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Enhanced CXC chemokine responses of human colonic epithelial cells to locus of enterocyte effacement-negative Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli

Rogers, T.; Paton, A.; McColl, S.; Paton, J.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
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75.96%
There is increasing evidence that by facilitating translocation of Shiga toxin (Stx) across the intestinal epithelium and by transporting bound toxin to remote sites such as the renal endothelium, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) disease. Plasma levels of PMN-attracting CXC chemokines such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) also appear to correlate in humans with the severity of disease. Thus, the capacity of STEC strains to elicit CXC chemokine responses in intestinal epithelial cells may be a crucial step in pathogenesis. Accordingly, we attempted to determine which STEC factors are responsible for CXC chemokine induction in human colonic epithelial cells. Infection of Hct-8 cells with locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE)-negative STEC strains isolated from patients with severe STEC disease resulted in up-regulation of IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), MIP-2ß, and ENA-78 mRNA significantly higher and earlier than that elicited by several LEE-positive STEC strains, including the O157:H7 strain EDL933. Similarly, levels of IL-8 protein in LEE-negative STEC-infected Hct-8 culture supernatants were significantly higher than in LEE-positive STEC-infected culture supernatants. The difference in responses could not be attributed to the expression or nonexpression of LEE genes...

Distribution of the saa gene in strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli of human and bovine origins

Jenkins, C.; Perry, N.; Cheasty, T.; Shaw, D.; Frankel, G.; Dougan, G.; Gunn, G.; Smith, H.; Paton, A.; Paton, J.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.96%
Certain strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) which do not have the locus of enterocyte effacement pathogenicity island carry the STEC autoagglutinating adhesin (saa) gene. The distribution of the saa gene in STEC isolates from patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), patients with less severe diarrheal disease, asymptomatic individuals, and healthy cattle was examined. saa-positive strains were detected more frequently (P < 0.001) in STEC strains from bovines (32 of 56 strains) than in those from humans (8 of 91 strains). No significant association (P = 0.135) was found between the saa gene and STEC isolated from patients with HUS (6 of 46 strains) or diarrhea (2 of 29 strains) and from healthy controls (0 of 16 strains).; Claire Jenkins, Neil T. Perry, Tom Cheasty, Darren J. Shaw, Gad Frankel, Gordon Dougan, George J. Gunn, Henry R. Smith, Adrienne W. Paton, and James C. Paton

Molecular analysis of shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli O111:H proteins which react with sera from patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

Voss, E.; Paton, A.; Manning, P.; Paton, J.
Fonte: AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY Publicador: AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.08%
Western blot analysis was used to assess the reactivity of convalescent-phase sera from patients who were associated with an outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by fermented sausage contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The predominant STEC isolated from HUS patients belonged to serotype O111:H-, and reactivity to O111:H- whole-cell lysates, treated or untreated with proteinase K, was examined. As expected, all five serum samples demonstrated a marked anti-lipopolysaccharide response, but several protein bands were also immunoreactive, particularly one with an apparent size of 94 kDa. One convalescent-phase serum sample was subsequently used to screen an O111:H- cosmid bank and 2 of 900 cosmid clones were found to be positive, both of which contained a similar DNA insert. Western blot analysis of one of these clones identified three major immunoreactive protein bands of approximately 94, 70, and 50 kDa. An immune response to the three proteins was detectable with all five convalescent-phase serum samples but not with healthy human serum. Immunoreactive 94- and 50-kDa species were produced by a deletion derivative of the cosmid containing a 7-kb STEC DNA insert. Sequence analysis of this region indicated that it is part of the locus for enterocyte effacement...

Translocated intimin receptors (Tir) of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli isolates belonging to serogroups O26, O111, and O157 react with sera from patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome and exhibit marked sequence heterogeneity.

