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Condição humana e organização social e política: crise e as ideias de Regionalismo e de Europa das Regiões

Amaral, Carlos Eduardo Pacheco
Fonte: Europe Direct Aveiro Publicador: Europe Direct Aveiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2011 POR
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Partindo da crise que se abate sobre o modelo moderno de Estado soberano desde as duas guerras mundiais do último século, o texto procura explorar o conceito de regionalismo, perspectivando-o como utopia e como demanda de uma forma alternativa de organização social e política. Paralelamente, procede-se à exploração de dois projectos alternativos. Primeiro, o projecto de Europa das regiões, que enforma o ideário federalista de meados do século XX de substituição da Europa dos Estado por uma Europa das Regiões - o qual, paradoxalmente, viria impedir as Regiões de aceder ao processo de integração europeia. Segundo, o projecto de Europa com Regiões, que se viria a estabelecer, de forma lenta, se bem que gradual, primeiro no Conselho e na União Europeia, a partir de meados da década de oitenta do século XX.; ABSTRACT: Starting from the crisis that befalls the modern sovereign state since the two world wars of the last century, the text aims to explore the concept of regionalism, viewing it as an Utopia and as a demand for an alternative form of social and political organization. In parallel, it proceeds to the exploration of two alternative projects. First, the project Europe of the Regions, which shapes the federalist ideas of the mid-twentieth century which points to the replacement of the Europe of States with a Europe of Regions – which paradoxically...

Immigration, asylum and extremist politics - Europe and Australia

Jupp, James
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 61852 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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46.38%
The States of Europe and Australasia share democratic institutions and political party traditions in many respects. They also share a concern with influxes of immigrants and refugees which are changing the ethnic composition of what were previously regarded as ‘nation states’. However there are considerable differences between them in their political reaction to these changes. Some European states have racist or fascist traditions which have been entrenched for many years and were previously directed against long-resident minorities. Others have been relatively homogenous and ethnic variety is a new experience. The immigration policies of the states vary, with Australia and to a lesser extent New Zealand having a long history of carefully planned and controlled intakes, designed to enhance the economy and avoid ethnic conflict. Others can scarcely be said to have immigration policies at all and see the control of entry largely in law enforcement terms. This variety is reflected in different political responses, which range all the way from mass support for anti-immigration parties at the ballot box to anti- democratic street violence. The established parties may attempt to pre-empt new movements by adopting some of their platform. Resisting this temptation is a particular dilemma for parties of the ‘Left’ which rely on working class support. Traditional ‘left-right’ divisions may become confused. However many of the new movements are very unstable and this may help to contain their impact...

Ways of understanding regions: rhetorics of interpretation of Asia-Europe linkages

Preston, Peter W
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 62909 bytes; 359 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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46.38%
In recent years in the matter of regions (and the process of regionalization) has received much political, policy and scholarly attention - the scholarly analyses of regions are now very sophisticated - however, in this paper I want to do something rather different - I want to consider the rhetorics of regions - the ways in which the idea figures in diverse discourses - I am concerned with ways of understanding. I will (i) look at the rhetorics of regions - the diverse ways in which the idea can be developed and the ways in which the ideas can be presented in the public sphere; and (ii) thereafter note three diverse approaches to analysing regions. I will (iii) conclude by sketching one possible agenda for research into Europe-Asia linkages; no

Europe and the Asia-Pacific: culture, identity and representations of region

Lawson, Stephanie
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 64609 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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46.38%
Issues of culture and identity have been prominent themes in social and political enquiry over the last decade or so. They have become just as conspicuous in political debates outside the academy as well. This has been especially evident in the Asia-Pacific region, especially with respect to relations with Europe and, more generally, ‘the West’. For much of the 1990s, the ‘Asian values’ debate held sway as the major discourse surrounding key developments in the region. From normative issues such as democracy and human rights, to the analysis of the world of business and finance, Asian ‘culture’ – and therefore values – has been regarded as a major factor in defining the region and its identity. These definitions of region, moreover, have usually taken ‘the West’ as the major point of contrast. This paper provides a conceptual overview of some of the issues involved in the politics of cultural representation, highlighting the fact that gross exercizes in stereotyping, including self-stereotyping, have plagued many discussions of regionalism and inter-regional relations. It will be argued that social scientists have made their own distinctive contributions to these stereotypes with some promoting theories of relativism and determinism on the one hand...

