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Diversificação internacional: modelo de Treynor & Black

Brito, Patrícia Vieira
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
Projecto, Mestrado em Finanças/ G11; G15; Tendo em conta a globalização dos mercados financeiros e a evidência do contágio das tendências de subida ou de descida entre os vários mercados, faz sentido questionar até que ponto a diversificação geográfica ainda acrescenta valor na gestão de uma carteira de activos financeiros e, mais especificamente, de uma carteira de acções. Para analisar esta situação, consideraram-se duas carteiras diversificadas de acções europeias, de gestão passiva e, a partir de cada uma delas, utilizando o modelo de Treynor & Black construíram-se novas carteira através do investimento parcial numa carteira de gestão activa formada por diversos índices de países europeus, de outros mercados desenvolvidos e de mercados emergentes, verificou-se o impacto da diversificação internacional no aumento ou diminuição da rendibilidade e do risco esperados dessas carteiras. Na constituição dessas carteiras de gestão activa e no peso que terão na carteira total tiveram-se em conta três possíveis perfis de risco: conservador, equilibrado e arrojado. Paralelamente, procurou verificar-se se o investimento no mercado Português permite ou não acrescentar valor em cada uma das carteiras a construir. Os resultados obtidos demonstram claramente as vantagens da diversificação internacional...

Appropriateness and feasibility of targeted diversification in a private equity portfolio

Browne, Kathleen R. (Kathleen Rose)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 68 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
Diversification tools such as modem portfolio theory are used by institutional investors when making asset allocation decisions, which often result in an allocation to the private equity asset class. While some level of diversification within a private equity portfolio, in theory, should produce higher risk-adjusted returns, in practice it is problematic. Through a combination of quantitative analysis of historical private equity returns and qualitative analysis of the investment programs of several large institutional investors with long histories in private equity, the appropriateness and feasibility of targeted diversification is evaluated. The research indicates that the success of private equity investment programs is influenced more by the quality of the managers in the portfolio than by strategic design. Therefore, the ability of investors to access strong performing managers, and to choose not to invest when such access is not possible, is paramount. That said, institutions generally maintain some level of diversification in their portfolios. However, they often do so on an opportunistic basis or within a policy that affords them sufficient flexibility to overweight an area that offers the best expected returns.; by Kathleen R. Browne.; Thesis (M.B.A.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Global Development Finance 2012 : External Debt of Developing Countries

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
The data and analysis presented in this edition of global development finance are based on actual flows and debt related transactions for 2010 reported to the World Bank Debtor Reporting System (DRS) by 129 developing countries. The reports confirm that in 2010 international capital flows to developing countries surpassed preliminary estimates and returned to their pre-crisis level of $1.1 trillion, an increase of 68 percent over the comparable figure for 2009. Private capital flows surged in 2010 driven by a massive jump in short-term debt, a strong rebound in bonds and more moderate rise in equity flows. Debt related inflows jumped almost 200 percent compared to a 25 percent increase in net equity flows. The rebound in capital flows was concentrated in a small group of 10 middle income countries where net capital inflows rose by an average of nearly 80 percent in 2010, almost double the rate of increase (44 percent) recorded by other developing countries. These 10 countries accounted for 73 percent of developing countries gross national income (GNI)...

Unexploited Gains from International Diversification : Patterns of Portfolio Holdings around the World

Didier, Tatiana; Rigobon, Roberto; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.94%
This paper studies how portfolios with a global investment scope are allocated internationally using a unique micro dataset on U.S. equity mutual funds. While mutual funds have great flexibility to invest globally, they invest in a surprisingly limited number of stocks, around 100. The number of holdings in stocks and countries from a given region declines as the investment scope of funds broadens. This restrictive investment practice has costs. A mean-variance strategy shows unexploited gains from further international diversification. Mutual funds investing globally could achieve better risk-adjusted returns by broadening their asset allocation, including stocks held by more specialized funds within the same mutual fund family (company). This investment pattern is not explained by lack of information or instruments, transaction costs, or a better ability of global funds to minimize negative outcomes. Instead, industry practices related to organizational factors seem to play an important role.

Financial Globalization in Emerging Economies : Much Ado about Nothing?