Paton, A.; Manning, P.; Woodrow, M.; Paton, J.
Fonte: AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY Publicador: AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 EN
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76.09%
The capacity to form attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on the surfaces of enterocytes is an important virulence trait of several enteric pathogens, including enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC). Formation of such lesions depends upon an interaction between a bacterial outer membrane protein (intimin) and a bacterially encoded receptor protein (Tir) which is exported from the bacterium and translocated into the host cell membrane. Intimin, Tir, and several other proteins necessary for generation of A/E lesions are encoded on a chromosomal pathogenicity island termed the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE). Reports of sequence heterogeneity and antigenic variation in the region of intimin believed to be responsible for receptor binding raise the possibility that the receptor itself is also heterogeneous. We have examined this by cloning and sequencing tir genes from three different STEC strains belonging to serogroups O26, O111, and O157. The deduced amino acid sequences for the Tir homologues from these strains varied markedly, exhibiting only 65.4, 80.2, and 56.7% identity, respectively, to that recently reported for EPEC Tir. STEC Tir is also highly immunogenic in humans. Western blots of E. coli DH5alpha expressing the various STEC tir genes cloned in pBluescript [but not E. coli DH5alpha(pBluescript)] reacted strongly with convalescent sera from patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by known LEE-positive STEC. Moreover...

Multiplex PCR for direct detection of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli strains producing the novel subtilase cytotoxin

Paton, A.; Paton, J.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.96%
We have recently described a novel AB5 subtilase cytotoxin produced by certain Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. This potentially lethal toxin may contribute to severe gastrointestinal and systemic disease in humans. In this study we have developed a trivalent PCR assay for the detection of the novel toxin A subunit gene subA, as well as stx1 and stx2. The three primer pairs used in the assay do not interfere with each other and generate amplification products of 556, 180, and 255 bp, respectively. The assay can be used for determining the toxin genotype of STEC isolates, as well as for direct detection of toxin genes in primary fecal culture extracts.; Adrienne W. Paton and James C. Paton; Copyright © 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Up-Regulation of both Intimin and eae-independent adherence of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli O157 by ler and phenotypic impact of a naturally occurring ler mutation

Ogierman, M.; Paton, A.; Paton, J.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.02%
Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are important human pathogens which are capable of causing diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and the potentially fatal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). An important virulence trait of certain STEC strains, such as those belonging to serogroup O157, is the capacity to produce attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on enterocytes, a property encoded by the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE). LEE contains the eae gene, which encodes intimin, an outer membrane protein which mediates the intimate attachment of bacteria to the host epithelial cell surface, and eae is routinely used as a marker for LEE-positive STEC strains. However, the O157:H(-) STEC strain 95SF2 carries eae but did not produce A/E lesions on HEp-2 cells, as judged by a fluorescent actin staining assay. In this assay, 95SF2 adhered poorly to the HEp-2 cells, and those that did bind exhibited abnormal cell division. In contrast, the O157:H7 STEC strain EDL933 adhered strongly and produced typical A/E lesions. We have demonstrated that 95SF2 carries a defective LEE regulatory gene, ler, with a single base change with respect to that published for ler of EDL933, resulting in an Ile(57)-to-Thr substitution. Ler shows homology to H-NS-like regulators...

Characterization of Saa, a novel autoagglutinating adhesin produced by locus of enterocyte effacement-negative shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli strains that are virulent for humans

Paton, A.; Srimanote, P.; Woodrow, M.; Paton, J.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.98%
The capacity of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) to adhere to the intestinal mucosa undoubtedly contributes to pathogenesis of human disease. The majority of STEC strains isolated from severe cases produce attaching and effacing lesions on the intestinal mucosa, a property mediated by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. This element is not essential for pathogenesis, as some cases of severe disease, including hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), are caused by LEE-negative STEC strains, but the mechanism whereby these adhere to the intestinal mucosa is not understood. We have isolated a gene from the megaplasmid of a LEE-negative O113:H21 STEC strain (98NK2) responsible for an outbreak of HUS, which encodes an auto-agglutinating adhesin designated Saa (STEC autoagglutinating adhesin). Introduction of saa cloned in pBC results in a 9.7-fold increase in adherence of E. coli JM109 to HEp-2 cells and a semilocalized adherence pattern. Mutagenesis of saa in 98NK2, or curing the wild-type strain of its megaplasmid, resulted in a significant reduction in adherence. Homologues of saa were found in several unrelated LEE-negative STEC serotypes, including O48:H21 (strain 94CR) and O91:H21 (strain B2F1), which were also isolated from patients with HUS. Saa exhibits a low degree of similarity (25% amino acid [aa] identity) with YadA of Yersinia enterocolitica and Eib...

