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Determination of eight fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

ROEHSIG, Marli; PAULA, Daniela Mendes Louzada de; MOURA, Sidnei; DINIZ, Edna Maria de Albuquerque; YONAMINE, Mauricio
Fonte: WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH Publicador: WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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56.71%
A number of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) have recently been detected in meconium samples. Several of these FAEEs have been evaluated as possible biomarkers for in utero ethanol exposure. In the present study, a method was optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of eight FAEEs (ethyl laurate, ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl palmitoleate, ethyl stearate, ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate and ethyl arachidonate) in meconium samples. FAEEs were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction. Analyte detection and quantification were carried out using GC-MS operated in chemical ionization mode. The corresponding D5-ethyl esters were synthesized and used as internal standards. The LOQ and LOD for each analyte were <150 and <100 ng/g, respectively. The method showed good linearity (r(2)>0.98) in the concentration range studied (LOQ -2000 ng/g). The intra- and interday imprecision, given by the RSD of the method, was lower than 15% for all FAEEs studied. The validated method was applied to 63 authentic specimens. FAEEs could be detected in alcohol-exposed newborns ( >600 ng/g cumulative concentration). Interestingly, FAEEs could also be detected in some non-exposed newborns, although the concentrations were much lower than those measured in exposed cases.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP)[2007/00465-2]; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP)[2007/01420-2]

Catalytic ethanolysis of soybean oil with immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica and (1)H NMR and GC quantification of the ethyl esters (biodiesel) produced

ROSSET, Isac G.; TAVARES, Maria Cecilia H.; ASSAF, Elisabete M.; PORTO, Andre Luiz M.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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46.64%
The catalytic ethanolysis of soybean oil with commercial immobilized lipase type B from Candida antarctica to yield ethyl esters (biodiesel) has been investigated. Transesterification was monitored with respect to the following parameters: quantity of biocatalyst, reaction time, amount of water added and turnover of lipase. The highest yields of biodiesel (87% by (1)H NMR; 82.9% by GC) were obtained after a reaction time of 24 h at 32 degrees C in the presence of lipase equivalent to 5.0% (w/w) of the amount of soybean oil present. The production of ethyl esters by enzymatic ethanolysis was not influenced by the addition of water up to 4.0% (v/v) of the alcohol indicating that it is possible to use hydrated ethanol in the production of biodiesel catalyzed by lipase. The immobilized enzyme showed high stability under moderate reaction conditions and retained its activity after five production cycles. The (1)H NMR methodology elaborated for the quantification of biodiesel in unpurified reaction mixtures showed good correlations between the signal areas of peaks associated with the alpha-methylene groups of the ethyl esters and those of the triacyl-glycerides in residual soybean oil. Monoacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and triglycerides could also be detected and quantified in the crude biodiesel using (1)H NMR spectroscopic and GC-FID chromatographic methods. The biodiesel production by enzymatic catalysis was promising. In this case...

Síntese de ésteres etílicos obtidos a partir dos óleos de mamona e soja utilizando a lipase imobilizada de Thermomyces lanuginosus (LIPOZYME TL IM); Synthesis of ethilic esters from mamona and soy oil by supported lipase from /*Thermomyces lanuginosus*

Rampin, Marcia Alexandra
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/01/2008 PT
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46.64%
Com o objetivo de se estabelecer uma metodologia eficiente para obtenção de ésteres etílicos por transesterificação enzimática de óleos de soja e de mamona, utilizando um catalisador mais barato do que o anteriormente estudado em nosso grupo de pesquisa, Cândida Antarctica A (Novozym 435), é que a lipase 1,3- específica de Thermomices lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM) foi escolhida. Foram realizadas várias reações para estudo das melhores condições reacionais tanto para o óleo de soja, quanto para o óleo de mamona. Nestes estudos foi observada a influencia dos efeitos do teor de etanol no meio reacional, da trituração da enzima imobilizada, da pré-incubação da enzima imobilizada, da concentração da enzima no meio reacional e da temperatura do meio reacional na alcóolise enzimática utilizando a lípase Lipozyme TL IM como catalisador. A conversão dos materiais de partida a ésteres etílicos foi acompanhada por cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD) aliada a quantificação através dos padrões de ricinoleato de etila e linoleato de etila através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). Tendo sido estabelecidas as melhores condições para a conversão dos óleos de soja e mamona utilizando o catalisador enzimático em questão...