Yeyati, Eduardo Levy; Williams, Tomas
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
Financial globalization, defined as global linkages through cross-border financial flows, has become increasingly relevant for emerging markets as they integrate financially with the rest of the world. This paper argues that, because of the way it is often measured, it has also led to the misperception that financial globalization in emerging markets has been growing in recent years. The authors characterize the evolution of financial globalization in emerging markets using alternative measures, and find that, in the 2000s, financial globalization has grown only marginally and international portfolio diversification has been limited and declining over time. The paper revisits the empirical literature on the implications of financial globalization for local market deepening, international risk diversification, financial contagion, and financial dollarization, and finds them to be rather limited. Whereas financial globalization has indeed fostered domestic market deepening in good times, it has yielded neither the dividends of consumption smoothing (in line with limited portfolio diversification) nor the costs of amplifying global financial shocks. In turn...

The Current Account as A Dynamic Portfolio Choice Problem

Didier, Tatiana; Lowenkron, Alexandre
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.72%
The current account can be understood as the outcome of investment decisions made by domestic and foreign investors. These decisions can be decomposed into a portfolio rebalancing and a portfolio growth component. This paper provides empirical evidence of the importance of portfolio rebalancing for the dynamics of the current account. The authors evaluate the predictions of a partial-equilibrium model of the current account with dynamic portfolio choices, in which portfolio rebalancing is driven by changes in investment opportunities. Using data for the United States and Japan, the authors find evidence supporting innovations in investment opportunities as an important mechanism to explain international capital flows.

Does Foreign Portfolio Investment Reach Small Listed Firms?

Knill, April M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
Using a unique dataset, the author examines the impact of foreign portfolio investment on the capital issuance behavior of small listed firms. The author finds that foreign portfolio investment is associated with an increased probability of small firm security issuance in all nations, regardless of property rights development. Evidence suggests the mechanism by which this occurs is a freeing up of capital in domestic markets when large firms utilize the foreign investment directly. Debt levels in nations where property rights are more developed increase, suggesting that foreign portfolio investment may reach small firms through the banking channel as well as capital markets in these nations.

Portfolio Investment Funds : Assessing the Impact on Emerging Markets

Barger, Teresa; Carter, Laurence; Kuczynski, Irving
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
Although portfolio funds account for only about 5 percent of the capitalization of emerging stock markets, these small infusions of capital, particularly foreign portfolio investment funds, have been responsible for jump starting the development of many of these markets. The main beneficiaries of this growth have been the local firms and investors who hold about 90 percent of emerging market stocks. This Note examines the key role played by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) in creating the portfolio funds industry and helping to put countries on the map for emerging market investors. By improving the price-earnings ratio, liquidity, and pricing efficiency of domestic markets, portfolio funds improve firms access to all equity capital in emerging markets, a factor critical for business growth in developing countries. The Note also outlines the benefits that flow to developing country entrepreneurs and investors as a result of this increased liquidity the stock market provides.

Private Equity and Venture Capital in SMEs in Developing Countries : The Role for Technical Assistance

Divakaran, Shanthi; McGinnis, Patrick J.; Shariff, Masood
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
This paper discusses the constraints for private equity financing of small and medium enterprises in developing economies. In addition to capital, private equity investors bring knowledge and expertise to the companies in which they invest. Through active participation on the board of directors or in partnership with management, private equity investors equip companies with critical improvements in governance, financial accounting, access to markets, technology, and other drivers of business success. Although private equity investors could help to create, deepen, and expand growth of small and medium enterprises in developing economies, the vast majority of private equity in such markets targets larger or more established enterprises. Technical assistance, when partnered with private equity, can unlock more investor commitments and considerably enhance the ability of small and medium enterprises in emerging markets to raise private equity capital. Technical assistance provides funding that allows private equity funds to extend their reach to smaller companies. Technical assistance can mitigate some level of risk and increase the probability of successful investments by funding targeted operational improvements of investee companies. Dedicated technical assistance facilities financed by third parties...

Strategic Interactions and Portfolio Choice in Money Management : Evidence from Colombian Pension Funds

Pedraza Morales, Alvaro
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
This paper studies the portfolio choice of strategic fund managers in the presence of a peer-based underperformance penalty. Evidence is taken from the Colombian pension fund management industry, where six asset managers are in charge of portfolio allocation for the mandatory contributions of the working population. These managers are subject to a peer-based underperformance penalty, known as the Minimum Return Guarantee. The trading behavior by the managers is studied before and after a change in the strictness of the guarantee in June 2007. The evidence suggests that a tighter minimum return guarantee results in more trading in the direction of peers, a behavior that is more pronounced for underperforming managers. These managers rebalance their portfolios by buying securities in which they are underexposed relative to their peers, as opposed to selling assets in which they are overexposed. Overall, the results suggest that incentives for managers to be close to industry benchmarks play an important role in the portfolio allocation of these funds.

