa, agrupándolos en tres niveles. En primer lugar, el Tribunal entiende la libertad religiosa en el sentido clásico liberal, como un derecho individual que garantiza una protección frente a la coacción del Estado o de otros individuos. Por otra parte, el concepto de igualdad asociado a la libertad religiosa es asumido en su sentido formal, es decir, sin incluir prestaciones positivas o de derechos especiales para los grupos religiosos en situación de desventaja. Finalmente, la jurisprudencia europea deja a los Estados un margen de apreciación bastante amplio al momento de establecer restricciones al derecho en cuestión.; This article analyzes the general characteristics of the European Human Rights Court case-law about religious freedom (article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights). First, according to the Court, religious freedom is, in a liberal classical sense, an individual right which guarantees protection against coercion from the State or from other individuals. Second, the idea of equality associated to religious freedom is considered in a formal way...

National Security – a Trump Card? The European Court of Human Rights decisions in Herri Batasuna and Batasuna v. Spain, Etxeberria and Others v. Spain and Herritarren Zerrenda v. Spain

LETNAR CERNIC, Jernej
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
135.92%
On 30 June 2009, the European Court of Human Rights delivered three decisions deriving from the situation in the Basque country, Herri Batasuna and Batasuna v. Spain, Etxeberría and Others v. Spain and Herritarren Zerrenda v. Spain. In Herri Batasuna and Batasuna v. Spain, the European Court of Human Rights upheld the dissolution of the political parties Herri Batasuna and Batasuna, whereas it held in Etxeberría and Others v. Spain and Herritarren Zerrenda v. Spain that the political groups, which wished to continue the activities of the illegal political parties, are also prohibited from presenting candidates in municipal, regional and autonomous community elections. This article will briefly explore some of the basic legal questions arising from the above decisions. It attempts to demonstrate that the Court's analysis is entirely at odds with the functioning of democratic society, and it argues that the extreme measure of dissolution of Herri Batasuna and Batasuna, Etxeberría and Herritarren Zerrenda may have been avoided by employing less drastic and individualized measures. Despite the Court holding that the dissolution of the political parties and groups was necessary and proportionate, it may have failed to establish the factual basis and therefore also its conclusions are subjected to criticism.

The Fabric of International Jurisprudence: An interdisciplinary encounter

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
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115.87%
Bringing together a variety of outlooks from comparative law, legal theory, organizational sociology, socio-legal studies or political science, this Joint Working Papers explores the cognitive equipment through which international judges perform their role. The notion of 'fabric', borrowed from the Science and technology studies, and Bruno Latour in particular, is used here as a common entrypoint enabling to consider altogether the (legal and non-legal, formal and unformal) tools and templates that contribute to shape international judicial decision-making: 'best practices', judicial compendia, routinized legal repertoires, legal methodologies, standard operational modes, etc…; -- Antoine Vauchez, Introduction 1 -- Part 1. Actors and Know-How 3 -- Antoine Vauchez, The European Themis and its Social Fabric. Review, Reflections and New Directions for Studies of the European Court of Justice 5 -- Iyiola Solanké, The Advocate General and the Practices of International Jurisprudence 15 -- Cristina Dallara, The Definition of ‘Best Judicial Practices’ by Judicial and Legal Expert Networks and Commissions 21 -- Part 2. Methods and Tools 33 -- Bilyana Petkova, The Role of Majoritarian Activism in Precedent Formation at the European Court of Human Rights 35 -- Jérome Porta...

The Rule of Prior Exhaustion of Local Remedies in the International Law Doctrine and its Application in the Specific Context of Human Rights Protection

D'ASCOLI, Silvia; SCHERR, Kathrin Maria
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 351403 bytes; application/pdf
EN
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125.91%
This article analyses the so-called ‘rule of exhaustion of local remedies’ whereby a State must be given the opportunity to redress an alleged wrong within the framework of its own domestic legal system before its international responsibility can be called into question at the level of regional or international organs. With respect to the specific historical development of the rule, the paper portrays the transition of the principle from its original function in international law to its extended application in human rights law. At the centre of the analysis is the question of whether the rule of exhaustion of local remedies has simply been ‘transplanted’ into the field of human rights protection or whether it has undergone substantial transformation to the extent that it now qualifies as a self-contained rule under human rights law. After having analysed the application of the local remedies rule in the field of human rights, it is argued that – even though initially influenced by the original rule in the field of diplomatic protection – at present the local remedies rule in human rights law is an autonomous and self-contained rule with different functions and aims.