Desenvolvimento e aplicação de método analítico para determinação de ésteres etílicos de ácidos graxos (bioindicadores do etanol) em amostras de mecônio; Development and application of an analytical method for the determination of fatty acid ethyl esters (biomarkers of ethanol) in meconium samples

Roehsig, Marli
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/08/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.64%
O álcool é uma das substâncias psicoativas mais consumidas mundialmente e seu uso por mulheres em idade reprodutiva, em particular, tem representado grande preocupação por parte de especialistas e da sociedade em geral. Apesar dos efeitos adversos associados ao ato de ingerir bebidas alcoólicas durante a gestação ser bastante documentados e conhecidos, sabe-se que uma parcela de mulheres grávidas tem dificuldades em abandonar o hábito. O consumo excessivo de álcool durante a gravidez tem sido associado com a síndrome fetal pelo álcool (FAS), caracterizada por crianças com dificuldades comportamentais e de aprendizado. Entretanto, devido ao sentimento de culpa e medo de ações punitivas, mulheres raramente admitem terem utilizado álcool durante a gestação. Como resultado, uma série de marcadores biológicos tem sido estudada para se diagnosticar a exposição fetal ao etanol. Dentre os marcadores utilizados estão os ésteres etílicos de ácidos graxos (FAEE), que podem ser detectados em amostras de mecônio de recém-nascidos. No presente trabalho, um método analítico foi desenvolvido visando a detecção de oito FAEEs em amostras de mecônio e aplicada em amostras coletadas de recém-nascidos cujas mães admitiram ou não o uso de etanol durante a gestação. A microextração em fase sólida por Headspace (HS-SPME)...

Determinação dos parâmetros de solubilidade de Hansen de ésteres graxos etílicos; Determination of Hansen solubility parameters of fatty ethyl esters

Matheus Maciel Batista
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/10/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.81%
Os parâmetros de solubilidade tridimensional definidos por Hansen são baseados em forças de dispersão entre as unidades estruturais, interações entre os grupos polares e de ligação de hidrogênio. Para compostos, tais como ésteres graxos que apresentam longas cadeias carbônicas, essa abordagem foi utilizada para obter as três coordenadas de parâmetros de solubilidade em termos de: uma parte de dispersão, uma parte polar e uma parte de ligação de hidrogênio. Está presente neste trabalho o método de contribuição de grupos proposto por Stefanis, para a estimativa dos parâmetros de solubilidade de Hansen de compostos orgânicos puros. Esse método de predição usa dois tipos característicos de grupos: grupos de primeira ordem, que descrevem a base estrutural molecular dos compostos e grupos de segunda ordem, que são baseados na teoria de conjugação e assim, melhoram a precisão das predições. Portanto esse método de contribuição de grupos garante a predição dos parâmetros de solubilidade de Hansen de uma ampla série de compostos orgânicos. Como há uma preocupação crescente em nível mundial para a proteção ambiental e de conservação dos recursos naturais não renováveis, ésteres graxos metílicos e etílicos (biodiesel) mostram grande potencial em aplicações como substitutos do diesel. Portanto...

Determinação experimental de dados de equilíbrio líquido-vapor de misturas binárias de ésteres graxos etílicos e ácidos graxos através de calorimetria exploratória diferencial; Experimental determination of vapor-liquid equilibrium data of binary mixtures of fatty acid ethyl esters and fatty acids by differential scanning calorimetry