Right-wing extremism in Europe. Country Analyses, Counter-Strategies and Labor-Market Oriented Exit Strategies

Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie)
EN
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36.53%
How widespread and deeply-imbedded are far-right ideologies and organizations in Europe? How have right-wing extremist and populist parties and movements fared? What are their historical roots, and what is the basis of their continuing attraction? Our volume of collected articles is intended to contribute to the ongoing review of this problem and to suggest the shape that an effective posture against the European radical right might take. It offers a follow-up to a 2011 book issued by the Friedrich Ebert Foundation, entitled “Is Europe on the ‘Right’ Path? Right-wing extremism and right-wing populism in Europe.” The new anthology, like its predecessor, is being published simultaneously in German and English. It is the concluding publication of the German XENOS special program known as “Exit to Enter.” Between 2009 and 2013, the European Social Fund (ESF) and Germany’s Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (BMAS) provided grants to fund projects designed to help people not only to exit the far-right milieu, but also to enter the labor-market with some prospects for success. The insights gathered over the course of the Exit to Enter program will be discussed in this book. While the volume includes studies of numerous countries...

Multidimensional poverty and social exclusion in Europe: A cross-national perspective

TOMASZEWSKI, Wojciech
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
EN
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The main scope of this dissertation is the analysis of multidimensional poverty and social exclusion in Europe from a cross-national perspective. The multidimensional approach means that in addition to income, other more direct indicators of livingstandard deprivation are taken into account. Using empirical data from the European Community Household Panel and European Social Survey, the thesis explores crosscountry differences in the patterns of poverty and social exclusion and explains them in terms of the characteristics of societies and welfare systems. The research also explores the interrelations between various aspects of disadvantage and identifies its most severe forms. A number of more specific research questions are also addressed in three empirical chapters of the dissertation. The first of these chapters investigates the cross-national differences in the risk of multidimensional poverty among low skilled workers and the unemployed, as well as the level of protection against poverty offered by different patterns of labour participation within households (dual earner, single earner, and so-called one-and-a half-earner models). It finds that more redistributive countries, and those spending more on social protection, perform better in terms of lowering the risk of poverty among people with relatively vulnerable positions in the labour market...

Public History oltre lo Stato: presentare il passato Yiddish nell’Europa contemporanea; Public History beyond the State: Presenting the Yiddish past in contemporary Europe

ZAAGSMA, Gerben
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
IT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article analyses how Europe’s ‘Yiddish past’ is presented, commemorated and engaged with in contemporary Europe from a Public History perspective. It investigates the ways in which Yiddish, its culture and its speakers, are inscribed in representations of Jewish history in museums, websites, and other settings. In doing so a distinction is made between Western Europe, where Yiddish-speaking immigrants and their culture formed but a part of local Jewish populations, and Central/Eastern Europe, where Jewish life was to a large extent Yiddish life. The article shows how a growing attention for migration in Western Europe, and the demand for Jewish heritage from abroad in Central and Eastern Europe, drive new and revised versions of Jewish, as well as national, historical narratives. It also contrasts such larger developments and contexts with local, ‘bottom-up’, activities. At the same it moves beyond national contexts and considers the role that European institutions play in preserving Yiddish heritage. The article argues that definitions of Public History, which predominantly focus on how professional historians take history to a broader non-academic public, are insufficient. The case of Yiddish in Europe also highlights the important role of the state in driving public history activities.

What is Democracy to Citizens? Understanding perceptions and evaluations of democratic systems in contemporary Europe

FERRÍN PEREIRA, Mónica
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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36.6%
The object of this thesis is Europeans’ orientations to democracy. It is argued in this dissertation that an important variable has been missed in the literature, namely, citizens’ cognitive support for democracy. By including this concept in the analysis of Europeans’ support for democracy, a number of aspects which had been much uncertain until now are inspected. First, conceptual clarification of support for democracy is possible, by distinguishing different types of orientations to democracy. Second, and from an empirical perspective, classical indicators of support for democracy are examined, in order to assess for validity. Interesting results have emerged from the analysis: 1. Determining the structure and the levels of affective support for democracy in Europe. The classic churchillian indicator (‘democracy best’) overstates levels of affective support for democracy in Europe. The structure of affective support for democracy is in fact not homogeneous across Europe, but differs substantially from one group of countries to the others. 2. Mapping types of democrats across Europe. There are different types of democrats across Europe, depending on their cognitive orientations to democracy. These are not evenly spread within each country...