Direct detection and characterization of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli by multiplex PCR for stx1, stx2, eae, ehxA, and saa

Paton, A.; Paton, J.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.96%
We recently described a novel megaplasmid-encoded adhesin produced by certain Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains that lack the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. This adhesin, designated Saa (STEC autoagglutinating adhesin), may be a marker for a subset of LEE-negative STEC strains capable of causing severe gastrointestinal and systemic diseases in humans. In this study, we developed a pentavalent PCR assay for the detection of saa as well as other proven and putative STEC virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA). The five primer pairs used in the assay do not interfere with each other and generate amplification products of 119, 180, 255, 384, and 534 bp.; Adrienne W. Paton and James C. Paton; Copyright © 2002, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Epitope analysis of the FanC subunit protein of the K99 (F5) fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli using a recombinant fusion technique

Ogunniyi, A.; Kotlarski, I.; Morona, R.; Manning, P.
Fonte: Elsevier Science BV Publicador: Elsevier Science BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.07%
We have used a recombinant approach to characterise the B- and T-cell epitopes of FanC, the major subunit polypeptide of K99 (F5) fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains. This involved the fusion of FanC and its carboxy-terminal truncated derivatives to a reporter, the E. coli alkaline phosphatase (PhoA), generating stable, recombinant fusions. The B-cell epitopes of FanC were characterised by Western blotting of FanC::PhoA fusion proteins with a polyclonal mouse antiserum directed against K99 fimbrial antigen, and with a panel of monoclonal antibodies generated to the K99 antigen. An attempt to characterise the T-cell epitopes of the fimbrial subunit was made by standard in vitro T-cell proliferation assay. Our results suggest that the B-cell epitopes of FanC are likely to be continuous, with a potentially immunodominant epitope at the carboxy-terminus. However, T-cell proliferation assays with the FanC::PhoA fusion proteins did not indicate any immunodominant T-cell epitope(s). We hypothesise that fusion of FanC peptides to PhoA had resulted in altered folding of the peptides for antibody and T-cell recognition, highlighting the potential problems and drawbacks of the recombinant fusion technique in defining the epitopes of certain proteins.; Abiodun D Ogunniyi...

Sab, a novel autotransporter of locus of enterocyte effacement-negative shiga-toxigenic escherichia coli O113:H21, Contributes to adherence and biofilm formation

Herold, S.; Paton, J.; Paton, A.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.03%
Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains cause serious gastrointestinal disease, which can lead to potentially life-threatening systemic complications such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Although the production of Shiga toxin has been considered to be the main virulence trait of STEC for many years, the capacity to colonize the host intestinal epithelium is a crucial step in pathogenesis. In this study, we have characterized a novel megaplasmid-encoded outer membrane protein in locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-negative O113:H21 STEC strain 98NK2, termed Sab (for STEC autotransporter [AT] contributing to biofilm formation). The 4,296-bp sab gene encodes a 1,431-amino-acid protein with the features of members of the AT protein family. When expressed in E. coli JM109, Sab contributed to the diffuse adherence to human epithelial (HEp-2) cells and promoted biofilm formation on polystyrene surfaces. A 98NK2 sab deletion mutant was also defective in biofilm formation relative to its otherwise isogenic wild-type parent, and this was complemented by transformation with a sab-carrying plasmid. Interestingly, an unrelated O113:H21 STEC isolate that had a naturally occurring deletion in sab was similarly defective in biofilm formation. PCR analysis indicated that sab is present in LEE-negative STEC strains belonging to serotypes/groups O113:H21...

Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli Strains Negative for Locus of Enterocyte Effacement

