Página 1 dos resultados de 65 itens digitais encontrados em 0.004 segundos

Dimensão ética do gerenciamento em enfermagem

Lara, Silvéria Rosa
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Relevância na Pesquisa
In managing an Inpatient unit, nurses face the need to make decisions involving agents in the institution’s internal and external environments, and all these measures are influential, regardless of how beneficial they may be. Hence, ethical issues constitute an important dimension of nursing management. This study aimed at identifying measures and/or interventions adopted by managing nurses at Inpatient Units in the Botucatu School of Medicine University Hospital - UNESP with the purpose to analyze professional ethics. The study involved nurses holding technicalsupervision positions in sectors related to the Nursing Division, comprising a total number of 20. The exploratory method was used by means of taped interviews with a qualitative approach based on the Collective Subject Discourse. Human resources deficit was observed as nurses’ major concern in relation to nursing care provision. The managers seek the nursing staff’s development by means of educational activities in their own unit at the same time that they adopt those offered by the hospital. When ethical violations occur, they resort to measures ranging from individual strategies for violators’ orientation to legal intervention. The resolution of ethical conflicts by nursing managers generally occurs in a gradual fashion by taking into account their compromising level...

A design tool to identify and measure the profile of sustainable conscious fashion costumer

Morais, Carla; Carvalho, Cristina; Broega, A. C.
Fonte: Organizing Committee AUTEX Publicador: Organizing Committee AUTEX
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 08/06/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
Ethical Consumer, Environmental Consciousness, This research intends to help designers to improve their projects for a new market whose concerns are leaning toward a more sustainability life-style. Clothing, more precisely "fashion", a better term for describing the clothing system in the period in which we live [1], is the fruit of contemporary consumer products and one way of human subject expressiveness of social and economic representation in society. The purchase of these products has witnessed an evolution, first they were searched by need and now they were bought by impulse and consumer desire. This is the reflection of a complex and organized system called fast-fashion. Consumers have been encouraged to buy a greater volume of clothes and a large amount of waste materials has been increased as well as their impact in Nature. However, the environmental awareness also grew and a new kind of market emerges in the field of fashion [2]. The "environment" has become a differentiation source and a concern requirement that designers and green companies have to recognize, specially because of the values related to the preservation of the universe as a whole; this is increasingly felt by consumers, the main social actors in the construction of the consumption of green products and brands [3]. All products we buy obey to a lifecycle...

Ethical fashion brands : promotion approach or a real value

Guedes, Maria da Graça
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 23/12/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
Ethical fashion appears as a conscious consumption movement in the 90’s. It covers product offers and styles increasingly diverse. This movement has become a sustainable brand strategy, and so the number of ethical brands grew significantly in recent years, as well as their turnover. Consumers find in ethical brands a set of values that fulfill not only their need for style but also give the opportunity, through consumption, to contribute to environmental preservation, to the improvement of working conditions and better of quality of life in their countries and in less developed countries. Alternative marketing plays a key role in creating the market image of ethical fashion brands, by assuring transparency and clarity of messages, credibility and continuity, so that their differentiation factors can be step by step assimilated and understood by consumers. The study of a set of ethical fashion brands allowed to observe that these usually at the stage of market entry tend towards opting to offer a specific value, communicated clearly. Progressively, the elements of brand differentiation evolve into integrated value systems, which involve the development of complex organizational models. The market growing demand for ethical fashion brands and products suggests that ethics in fashion have a tendency to be a requirement in a near future for most brands. We argue that the market trends within a relatively short time point towards the adoption of ethical principles by the fashion brands and towards the adoption of social responsibility by companies that manage these brands. These two aspects will be an essential condition for competitiveness in order to survive in the global market. This trend could be considered similar to those that have determined the emergency requirement of other competitive factors such as quality. While the competitive material or technological may be spread at a relatively rapid rate and with similar characteristics across the value chain; the strategies focused on values such as ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility...