Burden of disease from environmental noise: Quantification of healthy life years lost in Europe

Fonte: WHO Regional Office for Europe Publicador: WHO Regional Office for Europe
Tipo: Books Formato: Printed
ENG
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Health impacts of environmental noise are a growing concern among both the general public and policy-makers in Europe. This report was jointly prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe and the Joint Research Centre to provide technical support to policy-makers and their advisers in the quantitative risk assessment of environmental noise, using evidence and data available in Europe. The chapters in this document contain the summary of synthesized reviews of evidence on the relationship between environmental noise and specific health effects, including cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbance and tinnitus. A chapter on annoyance is also included. For each outcome, the environmental burden of disease methodology, based on exposure¿response relationship, exposure distribution, background prevalence of disease and disability weights of the outcome, is applied to calculate the burden of disease in terms of disability-adjusted life-years.With conservative assumptions applied to the calculation methods, it is estimated that DALYs lost from environmental noise are 61 000 years for ischaemic heart disease, 45 000 years for cognitive impairment of children, 903 000 years for sleep disturbance, 22 000 years for tinnitus and 587 000 years for annoyance in the European Union member states and other western European countries. These results indicate that at least one million healthy life years are lost every year from traffic-related noise in the western part of Europe. Sleep disturbance and annoyance...

Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe 2013: Annual Report of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net)

European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net)
Fonte: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) Publicador: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //2014 ENG
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36.53%
Portugal - EARS-Net Management Team & National representatives of EARS-Net (Manuela Caniça, José Artur Paiva, Vera Manageiro, Eugénia Ferreira); The results presented in this report are based on antimicrobial resistance data from invasive isolates reported to EARS-Net by 30 EU/EEA countries in 2014 (data referring to 2013), and on trend analyses of EARS-Net data reported by the participating countries during the period 2010 to 2013. The antimicrobial resistance situation in Europe displays large variations depending on bacteria, antimicrobial group and geographical region. For several antimicrobial group and bacterium combinations, a north-to-south and west-to-east gradient is evident in Europe. In general, lower resistance percentages are reported by countries in the north and higher percentages reported by countries in the south and east of Europe. Overall, the most concerning trends in Europe in 2013 were related to the occurrence of resistance in gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species). For E. coli and K. pneumoniae, a continuous increase in resistance to key antimicrobial groups was noted. A majority of the isolates reported to EARS-Net in 2013 was resistant to at least one of the antimicrobial groups under surveillance...

Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

Medlock, J.M.; Hansford, K.M.; Bormane, A.; Derdakova, M.; Estrada-Peña, A.; George, J-C; Golovljova, I.; Jaenson, T.G.; Jensen, J-K; Jensen, P.M.; Kazimirova, M.; Oteo, J.A.; Papa, A.; Pfister, K.; Plantard, O.; Randolph, S.E.; Rizzoli, A.; Santos-Silva
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/01/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion from the VBORNET network with the aim of reviewing the evidence for these changes in Europe and discusses the many climatic, ecological, landscape and anthropogenic drivers. These can be divided into those directly related to climatic change, contributing to an expansion in the tick's geographic range at extremes of altitude in central Europe, and at extremes of latitude in Scandinavia; those related to changes in the distribution of tick hosts, particularly roe deer and other cervids; other ecological changes such as habitat connectivity and changes in land management; and finally, anthropogenically induced changes. These factors are strongly interlinked and often not well quantified. Although a change in climate plays an important role in certain geographic regions, for much of Europe it is non-climatic factors that are becoming increasingly important. How we manage habitats on a landscape scale, and the changes in the distribution and abundance of tick hosts are important considerations during our assessment and management of the public health risks associated with ticks and tick-borne disease issues in 21st century Europe. Better understanding and mapping of the spread of I. ricinus (and changes in its abundance) is...

Participatory budgeting in Europe: potentials and challenges

SINTOMER, Yves; HERZBERG, Carsten; RÖCKE, Anja
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
The 'transfer' of participatory budgeting from Brazil to Europe has been a highly differentiated process. In Porto Alegre, this innovative methodology enabled democratization and social justice to be articulated. In Europe, participatory budgeting relies on multiple procedures, and it is therefore necessary to give a clear methodological definition of it so that cases can be coherently compared and ideal-types constructed to understand the variety of concrete experiments. The six ideal-types we propose (Porto Alegre adapted for Europe; representation of organized interests; community funds at the local and city level; the public/private negotiating table; consultation on public finances; proximity participation) show striking differences that are highly influenced by existing participatory traditions. It is, above all, with the models Porto Alegre adapted for Europe and community funds that an 'empowered participatory governance' can develop and that a fourth power, beyond the three classical ones, is developing - that of the citizenry when it directly (or through delegates) assumes a decision-making power. However, other models have their strengths, too, for example with regard to the reform of public administration which is a critical aspect in the search for 'another possible world'.; Le 'transfert' du budget participatif du Brésil à l'Europe s'est révélé un processus très différencié. A Porto Alegre...