Rafael Mauricio Matricarde Falleiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/11/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.43%
O presente trabalho visa determinar dados de equilíbrio líquido-vapor (ELV) de sistemas binários de ácidos graxos com ésteres etílicos através da calorimetria exploratória diferencial (Differential Scanning Calorimetry - DSC). Essa é uma técnica analítica de grande precisão que envolve métodos de análises térmicas amplamente usadas no estudo de transições físicas, apresentando algumas vantagens em relação às técnicas convencionais (ebuliometria), em que se destacam: o menor tempo de operação e a utilização de pequenas quantidades de amostra. O preço elevado dos compostos graxos tornou-os inapropriados de serem estudados neste trabalho através de técnicas convencionais, pois a quantidade necessária de reagente ultrapassa os 100 g. Este fato levou a busca por um método alternativo (DSC) capaz de obter dados de ELV de sistemas binários até então inéditos na literatura especializada. A metodologia baseada no método da pressão total foi eficaz para a determinação da temperatura de ebulição de compostos graxos, cuja pressão de vapor foi investigada entre 10 e 70 mmHg, enquanto que os sistemas binários foram medidos a 20 mmHg, utilizando-se de quantidades muito pequenas de amostra (4,0 a 6,0 mg). Para todos os sistemas propostos foram preparadas amostras em diferentes concentrações...

Otimização das condições de produção de ésteres etílicos a partir de óleo de peixe com elevado teor de ácidos graxos ômega-3

Moura,Juliana Maria Leite Nóbrega de; Gonçalves,Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo; Grimaldi,Renato; Soares,Marinalda da Silva; Ribeiro,Ana Paula Badan
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2006 PT
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46.7%
The production of ethyl esters by alcoholysis is an alternative for splitting triacylglycerols due to the possibility of using low temperatures, which results in oxidative protection of the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Ethyl esters produced under mild conditions of temperature could be used as substrate for obtaining structured lipids. The reaction parameters of production of ethyl esters from fish oil with high content of omega-3 fatty acids by alcoholysis were optimized using response surface methodology. An experimental design (2³) (with levels +1 and -1, six axial points with levels -alpha and +alpha and three central points) was applied. The variables investigated were concentration of catalyst, amount of ethyl alcohol and temperature. Ethyl ester conversion was monitored by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and the best result obtained was 95% conversion rate. The optimal conditions were 40 °C, 1% of NaOH and 36% of ethanol.

Fatty acid ethyl esters production using a non-commercial lipase in pressurized propane medium

Hildebrand,Cristiane; Dalla Rosa,Clarissa; Freire,Denise Maria Guimarães; Destain,Jaqueline; Dariva,Cláudio; Oliveira,Débora de; Oliveira,José Vladimir
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2009 EN
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66.64%
The objective of this work is to investigate the production of fatty acid ethyl esters from soybean oil in compressed propane using a non-commercial lipase from Yarrowia lipolytica and two commercial ones as catalysts, Amano PS and Amano AY30. The experiments were performed in the temperature range of 35-65 °C. at 50 bar, enzyme concentration of 5 wt%, oil to ethanol molar ratio of 1:6 and 1:9, and solvent to substrates mass ratio of 2:1 and 4:1. The results indicated that low reaction conversions were generally obtained with the use of commercial and non-commercial lipases in pressurized propane medium. On the other hand, the aspects of low solvent to substrates mass ratio and mild temperature and pressure operating conditions used to produce ethyl esters justify further investigations to improve reaction yields.

Long-range correlations ( n j C,H n > 3 ) in the HMBC spectra of 3-(4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-YL)-acrylic acid ethyl esters

Araya-Maturana,Ramiro; Gavín-Sazatornil,José A.; Heredia-Moya,Jorge; Pessoa-Mahana,Hernán; Weiss-López,Boris
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2005 EN
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66.57%
A systematic study about the long-range correlations observed in the HMBC spectra of a series of cis and trans 3-(4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)-acrylic acid ethyl esters, and 5-hydroxy derivatives, was carried out. The results were compared with those observed in IMPEACH-MBC and CIGARHMBC spectra. An uncommon 5J C,H between the methyl protons and the Ca to the carbonyl group was observed in these systems as well as in ethyl chrotonate. The complete assignments of the ¹H and 13C NMR spectra are provided.