Colagens têxteis: em busca de um design sustentável

Rüthschilling, Anne Anicet
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
Os desafios dos designers nos dias de hoje são inúmeros, sendo um deles o de desenvolver produtos que atendam ao mercado sem deixar de lado as preocupações com a sustentabilidade, seja ambiental, sócio-ética ou econômica. Assim sendo, a própria disputa para alcançar novos patamares de destaque no mercado também fez proliferar novas tecnologias de produção sustentável como um fator diferenciador nos dias de hoje que, para além de preservar a natureza, conquista uma larga faixa de clientes sensíveis a este tipo de preocupações. É objetivo deste trabalho a criação de produtos de design de moda e decoração e sua verificação enquanto design sustentável. Neste contexto, enquadra-se este trabalho que visa desenvolver produtos de moda e decoração realizados com a técnica da colagem têxtil, resultando assim, em produtos inovadores, únicos, intemporais e com design. A presente investigação desenvolveu-se em parceria com o Banco de Vestuário de Caxias do Sul, que forneceu dados para o estudo do setor têxtil e levantamento dos resíduos da indústria têxtil da região para caracterização do setor, além de disponibilizar os resíduos têxteis que serviram de base para a criação de produtos de moda e de decoração mais sustentáveis. Para a criação das superfícies têxteis coladas foram desenvolvidas amostras com testes de temperaturas e tempos para verificar a combinação que mais se adequa a cada tipo de matéria-prima. Além de fazer uso destes resíduos...

Ethical Implications of Modifying Lethal Injection Protocols

Koniaris, Leonidas G; Goodman, Kenneth W; Sugarman, Jeremy; Ozomaro, Uzoezi; Sheldon, Jonathan; Zimmers, Teresa A
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
Teresa Zimmers and colleagues argue that it is difficult to conceive how lethal injection research activities could be carried out in a fashion consistent with ethical norms.

Early intervention in psychosis: concepts, evidence and future directions

Fonte: Masson Italy Publicador: Masson Italy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
The rise of the early intervention paradigm in psychotic disorders represents a maturing of the therapeutic approach in psychiatry, as it embraces practical preventive strategies which are firmly established in mainstream health care. Early intervention means better access and systematic early delivery of existing and incremental improvements in knowledge rather than necessarily requiring dramatic and elusive breakthroughs. A clinical staging model has proven useful and may have wider utility in psychiatry. The earliest clinical stages of psychotic disorder are non-specific and multidimensional and overlap phenotypically with the initial stages of other disorders. This implies that treatment should proceed in a stepwise fashion depending upon safety, response and progression. Withholding treatment until severe and less reversible symptomatic and functional impairment have become entrenched represents a failure of care. While early intervention in psychosis has developed strongly in recent years, many countries have made no progress at all, and others have achieved only sparse coverage. The reform process has been substantially evidence-based, arguably more so than other system reforms in mental health. However, while evidence is necessary...

A cross cultural study of entrepreneurial competencies and entrepreneurial success in SMEs in Australia and Malaysia.

Ahmad, Noor Hazlina
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2007
Relevância na Pesquisa
The present study examined the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies and business success in the context of SMEs in Australia and Malaysia. A “mixed-method” approach was adopted whereby two studies were conducted in a sequential fashion (Study 1 and Study 2). In Study 1, a qualitative method was adopted in which individual interviews were conducted with 20 entrepreneurs – 10 from Australia and 10 from Malaysia – who operated SMEs in the manufacturing and service sectors. The aim was to elicit behaviours that delineate competencies, and thus enable the identification of entrepreneurial competencies that are context-specific and of relevance in the current business environment. A content analysis of the interview data identified 12 competency domains: Strategic; Commitment; Conceptual; Opportunity; Organising and Leading; Relationship; Learning; Personal; Technical; Ethical; Social Responsibility; and Familism. Importantly, nine of these categories were well represented in existing models of entrepreneurial competencies, thereby providing evidence that these models offer a reasonable degree of cross-cultural generalisability. However, three new categories emerged, namely, Ethical, Social Responsibility, and Familism (broadly concerned with the role of “family” in building business success). There was evidence for Ethical and Social Responsibility competencies in both the Australian and Malaysian data...

The fight for ethical fashion : the origins and interactions of the clean clothes campaign

Fonte: Ashgate Publicador: Ashgate
Tipo: Livro
Relevância na Pesquisa
From consumer boycotts and buycotts to social movement campaigns, examples of individual and collective actors forging political struggles on markets are manifold. The clothing market has been a privileged site for such contention, with global clothing brands and retailers being targets of consumer mobilization for the past 20 years. Labels and product lines now attest for the ethical quality of clothes, which has, in turn, given rise to ethical fashion. The Fight for Ethical Fashion unveils the actors and processes that have driven this market transformation through a detailed study of the Europe-wide coordinated campaign on workers’ rights in the global textile industry - the Clean Clothes Campaign. Drawing on insights from qualitative fieldwork using a wide range of empirical sources, Philip Balsiger traces the emergence of this campaign back to the rise of ‘consumer campaigns’ and shows how tactics were adapted to market contexts in order to have retailers adopt and monitor codes of conduct. By comparing the interactions between campaigners and their corporate targets in Switzerland and France (two countries with a very different history of consumer mobilization for political issues), this ground-breaking book also reveals how one campaign can provoke contrasting reactions and forms of market change.; -- Preface -- Introduction: contentious markets -- The rise of consumer campaigns --Launching a campaign -- Building a campaign -- Campaign styles and protest in the market place -- Campaigning over time -- Strategic interactions and campaign outcomes -- Conclusion : contention...