Newton, H.; Sloan, J.; Bulach, D.; Seemann, T.; Allison, C.; Tauschek, M.; Robins-Browne, R.; Paton, J.; Whittam, T.; Paton, A.; Hartland, E.
Fonte: Center Disease Control Publicador: Center Disease Control
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.02%
Most Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections that are associated with severe sequelae such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) are caused by attaching and effacing pathogens that carry the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). However, a proportion of STEC isolates that do not carry LEE have been associated with HUS. To clarify the emergence of LEE-negative STEC, we compared the genetic composition of the virulence plasmids pO113 and pO157 from LEE-negative and LEE-positive STEC, respectively. The complete nucleotide sequence of pO113 showed that several plasmid genes were shared by STEC O157:H7. In addition, allelic profiling of the ehxA gene demonstrated that pO113 belongs to a different evolutionary lineage than pO157 and that the virulence plasmids of LEE-negative STEC strains were highly related. In contrast, multilocus sequence typing of 17 LEE-negative STEC isolates showed several clonal groups, suggesting that pathogenic LEE-negative STEC has emerged several times throughout its evolution.; Hayley J. Newton, Joan Sloan, Dieter M. Bulach, Torsten Seemann, Cody C. Allison, Marija Tauschek, Roy M. Robins-Browne, James C. Paton, Thomas S. Whittam, Adrienne W. Paton, and Elizabeth L. Hartland

The frequency of molecular detection of virulence genes encoding cytolysin A, high-pathogenicity island and cytolethal distending toxin of Escherichia coli in cases of sudden infant death syndrome does not differ from that in other infant deaths and healthy infants

Highet, A.; Berry, A.; Bettelheim, K.; Goldwater, P.
Fonte: Soc General Microbiology Publicador: Soc General Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.13%
Consistent pathological findings in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are seen which display similarities to the pathogenesis of toxaemic shock and/or sepsis. A key candidate infectious agent that is possibly involved is Escherichia coli, given its universal early colonization of the intestinal tract of infants and an increased frequency of toxigenic and mouse-lethal isolates from SIDS compared with comparison infants. An explanation for these findings has yet to be identified. Using PCR, we screened E. coli isolates from 145 SIDS and 101 dead control and healthy infants for three new candidate pathogenicity-related genes: clyA (cytolysin A), irp2 [high-pathogenicity island (HPI)-specific gene] and cdt (cytolethal distending toxin). The results failed to show a positive correlation with SIDS, instead proving that clyA and irp2 genes were common to the infant intestinal E. coli. Interestingly we observed a high rate of carriage of these two potentially pathogenic genes in E. coli from healthy infants in the absence of diarrhoeal disease, and we report that in a number of cases, the detection of HPI-specific genes was predictable by serotype. Despite the lack of associations defined so far, there remains the likelihood that genetic determinants influence the interactions between E. coli and the host...

Tissue factor-dependent procoagulant activity of subtilase cytotoxin, a potent AB5 toxin produced by shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli

Wang, H.; Paton, J.; Thorpe, C.; Bonder, C.; Sun, W.; Paton, A.
Fonte: Univ Chicago Press Publicador: Univ Chicago Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.98%
Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB), produced by certain virulent Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli strains, causes hemolytic uremic syndrome–like pathology in mice, including extensive microvascular thrombosis. SubAB acts by specifically cleaving the essential endoplasmic reticulum chaperone binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP). BiP has been reported to inhibit the activation of tissue factor (TF), the major initiator of extrinsic coagulation. We hypothesized that the apparent prothrombotic effect of SubAB in vivo may involve the stimulation of TF‐dependent procoagulant activity. TF‐dependent procoagulant activity, TF messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, and BiP cleavage were therefore examined in human macrophage cells and primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to SubAB. In both types of cells, SubAB significantly increased TF‐dependent procoagulant activity, induced TF mRNA expression, and mediated BiP cleavage. No effects were seen when cells were treated with a nonproteolytic mutant toxin, SubAA272B. Our results suggest that the procoagulant effect of SubAB may be dependent on both the up‐regulation of TF expression and the activation of TF by means of BiP cleavage.; Hui Wang, James C. Paton, Cheleste M. Thorpe, Claudine S. Bonder...

Escherichia coli subtilase cytotoxin induces apoptosis regulated by host Bcl-2 family proteins Bax/Bak

May, K.; Paton, J.; Paton, A.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.98%
Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) was first isolated from a Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strain that was responsible for an outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome and is the prototype of a new family of AB5 cytotoxins. SubAB is a subtilase-like serine protease, and upon uptake by host cells, it is trafficked to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it cleaves the essential ER chaperone BiP (GRP78) with high specificity. Previous work has shown that BiP cleavage by SubAB initiates ER stress-signaling pathways in host cells that eventuate in cell death associated with DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis. The present study has investigated the role of the Bcl-2 protein family, which has been shown to regulate ER stress-induced apoptosis in other model systems. Examination of the cytotoxicity of SubAB for wild-type and bax–/–/bak–/– mouse embryonic fibroblasts and comparison of apoptotic markers in these cells revealed that SubAB cytotoxicity can be predominantly attributed to the activation of apoptotic pathways activated by Bax/Bak. The results of the present study further our understanding of the molecular mechanism whereby SubAB kills eukaryotic cells and contributes to STEC pathogenesis, in addition to consolidating the roles of Bcl-2 family members in the regulation of ER stress-induced apoptosis.; Kerrie L. May...