The influence of BHA, BHT and TBHQ on the oxidation stability of soybean oil ethyl esters (biodiesel)

Domingos,Anderson K.; Saad,Emir B.; Vechiatto,Wellington W. D.; Wilhelm,Helena M.; Ramos,Luiz P.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
The effect of synthetic antioxidants such as BHT (butyl-hydroxytoluene), BHA (butyl-hydroxyanisol) and TBHQ (t-butyl-hydroxyquinone) was evaluated on the induction time of soybean oil ethyl esters with low oxidation stability, employing the Rancimat method (EN14112). Interaction effects were also investigated by employing a 2³ factorial design, which had as minimum and maximum levels the concentrations of zero and 1500 ppm of each antioxidant. Among the synthetic antioxidants evaluated, BHT displayed the highest effectiveness in the concentration range from 200 to 7000 ppm. TBHQ displayed a greater stabilizing potential when used at higher concentrations (8000 ppm), while BHA was found to provide no noticeable increase in the induction time at concentrations greater than 2000 ppm. The combined use of these antioxidants, at the levels tested in this study, yielded no evidence of any positive synergic effect that would justify their use in binary or ternary mixtures.

Optimization of the production of ethyl esters by ultrasound assisted reaction of soybean oil and ethanol

Rodrigues,S.; Mazzone,L. C. A.; Santos,F. F. P.; Cruz,M. G. A.; Fernandes,F. A. N.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.71%
Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel that can be produced by a transesterification reaction between a vegetable oil and an alcohol. This paper evaluates and optimizes the production of ethyl esters (biodiesel) from soybean oil and ethanol. The reaction was carried out by applying ultrasound under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol to oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration on the yield of conversion of soybean oil into ethyl esters. The process resulted in a maximum yield of 91.8% after 30 minutes of reaction. The process variables alcohol to oil ratio and catalyst to oil ratio were statistically significant regarding the yield of ethyl esters. The optimal operating condition was obtained applying an alcohol to oil molar ratio of 10.2 and a catalyst to oil weight ratio of 0.0035.

Nonoxidative ethanol metabolism: formation of fatty acid ethyl esters by cholesterol esterase.

Lange, L G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1982 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
The recent identification of myocardial metabolites of ethanol--fatty acid ethyl esters--suggests that some of the pathophysiological derangements associated with alcohol-induced heart muscle disease may be a consequence of products of myocardial ethanol metabolism. The donor of the fatty acid moiety in the formation of fatty acid ethyl esters has been identified as nonesterified fatty acid. Fatty acid esterification with ethanol is shown to be mediated by cholesterol esterase (sterol-ester acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.13), a finding that identifies a singular nonoxidative ethanol metabolism by an enzyme. A potential basis for the protective effect of ethanol ingestion on atherogenesis is also suggested because fatty acid ethyl esters inhibit cholesterol esterification catalyzed by pancreatic cholesterol esterase and hepatic and aortic microsomal fatty acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.26).

Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by fatty acid ethyl esters, myocardial metabolites of ethanol.

Lange, L G; Sobel, B E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1983 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.89%
Mechanisms responsible for alcohol-induced heart muscle disease have been difficult to elucidate partly because of previously obscure, demonstrable cardiac metabolism of ethanol. Recently, fatty acid ethyl esters were identified in our laboratory and found to be myocardial metabolites of ethanol. In the present study, they have been shown to induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Incubation of isolated myocardial mitochondria with fatty acid ethyl esters led to a concentration-dependent reduction of the respiratory control ratio index of coupling of oxidative phosphorylation and decrement of maximal rate of oxygen consumption. Furthermore, fatty acid ethyl esters were demonstrated to bind to mitochondria in vitro, and, importantly, 72% of intracellularly synthesized ethyl esters were found to bind to mitochondria isolated from intact tissue incubated with ethanol. Protein binding of fatty acid ethyl esters was markedly less than that of fatty acids. Because uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation correlated with the cleavage of fatty acid ethyl ester shown to be initially bound to mitochondria, with resultant generation of fatty acid, a potent uncoupler, in a locus in or near the mitochondrial membrane, fatty acid ethyl esters may contribute to a potentially toxic shuttle for fatty acid with transport from physiological intracellular binding sites to the mitochondrial membrane; direct effects of fatty acid ethyl esters may also be deleterious. Operation of this shuttle as a result of ethanol ingestion and subsequent accumulation of fatty acid ethyl esters may account for the impaired mitochondrial function and inefficient energy production associated with toxic effects of ethanol on the heart.