Our ethical nature. Fashion. Architecture. Environment

Quinn McDonagh, Lauren
Fonte: School of Architecture, University of Limerick Publicador: School of Architecture, University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations
Relevância na Pesquisa
non-peer-reviewed; My main interest i s fashion. It always has been. When thinking of how I could begin a thesis in archi tecture I started cutting, folding and pleating a piece of paper as if it were material. Where better to begin than physically changing the state of an obsolete object? It then struck me, fundamentally archi tecture and fashion are the same. We wear clothes to cover our bodies and to stay warm. From the beginning of time animal hides were used for clothing and for their housing just at different scales. The clothing(hide) covers the body and the tent houses the person. One might have to wear certain types of clothing for professional or cultural reasons. Or we may choose a certain way to dress to form our identity. There are various reasons as to why we choose how we dress ourselves, but in most cases it comes down to aesthetics. Today there is certainly no lack of diversity within the clothing empi re with new garments in store every week. Thus Fast fashion is created, surrounded with all i ts ethical problems. Unfortunately their problems not imprinted on the label. I then began to think about the simi larities between the two disciplines(archi tecture and fashion) but also the differences. What can each adopt from one another? The idea of immediacy and obsolescence within the fashion world is something which rarely...

Biological diversity and ethical development (Diversidade biológica e desenvolvimento ético)

Goulet, Denis
Fonte: Ciência & Trópico Publicador: Ciência & Trópico
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/06/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
RESUMO Constatando que a secularização e uma concepção fáustica do desenvolvimento enfraqueceram a ética tradicional referente aos cuidados para com a terra, defende a necessidade de uma nova ética de responsabilidade em relação ao cosmo. Argumenta que, nas arenas de decisão, as racionalidades técnica, política e ética interagem de modo circular, e não vertical. Constata que muitas questões éticas relacionadas aos problemas ambientais ainda estão por ser respondidas. Defende que o respeito à bio-diversidade é um pré-requisito para um desenvolvimento saudável e que muitas formas de diversidade são necessárias: a biológica, a cultural, a referente aos modelos de racionalidade e desenvolvimento. Ressalta a necessidade de abordagens não reducionistas à economia e ao desenvolvimento, juntamente com um tratamento não instrumental dos seres humanos, concluindo que a bio-diversidade é tanto um instrumento quanto um valor-fim. ABSTRACT Biological diversity and ethical development. v. 20, n. 1, p. 49-72, jan./jun. 1992. Remarking that the secularization and a faustian conception of development had enfeebled the traditional stewardship ethic, claims that a new ethic of responsibility of the cosmos is needed. Argues that...

Encadrement normatif du dépistage par analyse de sérum maternel, une technique de dépistage prénatal

Pratte, Annabelle
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation Formato: 8450695 bytes; application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
Le diagnostic et le dépistage prénatals ont été créés pour tenter de diminuer, et parfois même enrayer, les inquiétudes qui habitent les parents, et tout particulièrement la femme, dans la période d'attente qu'est la grossesse. Par contre, la science évolue rapidement. Les nouvelles technologies dans le domaine prénatal s'accumulent sans que nous ayons le temps d'en fixer les limites. Il nous apparaît donc primordial de nous pencher sur la problématique de l'encadrement normatif du diagnostic et du dépistage prénatals, afin de comprendre les dilemmes auxquels sont confrontés les différents acteurs. Notre recherche se concentre sur le dépistage par analyse de sérum maternel, une technique de dépistage prénatal. Or, cette technique présente un faible degré de fiabilité. De nombreuses questions éthiques découlent donc de cette pratique. Dans le cadre de notre travail de recherche, nous analysons les enjeux éthiques qui entourent l'utilisation de ce dépistage, puisque les normes éthiques peuvent exercer une certaine influence sur la pratique médicale. De plus, suite à nos recherches, nous avons pu constater que la pratique du dépistage par analyse de sérum maternel est très différente d'un pays à l'autre...