9/11: Making enemies; some uncomfortable lessons for Europe

Preston, Peter W
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 58977 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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46.38%
The paper considers the political, bureaucratic and popular social construction of an enemy in the wake of the 9/11 attacks. The paper identifies the political/military elite of the USA as the centre of gravity of the process of construction. The initial steps in this construction process are recalled. The European reactions are noted. The British reactions are noted. Two conclusions are offered: firstly, formally, it is clear that political/military elites order their actions within the context of established discourses which if fractured are quickly re-constituted; and secondly, substantively, that the US actions in Afghanistan (and elsewhere) are best seen as a compound of revenge, demonstration and opportunism - all of which is intelligible, less than satisfactory (ethically and practically) and as it has been pursued unilaterally clear evidence of the divide between Europe and the USA, which offers the lesson to the Europeans that the ideas of 'the West' or 'the Western alliance' are likely to have to give way to: (i) a concern for the European Union's own interests; and thereafter, (ii) the task of managing their changing relationship with the USA.; no

Social Policy Reforms in Turkey : Uses of Europe

Duyulmus, Cem Utku
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
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36.58%
Ce mémoire analyse trois réformes majeures de politique sociale en Turquie, en deux domaines: emploi et sécurité social. En utilisant l'approche "Usage de l'Europe", ce mémoire developpe une analyse empirique et apporte une explication théorique de ces changements qui ont été introduits au cours du processus d'adhésion de la Turquie à l'Union européenne. "Les usages de l'Europe" est une approche d'européanisation qui se concentre sur le rôle des acteurs domestiques, au sein des États membres et candidats, ainsi que de leur utilisation des ressources de l'Union européenne. Les études de cas utilisées dans cette thèse démontrent l'introduction de changements au niveau de l'État-providence; ainsi, l'approche originelle est suppléée par des concepts provenant de la littérature sur la politique partisane, les institutions formelles et l'héritage des politiques. Cette recherche utilise la méthode de l'analyse de processus pour suivre la réforme des règlements du travail par la voie de reconstitution des droits individuels des travailleurs et de l'Agence d'emploi en Turquie jusqu'en 2003, ainsi que la transformation du système de sécurité sociale en 2008. Ces trois réformes représentent des changements majeurs tant sur le plan institutionnel que politique en Turquie depuis 2001. Afin de comprendre "les usages de l'Europe" dans ces réformes politiques...

De serviteurs de l´Etat à représentants élus. Les parlementaires originaires du secteur public en Europe

Cotta, Maurizio; Almeida, Pedro Tavares de
Fonte: Centre comparatif d'études sur les politiques publiques et les espaces locaux et l'Observatoire des politiques publiques en Europe du Sud Publicador: Centre comparatif d'études sur les politiques publiques et les espaces locaux et l'Observatoire des politiques publiques en Europe du Sud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
This article aims at testing empirically the relevance of the State/civil society dichotomy commonly used by political theorists through the question of the specific weight of MPs having a public sector background in Europe. It uses the DATACUBE data set in order to show that such an opposition is only relative because of the specific weight of the public sector in the parliamentary elite considered in a long-term perspective. The article focuses on the dynamics of this relevance and introduces nuances regarding variations across countries, sub-categories within the public sector and political parties.

Personalized print in Europe

Bredsten, Jeanette
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
This study focuses on the amount of personalized print produced by printing companies in Europe, the challenges these printers are facing when producing personalized jobs, and how the market for personalized printing in Europe differs from that in the US. Personalization is a marketing tactic in which various media channels are used to send a personalized message to a consumer or client based on their interests. Personalization is not a new tactic. The use of personalization has been slowly increasing over the past few decades to become one of the key tactics used capture a customer's attention. Personalized print--one media channel that can be used in the marketing mix--is divided among different applications such as mail merge, transactional print, versioning, moderate personalized print and highly personalized print. An online survey was distributed to printing companies across Europe via the International Confederation of Printing and Allied Industries (Intergraf). A total of 37 printing companies participated in this study. Survey results revealed that, on average, 6.6% of participants' revenue came from personalized print in 2010. The level of personalization most companies (35%) listed as their major source of revenue was mail merge. The top five challenges that participants were facing related to personalization include: * Communicating the value to our customers of the ROI (Return on Investment) benefits of personalization (45%). * Poor data quality on the client side (30%). * Ability to work with client's marketing decision makers (30%). * Clients do not have retention or customer relationship strategy (30%). * Merging the client's database with variable data software (15%). Though the low response rate from the study restricted the ability to generalize results...