Uses and benefits of omega-3 ethyl esters in patients with cardiovascular disease

Levantesi, Giacomo; Silletta, Maria Giuseppina; Marchioli, Roberto
Fonte: Dove Medlical Press Publicador: Dove Medlical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/07/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
Much evidence on the favorable effects of omega-3 ethyl esters on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been obtained in studies performed in healthy subjects and in different clinical settings. Here the clinical effects of omega-3 ethyl ester administration in patients with previous myocardial infarction or heart failure are reviewed, together with a discussion of underlying mechanisms of action. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of omega-3 ethyl esters, as well as evidence concerning their safety and tolerability, are also reported.

Elevated Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters in Meconium of Sheep Fetuses Exposed In Utero to Ethanol—A New Animal Model

LITTNER, YOAV; CUDD, TIMOTHY A.; O’RIORDAN, MARY A.; CWIK, ANDREW; BEARER, CYNTHIA F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
Specific fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in meconium of newborns have been shown to correlate with maternal ethanol exposure. An animal model is needed to assess the validity of this biomarker. We hypothesized that the pregnant/fetal sheep is a feasible animal model for validating FAEE as a biomarker of prenatal ethanol exposure. Nine pregnant ewes were treated during the third trimester with different i.v. ethanol doses. The control group consisted of 14 pregnant ewes exposed to similar volumes of saline. On gestational d 133, the fetuses were delivered and meconium samples removed. FAEEs were quantified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. FAEEs were found in both control and ethanol exposed fetuses. Ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate, and ethyl arachidonate levels were significantly higher in the ethanol-exposed sheep. Ethyl oleate was the FAEE that correlated most strongly with alcohol ingestion during pregnancy and had the greatest area under the curve (0.94). Using a cut-off value of 131 ng/g ethyl oleate dry weight, sensitivity was 89% and specificity was 100%. In conclusion, pregnant ewes are a feasible model for validating biomarkers of prenatal ethanol exposure. Ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate, and ethyl arachidonate may be useful biomarkers of prenatal alcohol exposure.

Hydroxycinnamic acid ethyl esters as precursors to ethylphenols in wine

Hixson, J.; Sleep, N.; Capone, D.; Elsey, G.; Curtin, C.; Sefton, M.; Taylor, D.
Fonte: Amer Chemical Soc Publicador: Amer Chemical Soc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
A method for determining ethyl coumarate and ethyl ferulate in wine using GC-MS with deuterium-labeled analogues has been developed and used to measure the evolution of these two esters during the production of two commercial monovarietal red wines, cv. Grenache and Shiraz. During fermentation, the concentration of ethyl coumarate rose from low levels to 0.4 mg/L in Grenache and 1.6 mg/L in Shiraz wines. These concentrations then increased further during barrel aging to 1.4 and 3.6 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of ethyl ferulate was much lower, reaching a maximum of only 0.09 mg/L. Conversion of ethyl coumarate and ethyl ferulate to their corresponding ethylphenols was observed during fermentations of a synthetic medium with two strains of Dekkera bruxellensis (AWRI 1499 and AWRI 1608), while a third (strain AWRI 1613) produced no ethylphenols at all from these precursors. Strains AWRI 1499 and 1608 produced 4-ethylphenol from ethyl coumarate in 68% and 57% yields, respectively. The corresponding yields of 4-ethylguaiacol from ethyl ferulate were much lower, 7% and 3%. Monitoring of ethyl coumarate and ethyl ferulate concentration during the Dekkera fermentations showed that the selectivity for ethylphenol production according to yeast strain and the precursor was principally a result of variation in esterase activity. Consequently...