Moda ética como ventaja competitiva de una empresa colombiana en el mercado francés

Martínez Hernández, Ana Milena
Fonte: Facultad de administración Publicador: Facultad de administración
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/07/2010 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
Oletti es una empresa Colombiana cuyo mercado objetivo es la mujer inicialmente francesa, entre los 15 y los 35 años, con un estrato medio que busca satisfacer la necesidad de sentirse cómoda, segura, elegante y moderna al usar productos accesorios a su vestimenta diaria. Además de esto es una mujer actualizada y consiente de la problemática ambiental, que prefiere los productos étnicos y latinoamericanos porque éstos son consecuentes con su estilo de vida. La amplitud que maneja el producto es: aretes, collares y pulseras, con precios accesibles al consumidor que oscilan entre los 6 y los 12 euros, realizados en cáscara de naranja y materiales naturales que ayudan a preservar el medio ambiente. El siguiente trabajo es una acercamiento de cómo una empresa Colombiana como lo es Oletti, puede hacer de la moda ética una ventaja competitiva en el mercado francés.; Centro de Estudios Empresariales para la Perdurabilidad (CEEP); Oletti is a Colombian company whose target market is the French women between 15 and 35 years, with a middle layer that seeks to satisfy the need to feel comfortable, safe, elegant and modern using accessories in their clothes daily. Besides this is a woman to aware of environmental issues, preferring ethnic and Latin-American products because they are consistent with their lifestyle. The breadth that manages the product is: earrings...

The implications of starvation induced psychological changes for the ethical treatment of hunger strikers

Fessler, D
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
Design: Electronic databases were searched for (a) editorials and ethical proclamations on hunger strikers and their treatment; (b) studies of voluntary and involuntary starvation, and (c) legal cases pertaining to hunger striking. Additional studies were gathered in a snowball fashion from the published material cited in these databases. Material was included if it (a) provided ethical or legal guidelines; (b) shed light on psychological changes accompanying starvation, or (c) illustrated the practice of hunger striking. Authors' observations, opinions, and conclusions were noted.

Paediatrics at the cutting edge: do we need clinical ethics committees?

Larcher, V F; Lask, B; McCarthy, J M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the need for hospital clinical ethics committees by studying the frequency with which ethical dilemmas arose, the perceived adequacy of the process of their resolution, and the teaching and training of staff in medical ethics. DESIGN: Interviews with individuals and three multidisciplinary teams; questionnaire to randomly selected individuals. SETTING: Two major London children's hospitals. RESULTS: Ethical dilemmas arose frequently but were resolved in a relatively unstructured fashion. Ethical concerns included: the validity of consent for investigations and treatment; lack of children's involvement in consent; initiation of heroic or futile treatments; resource allocation. Staff expressed the need for a forum which would provide consultation on ethical issues, develop guidelines for good ethical practice, undertake teaching and training, and provide ethical reflection outside the acute clinical setting. CONCLUSION: Multidisciplinary, accountable and audited clinical ethics committees with predominantly advisory, practice development and educational roles could provide a valuable contribution to UK clinical practice and perhaps in other countries that have not developed hospital clinical ethics committees.

Moda ética: a consciencialização através da comunicação; Ethical fashion: awareness through communication

Cohen, Nathalie
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
Dissertação de mestrado em Design e Comunicação de Moda; Diante do atual cenário de questões sociais e ambientais, verifica-se uma crise de valores generalizada, traduzida pelas ações do homem como a extração de uma quantidade excessivamente maior de recursos da natureza do que esta é capaz de repor, assim como a exploração dos trabalhadores e dos animais. Como resposta a este paradigma, surge a moda ética enquanto um conjunto de aspectos como sustentabilidade, comércio justo, proteção dos animais, entre outros, que permeiam todo o sistema da moda. Este movimento que vem ganhando força ao longo dos últimos anos e incide em não só na cadeia de produção, mas igualmente na venda, na comunicação e no descarte dos produtos de moda. O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar a comunicação realizada por marcas e campanhas de moda a fim de perceber como estas abordam a questão da moda ética e se tencionam educar o público para um comportamento de consumo mais consciente. A partir disto, desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa contemplando 44 marcas de moda associadas ao Ethical Trading Initiative. Utilizando do método de análise de conteúdo, baseou-se na informação disponível nos websites e redes sociail das marcas para a recolha de dados. Foi ainda realizada uma segunda análise...