Minority participation in public life: the case of Greece

KYRIAKOU, Nikolas
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
115.89%
This article examines Greece's stance towards minorities in the light of the recent UN Report of the Independent Expert on Minority Issues regarding her mission to Greece. The epicentre of the paper is the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights in minority cases against Greece in which minority participation in public life and Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights are involved. The article concludes by supporting the idea of the necessity for a change of the current position maintained by Greece as regards the Macedonian and Turkish minorities living in Greece.

Good mothers, bad mothers : transnational mothering in the European Court of Human Rights' case law

STAIANO, Fulvia
Fonte: Brill Academic Publishers Publicador: Brill Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
145.89%
Transnational mothering presents significant challenges to immigrant women. In addition to the gendered expectations originating from their own communities and cultures, transnational mothers may also have to cope with gendered notions of 'good parent' underlying national and European immigration regimes when pursuing family reunification with their children left behind in their countries of origin. Against this background, the European Court of Human Rights can constitute a benchmark for ensuring transnational mothers' equal access to family reunification vis-a-vis legally sanctioned and gendered models of 'good mother', provided that the Court itself is capable of recognizing said models and avoiding to reproduce them. Thus, this article explores the Strasbourg Court's case-law on transnational parents' access to family reunification with the aim to unveil the actual capability of the Court to support a gender-sensitive enforcement of national and European family reunification regimes as well as transnational mothers' access to family reunification in conditions of equality.

The application of public international law by the European Court of Human Rights : a legal empirical analysis

SCHELTEMA, Idse Heko
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
155.98%
Defence date: 19 May 2014; Examining Board: Professor Doctor Martin Scheinin, EUI (supervisor); Professor Doctor Bruno de Witte, EUI Professor; Doctor Rick Lawson, Leiden University; Professor Doctor James Hathaway, University of Michigan.; This thesis examines the application of general rules of public international law by the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). The research was conducted in light of the debate on the fragmentation of international law. Its aims are two-fold. On the one hand, it delves into the case law of the ECtHR in order to better understand the approach that Court takes to Public International Law (PIL) issues. On the other, it hopes to establish a workable methodology for legal scholars who are confronted with the need to address questions with a factual/ empirical component. Current literature does not convincingly show how the ECtHR applies norms of PIL, nor is it clear what, if any, factors may play a role in the Court's application of PIL. This is in part due to the lack of any convincing broad studies on the Court's case law. Thus, the main research question is what approach to Public International Law is used by the European Court of Human Rights? Flowing from this main question are other questions such as...

The right to respect for (private and) family life in the case-law of the European Court of Human rights: the protection of new forms of family

Almeida, Susana
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 26/08/2009 ENG
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125.95%
Comunicação apresentada no 5th World Congress on Family Law and Children’s Rights, Halifax, Canada, 23th-26th August 2009.; This paper examines the scope of protection granted to new forms of family by Article 8 of the European Convention of Human Rights, which guarantees the right to respect for family life. In particular, the paper intends to analyze the complex and evolving interpretive task of the European Court of Human Rights in regard to the definition of the term “family life” under Article 8. Consequently, this paper assesses Strasbourg’s case-law concerning new forms of family, such as de facto, mono-parental, recomposed, transgender and homosexual families. The case-law analysis carried out in this paper allows us to conclude that the main lines of the Strasbourg Court’s decisions in this field are nothing more than a reflection of the coordinates of the existing Family Law in Europe: equality and pedo-centrism. The principles drawn out by the Court match with an equalitarian and non- discriminatory vision of the law, focused entirely on the child's best interests. In some areas, however, the commitment to the principle of equality is suspended by the European Court of Human Rights on the grounds of protection of marriage and the traditional family.