Optimization of a method for the simultaneous determination of glycerides, free and total glycerol in biodiesel ethyl esters from castor oil using gas chromatography

Dias, Adriana Neves; Cerqueira, Maristela Barnes Rodrigues; Moura, Renata Rodrigues de; Kurz, Márcia Helena Scherer; Clementin, Rosilene Maria; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonçalves Montes; Primel, Ednei Gilberto
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
This paper describes the optimization of a method of simultaneous determination of glycerides, free and total glycerol in biodiesel ethyl esters from castor oil by using gas chromatography. Changes were proposed for the methods ASTM D 6584 and EN 14105 in order to determine these by-product contaminants in biodiesel from castor oil. The silylation reaction for this biodiesel was optimized, and 250 μL MSTFA was used. Its accuracy values were between 70% and 120% with RSD <11%. The identification of monoricinolein and diricinolein was made by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC–MS). The matrix effect (ME) was investigated and considered low for glycerol, mono- and diolein; it was medium for triolein. The method was robust even when there were variations in the matrix. It was also successfully used for the determination of glycerides, free and total glycerol in samples of biodiesel from castor oil.

Evaluation of ASTM D6584 method for biodiesel ethyl esters from sunflower oil and soybean/tallow mixture and for biodiesel methyl esters from tung oil and soybean/tung mixture

Dias,Adriana Neves; Kurz,Márcia Helena Scherer; Fagundes,Cássia Alessandra Maciel; Caldas,Sergiane Souza; Clementin,Rosilene Maria; D'Oca,Marcelo Gonçalves Montes; Primel,Ednei Gilberto
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.62%
This study describes for the first time the determination of glycerol and glycerides in samples of biodiesel ethyl esters from sunflower oil and soybean/tallow mixture and biodiesel methyl esters from soybean/tung mixture and tung oil by employing ASTM D6584 method. The results showed that ASTM D6584 can be used for other sources of biodiesel which represent an alternative to biodiesel production, mainly in Brazil.

Potentialities of two solventless extraction approaches—Stir bar sorptive extraction and headspace solid-phase microextraction for determination of higher alcohol acetates, isoamyl esters and ethyl esters in wines

Perestrelo, R.; Nogueira, J. M. F.; Câmara, J. S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.77%
A stir bar sorptive extraction with liquid desorption followed by large volume injection coupled to gas chromatography–quadrupole mass spectrometry (SBSE-LD/LVI-GC–qMS) was evaluated for the simultaneous determination of higher alcohol acetates (HAA), isoamyl esters (IsoE) and ethyl esters (EE) of fatty acids. The method performance was assessed and compared with other solventless technique, the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in headspace mode (HS). For both techniques, influential experimental parameters were optimised to provide sensitive and robust methods. The SBSE-LD/LVI methodology was previously optimised in terms of extraction time, influence of ethanol in the matrix, liquid desorption (LD) conditions and instrumental settings. Higher extraction efficiency was obtained using 60 min of extraction time, 10% ethanol content, n-pentane as desorption solvent, 15 min for the back-extraction period, 10 mL min−1 for the solvent vent flow rate and 10 °C for the inlet temperature. For HS-SPME, the fibre coated with 50/30 μm divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) afforded highest extraction efficiency, providing the best sensitivity for the target volatiles, particularly when the samples were extracted at 25 °C for 60 min under continuous stirring in the presence of sodium chloride (10% (w/v)). Both methodologies showed good linearity over the concentration range tested...

Ultrasound assisted transesterification of corn oil with ethanol

Fernandes,F. A. N.; Mazzone,L. C. A.; Matos,L. J. B. L.; Cartaxo,S. J. M.; Rodrigues,S.
Fonte: Latin American applied research Publicador: Latin American applied research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
This paper evaluates the production of fatty acids ethyl esters from corn oil and ethanol. The reaction was carried out applying low-frequency high-intensity ultrasound (25 kHz) under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol to oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration (sodium hydroxide) on the yield of corn oil into ethyl esters. Analysis of the operating conditions by RSM showed that the most important operating condition affecting the reaction was the ethanol to oil molar ratio. Results showed low yield of corn oil into ethyl esters. The highest yield observed was of 62.9% after 30 minutes of reaction. The best operating condition was obtained applying an alcohol to oil molar ratio of 4.5 and a catalyst to oil molar ratio of 0.010.