Book review: Democratic institutions and authoritarian rule in South East Europe

Corbett, Anne
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/09/2013 EN; EN
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36.56%
"Democratic Institutions and Authoritarian Rule in South East Europe." Danijela Dolenec. ECPR Press. May 2013. --- Two decades on from the strife that plagued the former Yugoslavia, many see the widening of EU membership into Southeast Europe as signifying the rise of stable and functioning democracy in the region. In Democratic Institutions and Authoritarian Rule in South East Europe, Danijela Dolenec takes issue with this view, making comparisons with the far more democratically stable countries of Central Europe. Anne Corbett commends the book’s in-depth examination of the political structural legacies which have led to ‘locked in’ authoritarianism in much of Southeast Europe.

Europe in an Asian century: Europe between the superpowers: no longer inevitable? the transatlantic relationship from Bush to Obama

Cox, Michael
Fonte: LSE IDEAS, The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE IDEAS, The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2012 EN; EN
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36.56%
Until recently, the relationship between the United States and Europe constituted one of the most intimate in modern times. Indeed, as we ‘over here’ love reminding our American friends ‘over there’, the United States was in the beginning a mere by-product of Europe – initially created by a rising European power in the form of Great Britain, then born out of a long war between Britain and France, and finally transformed into a world power in large part because of large-scale European migration between 1814 and 1914. Europe’s long twentieth century crisis, however, had a massive impact on the balance within this relationship, and by 1945 not only had Europe lost its place at the head of the international table but had become highly dependent on the United States itself. Still, in uncertain times, the US continued to need as many friends as it could muster, and whether one prefers to view the nature of the postwar relationship in the more liberal sense of being a ‘community’, or in more realist terms as being one in which an American hegemon dictated terms to weak dependencies, matters less than in recognising how important the relationship was to become to both countries during the Cold War. Thus, Europe needed the US to survive in a bipolar world: the United States...

Waiting for the existential revolution in Europe

Komárek, Jan
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
This essay argues, contrary to the widespread beliefs that prevailed after 1989, that the experience of post-communist countries and their peoples, both before and after 1989, can bring something new to our understanding of Europe’s present predicament: sometimes as an inspiration, sometimes as a cautionary tale. The lessons offered by post-communist Europe concern some deeply held convictions about the very nature of the EU and its constitutional structure. Only if this experience is absorbed in Europe as its own will post-communist countries truly return to Europe—and Europe become united. The cautionary tales of post-communist Europe concern the worrying consequences of the suppression of social conflicts “in the name of Europe.” Such conflicts often get translated into identitary politics, which in the context of European integration often turn against the Union. The second lesson concerns the ill fate of Havel’s existential revolution. The attempts of some European constitutionalists to reform individualistic emphasis of the integration project are problematic for the same reason: they turn attention away from politics, where real solutions need to be found. This relates to the third suggestion made here: that the experience of living in a collective dream of socialism can be used as an inspiration rather than as something that needs to be erased from the collective memory of Europe.

The Shelleys and the Idea of Europe

Stock, Paul
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2008 EN; EN
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36.56%
This article explores how the Shelleys and their circle configure ideas of “Europe” between January 1817 and March 1818. I begin with Frankenstein, discussing how Mary Shelley associates Frankenstein's experiment with the particularly “European” problem of over-reaching - a drive for success leading to conflict or failure. I then turn to Laon and Cythna, a poem which labels itself as “revolution writing” and contemplates how the French revolution changed “Europe.” Here, Percy Shelley constructs an idea of “Europe” upon his interests in radical politics and the possibility of utopian social progress. Laon's setting, Constantinople, is a border-zone between Europe and Asia; it is simultaneously a European city in the throes of revolution and an Oriental tyranny. The Shelleys evoke “America” in a similar manner, treating it as a non-European “other” and as a more ideal version of “Europe” uncorrupted by post-revolutionary disappointments. Lastly, based on a remark in a letter to Percy Shelley about “European marriage,” I examine the connection between “Europeanness” and sexual mores. If, for Shelley, debates about “Europe” occur within specific parameters relating to revolution and radical change...