The Escherichia coli subtilase cytotoxin A subunit specifically cleaves cell-surface GRP78 protein and abolishes COOH-terminal-dependent signaling

Ray, R.; de Ridder, G.; Eu, J.; Paton, A.; Paton, J.; Pizzo, S.
Fonte: Amer Soc Biochemistry Molecular Biology Inc Publicador: Amer Soc Biochemistry Molecular Biology Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.98%
GRP78, a molecular chaperone with critical endoplasmic reticulum functions, is aberrantly expressed on the surface of cancer cells, including prostate and melanoma. Here it functions as a pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic signaling receptor via NH2-terminal domain ligation. Auto-antibodies to this domain may appear in cancer patient serum where they are a poor prognostic indicator. Conversely, GRP78 COOH-terminal domain ligation is pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative. There is no method to disrupt cell-surface GRP78 without compromising the total GRP78 pool, making it difficult to study cell-surface GRP78 function. We studied six cell lines representing three cancer types. One cell line per group expresses high levels of cell-surface GRP78, and the other expresses low levels (human hepatoma: Hep3B and HepG2; human prostate cancer: PC3 and 1-LN; murine melanoma: B16F0 and B16F1). We investigated the effect of Escherichia coli subtilase cytoxin catalytic subunit (SubA) on GRP78. We report that SubA specifically cleaves cell-surface GRP78 on HepG2, 1-LN, and B16F1 cells without affecting intracellular GRP78. B16F0 cells (GRP78low) have lower amounts of cleaved cell-surface GRP78. SubA has no effect on Hep3B and PC3 cells. The predicted 28-kDa GRP78 COOH-terminal fragment is released into the culture medium by SubA treatment...

Inhibition of water absorption and selective damage to human colonic mucosa are induced by subtilase cytotoxin produced by Escherichia coli O113:H21

Gerhardt, E.; Masso, M.; Paton, A.; Paton, J.; Zotta, E.; Ibarra, C.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.97%
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) is by far the most prevalent serotype associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) although many non-O157 STEC strains have been also isolated from patients with HUS. The main virulence factor of STEC is the Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) present in O157 and non-O157 strains. Recently, another toxin, named subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB), has been isolated from several non-O157 strains and may contribute to the pathogenesis of HUS. Here, we have demonstrated that an O113:H21 STEC strain expressing SubAB and Stx2 inhibits normal water absorption across human colon and causes damage to the surface epithelium, necrosis, mononuclear inflammatory infiltration, edema, and marked mucin depletion. This damage was less marked, but nevertheless significant, when purified SubAB or E. coli O113:H21 expressing only SubAB was assayed. This is the first study showing that SubAB may directly participate in the mechanisms of diarrhea in children infected with non-O157 STEC strains.; Elizabeth Gerhardt, Mariana Masso, Adrienne W. Paton, James C. Paton, Elsa Zotta, Cristina Ibarra

Residues located inside the Escherichia coli FepE protein oligomer are essential for lipopolysaccharide O-antigen modal chain length regulation

Tran, N.; Morona, R.
Fonte: Society for General Microbiology Publicador: Society for General Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.02%
The Escherichia coli O157 : H7 FepE protein regulates lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen (Oag) chain length to confer a very long modal chain length of >80 Oag repeat units (RUs). The mechanism by which FepE regulates Oag modal chain length and the regions within it that are important for its function remain unclear. Studies on the structure of FepE show that the protein oligomerizes. However, the exact size of the oligomer is in dispute, further hampering our understanding of its mechanism. Guided by information previously obtained for regions known to be important for Oag modal chain length determination in the homologous Shigella flexneri WzzBSF protein, a set of FepE mutant constructs with single amino acid substitutions was created. Analysis of the resulting LPS conferred by these mutant His6-FepE proteins showed that amino acid substitutions of leucine 168 (L168) and aspartic acid 268 (D268) resulted in LPS with consistently shortened Oag chain lengths of <80 Oag RUs. Substitution of FepE’s transmembrane cysteine residues did not affect function. Chemical cross-linking experiments on mutant FepE proteins showed no consistent correlation between oligomer size and functional activity, and MS analysis of FepE oligomers indicated that the in vivo size of FepE is consistent with a maximum size of a hexamer. Our findings suggest that different FepE residues...