Unfolding the Modern Hijab: From the Colonial Veil to Pious Fashion

Woldesemait, Mihret
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 25/06/2013 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
This thesis examines the evolution of the appropriation and meaning of the hijab in the modern Middle East. During colonial times the veil’s depiction as a sign of backwardness, in social artifacts and in colonial discourse, was used to justify colonialism. Following the colonial period, indigenous scholars and other elites called for unveiling, seeing the hijab as an obstacle to “progress.” However, in the 1970s, a new veiling movement emerged that appropriated the veil as a sign of an authentic identity and an instrument to accommodate a changing modern world. This neo-veiling movement, furthermore, standardized a set of Islamic norms and practices that would use the veil as the embodiment of inner piety and ethical states. It is within this context that this thesis discusses contemporary pious fashion in Amman, Jordan. The ethics and aesthetics of veiling in Amman have again shifted the meaning and appropriation of the veil. Establishing an agreement or balance between piety and fashion/ethics and aesthetics in veiling is significant for contemporary urban residents of Amman. Furthermore, this balance has social significance and guides social and cultural interactions. Harmony, however, is not easily achieved; pious fashion is a complicated maze that is carefully navigated by veiled women.; honors thesis 2013; International Comparative Studies

The Ethics of Counterfeiting in the Fashion Industry: Quality, Credence and Profit Issues

Hilton, Brian; Choi, Chong; Chen, Stephen
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
One of the greatest problems facing luxury goods firms in a globalizing market is that of counterfeiting. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the different types of counterfeiting that take place in the fashion industry and the ethical issues raised.

Book review: stitched up: the anti-capitalist book of fashion by Tansy E Hoskins

MccGwire, Scarlett
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/04/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
Stitched Up considers the environmental, social, and psychological ills that the fashion industry inflicts upon all of us. The Rana Plaza collapse in Bangladesh in 2013 brought ethical pay and safe working conditions to the world’s attention, but Tansy Hoskins argues that much more needs to be done. However, Scarlett MccGwire is disappointed that Hoskins doesn’t deliver on how we can achieve a real revolution in clothing manufacturing and buying.

Discourses regarding ethical challenges in assessments - Insights through a novel approach

Levin,Madia M.; Buckett,Anne
Fonte: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology Publicador: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
ORIENTATION: From a pragmatic approach, a novel method called 'the town hall focus group' was utilised to provide insight into discourse regarding ethical issues in psychological assessments. This article contributes to the understanding of the practice of ethics in assessments and suggests the use of this particular method to facilitate discourse regarding ethical issues. RESEARCH PURPOSE:To illustrate a forum where ethical discourse can occur in a practical fashion in order to deal with the diversity of situations, questions, demands and responsibilities experienced by psychologists. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Although codes and guidelines on assessment exist, many psychologists feel that despite the existence of ethical beacons, they are often faced with challenges for which no obvious solution is evident. A need exists for ethical discourse by which psychologists grapple with unique situations through an active dialectical process. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A qualitative research approach was employed using the town hall focus group. The study was conducted with a convenience sample of 108 psychologists and practitioners. MAIN FINDINGS: The town hall focus group method provided an opportunity and platform for ethical discourse regarding the ethical challenges experienced by psychologists. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: This article contributes to the understanding of the practice of ethics in assessments by illustrating a platform for ethical discourse regarding ethical issues experienced in assessments. The town hall method appears to be valuable as it provides a forum to discuss ethical challenges where members are allowed to share their experiences and thus gain access to peer support...

Ethical issues in healthcare financing

Maharaj,SR; Paul,TJ
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
The four goals of good healthcare are to relieve symptoms, cure disease, prolong life and improve quality of life. Access to healthcare has been a perpetual challenge to healthcare providers who must take into account important factors such as equity, efficiency and effectiveness in designing healthcare systems to meet the four goals of good healthcare. The underlying philosophy may designate health as being a basic human right, an investment, a commodity to be bought and sold, a political demand or an expenditure. The design, policies and operational arrangements will usually reflect which of the above philosophies underpin the healthcare system, and consequently, access. Mechanisms for funding include fee-for-service, cost sharing (insurance, either private or government sponsored) free-of-fee at point of delivery (payments being made through general taxes, health levies, etc) or cost-recovery. For each of these methods of financial access to healthcare services, there are ethical issues which can compromise the four principles of ethical practices in healthcare, viz beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice (1, 2). In times of economic recession, providing adequate healthcare will require governments, with support from external agencies...