Fundamento de las críticas al Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos en el asunto Del Río Prada c. España; Basis for the criticism to the European Court of Human Rights in the case Del Rio Prada v. Spain

Cacho Sánchez, Yaelle
Fonte: Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales Publicador: Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
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RESUMEN: Las afirmaciones y críticas vertidas en torno a la sentencia del TEDH de 21 de octubre de 2013 en el asunto Del Río Prada c. España a través de los medios de comunicación trascendieron los argumentos de la Gran Sala, para plantear cuestiones como el papel desempeñado por el juez español, o la desobediencia a Estrasburgo. Todas estas críticas se traducen en importantes cuestiones jurídicas de fondo relativas al TEDH como mecanismo de garantía de los derechos humanos, a las condiciones de ejercicio de sus funciones por los jueces, o a la naturaleza y ejecución de las sentencias. Más allá del propio fallo del Tribunal y de los hechos y argumentos en los que se apoya, el presente trabajo se centra en el análisis de todas estas cuestiones en la búsqueda de los fundamentos jurídicos que sustentan las críticas contra la condena de España en el asunto Del Río Prada.; ABSTRACT: The statements and criticisms regarding the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights on October 21 2013 in Del Rio Prada v. Spain through the media went beyond the arguments of Grand Chamber, to raise issues such as the role played by the Spanish judge or even the disobedience to Strasbourg. All these reviews result in significant legal questions regarding the role of the European Court of Human Rights as an international mechanism for the protection of human rights...

O direito social à saúde:- análise de decisão da Corte Européia dos Direitos do Homem; Social right health – considerations on a judgement of the human rights

Zhouri, Fernanda Pereira
Fonte: Núcleo de Pesquisa em Direito Sanitário da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Núcleo de Pesquisa em Direito Sanitário da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/03/2013 POR
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O presente estudo tem por base a análise de um acórdão do Tribunal Europeu dos Direitos do Homem. O caso em questão refere-se a uma cidadã de Uganda que, estando ilegal no Reino Unido, pretende continuar residindo em Londres para tratamento de AIDS. Trata-se do caso N. v. United Kingdom , o qual foi julgado em 2008; pronunciou-se pela não violação do Art. 3º da Convenção Europeia dos Direitos do Homem (CEDH), com base no entendimento de que no presente caso não há risco de exposição da requerente a um tratamento desumano ou degradante.; The present study is based on the analysis of a judgment of the European Court of Human Rights. The case refers to a citizen of Uganda who, being illegal in the UK, plans to continue living in London for treatment of AIDS. This is the case N. v. United Kingdom, which was tried in 2008, ruled by non-violation of Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), based on the understanding that in this case there is no risk of exposure of the applicant to inhuman treatment or degrading treatment 

A Room with a View – The Protection of Social Rights in a European International and Supranational Perspective; A Room with a View – La Protezione dei Diritti Sociali in Prospettiva Europea Internazionale e Sovranazionale

Cocchi, Sara; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Fonte: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux Publicador: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2014 ENG
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2014v35n69p19This article examines the current framework for a “European” recognition of social rights starting from the main relevant Council of Europe and European Union sources. Through a review of the main challenges faced by such a debated category of entitlements in the European context, we will discuss the actual effectiveness of their protection and the potential risks implied in skeptical positions towards supranational commitments perceived as exceedingly pervasive. References to selected case law from the European Court of Human Rights and the European Court of Justice will not only highlight the obstacles related to the enactment of “European” social rights provisions, but also point out the presence of interpretive tools that may actively help in overcoming them.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2014v35n69p19 Il presente contributo esamina le attualipossibilità di un riconoscimento “europeo” per i diritti sociali attraverso l’analisi delle principali fonti del Consiglio d’Europa e dell’Unione Europea che li riguardano. Ripercorrendo le difficoltà emerse nell’inserimento di tale controversa categoria di diritti nei documenti “europei” fondamentali, ci si interrogherà quindi sull’effettivo grado di protezione che questa inclusione garantisce e sui rischi che l’insofferenza nei confronti di vincoli sovranazionali ritenuti eccessivamente penetranti può comportare. Alcuni riferimenti alle principali decisioni emesse dalla Corte Europea dei Diritti dell’Uomo e dalla Corte di Giustizia Europea mostreranno non soltanto le difficoltà interpretative incontrate nell’applicazione delle norme esaminate...

Turkey’s relationship with the European Court of Human Rights shows that human rights courts play a vital role, but one that can often be vastly improved

Çalı, Başak
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/03/2012 EN; EN
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The European Court of Human Rights generally takes five years to decide a case, and the enforcement of its judgements is often dubious and ineffective. Nevertheless, the Court has a role to play in the transformation of human rights culture in the EU and their neighbours, says Başak Çalı, as Turkey’s case proves. The Court’s judgements can help to foster domestic and international debates about the value of human rights.