A new biological agent for treatment of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli infections and dysentery in humans

Paton, A.; Morona, R.; Paton, J.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.04%
Gastrointestinal disease caused by Shiga toxin-producing bacteria (such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shigella dysenteriae) is often complicated by life-threatening toxin-induced systemic sequelae, including hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Such infections can now be diagnosed very early in the course of the disease, but at present no effective therapeutic intervention is possible. Here, we constructed a recombinant bacterium that displayed a Shiga toxin receptor mimic on its surface, and it adsorbed and neutralized Shiga toxins with very high efficiency. Moreover, oral administration of the recombinant bacterium completely protected mice from challenge with an otherwise 100%-fatal dose of Shiga toxigenic E. coli. Thus, the bacterium shows great promise as a 'probiotic' treatment for Shiga toxigenic E. coli infections and dysentery.

Differential effects of short-chain fatty acids and iron on expression of iha in Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli

Herold, S.; Paton, J.; Srimanote, P.; Paton, A.
Fonte: Soc General Microbiology Publicador: Soc General Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76%
Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) colonizing the bowel are exposed to a variety of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate and butyrate, produced by gut microflora. However, the total concentrations and relative amounts of SCFAs in the lumen vary with intestinal niche. Here we report that conditions simulating SCFA concentrations present in the human gut trigger expression of the iha gene, which encodes an adherence-conferring outer-membrane protein of pathogenic E. coli. We show that growth under conditions simulating colonic, but not ileal, SCFA concentrations increases iha expression in three tested STEC strains, with the strongest expression detected in LEE-negative STEC O113:H21 strain 98NK2. Expression of iha is known to be subject to Fur-mediated iron repression in O157:H7 STEC, and the same occurs in 98NK2. However, exogenous iron did not repress iha expression in the presence of colonic SCFAs in either 98NK2 or the O157:H7 strain EDL933. Moreover, exposure to the iron chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl caused no further enhancement of iha expression over that induced by colonic SCFAs. These findings indicate that SCFAs regulate iha expression in STEC independently of iron. Increased expression of iha under colonic but not ileal SCFA conditions possibly may contribute to preferential colonization of the human colon by STEC.; Sylvia Herold...

Inhibition of Protein Interactions with the β 2 Sliding Clamp of Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III by Peptides from β 2 -Binding Proteins

Wijffels, Gene; Dalrymple, Brian Paul; Prosselkov, Pavel; Kongsuwan, Kritaya; Epa, V; Lilley, Penelope; Jergic, Slobodan; Buchardt, Jens; Brown, Susan Elizabeth; Alewood, Paul F; Jennings, Philip; Dixon, Nicholas
Fonte: American Chemical Society Publicador: American Chemical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.04%
The sliding clamp of the Escherichia coli replisome is now understood to interact with many proteins involved in DNA synthesis and repair. A universal interaction motif is proposed to be one mechanism by which those proteins bind the E. coli sliding clamp, a homodimer of the β subunit, at a single site on the dimer. The numerous β2-binding proteins have various versions of the consensus interaction motif, including a related hexameric sequence. To determine if the variants of the motif could contribute to the competition of the β-binding proteins for the β2 site, synthetic peptides derived from the putative β2-binding motifs were assessed for their abilities to inhibit protein-β2 interactions, to bind directly to β2, and to inhibit DNA synthesis in vitro. A hierarchy emerged, which was consistent with sequence similarity to the pentameric consensus motif, QL(S/D)LF, and peptides containing proposed hexameric motifs were shown to have activities comparable to those containing the consensus sequence. The hierarchy of peptide binding may be indicative of a competitive hierarchy for the binding of proteins to β2 in various stages or circumstances of DNA replication and repair.