Evolving decision models for asset selection in equity portfolio management.

Ghandar, Adam Mostafa
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
This thesis contributes an approach to equity portfolio management using computational intelligence methodologies. The focus is on generating an automated financial reasoning, with a basis in financial research, through searching a space of semantically meaningful propositions. The objective function to compare propositions is defined by a trading simulation. In comparison with classical financial modeling, this approach allows continual adaptation to changing market conditions and a non-linear solution representation. Compared with other computational intelligence approaches, the focus is on a holistic design that integrates financial research with machine learning. A major aim of the thesis is to develop methodologies for learning investment decision models for portfolio management that can adapt with market processes, the applications performance and the environment. It is toward this goal that we make use of a cross-disciplinary approach that combines an evolving fuzzy system with financial theory to perform key procedures at the conceptual level (as opposed to the execution of trades, storing information, etc.) We evaluate the methods developed in out of sample trading over historic data. The testing is designed to be realistic...

Does Asymmetric Information Cause the Home Equity Bias?

Bravo-Ortega, Claudio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
The home equity bias is one of the many puzzles existing in international finance. This puzzle is characterized by the concentration of domestic equity in any investor's portfolio, which is in contradiction with the benchmark of full diversification in a world mutual fund. Based on Admati's (1985) and Gehrig's (1993) noisy rational expectation models, the author tries to explain the effect of asymmetric information in the home equity bias puzzle. While asymmetric information helps to explain the puzzle for the case of one domestic, and one foreign equity, this result relies on very restrictive assumptions. Using a model with one domestic asset and two foreign assets, the author illustrates that asymmetries of information are also consistent with home equity bias reversals. One proposition generalizes these results. Simulations corroborate the main theoretical predictions of the model presented by the author.

Global Development Finance 2011 : External Debt of Developing Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
The World Bank's Debtor Reporting System (DRS), from which the aggregates and country tables presented in this report are drawn, was established in 1951. The debt crisis of the 1980s brought increased attention to debt statistics and to the World debt tables, the predecessor to Global development finance. Now the global financial crisis has once again heightened awareness in developing countries of the importance of managing their external obligations. International capital flows to the 128 developing countries reporting to the World Bank Debtor Reporting System (DRS) fell by 20 percent in 2009 to $598 billion (3.7 percent of Gross National Income (GNI), compared with $744 billion in 2008 (4.5 percent of GNI) and a little over half the peak level of $1,111 billion realized in 2007. Private flows (debt and equity) declined by 27 percent despite a rebound in bond issuance, portfolio equity flows, and short-term debt flows. Both foreign direct investment (FDI) flows and bank lending fell precipitously. By contrast, the net inflow of debt-related financing from official creditors (excluding grants) rose 175 percent as support was stepped up to low- and middle-income countries severely affected by the global financial crisis.

IFC Annual Report 2010 : Where Innovation Meets Impact, Volume 2. IFC Financials, Projects, and Portfolio 2010; Rapport annuel d'IFC 2010 : lieu de renconte entre innovation et impact Relatorio anual da IFC 2010 : quando a inovacao encontra o impacto Informe anual de IFC 2010 : donde la innovacion produce un impacto

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: World Bank Annual Report
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
More than 200 million people in the developing world were out of work this year. Over 1 billion are hungry, while millions more are confronting the threat that climate change poses. The United Nations estimates that 884 million people don't have safe drinking water and more than 2.6 billion people lack basic sanitation. The population of the developing world will expand by a third over the next four decades, growth that will strain already weak infrastructure. In this environment, International Finance Corporation (IFC) is innovating to create opportunity where it's needed most. IFC committed a record $18 billion in fiscal year 2010, $12.7 billion of which was for own account. We invested in 528 projects, an 18 percent increase from FY09. Advisory Services portfolio comprised 736 active projects valued at more than $850 million, with annual expenditures totaling $268 million. Countries served by the International Development Association, or IDA, accounted for nearly half our investments 255 projects totaling $4.9 billion and more than 60 percent of Advisory Services expenditures. Sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 19 percent of our investment commitments and 25 percent of Advisory Services expenditures. The invested a record $1.64 billion in clean energy...

IFC Annual Report 2009 : Creating Opportunity Where It's Needed Most, Volume 2. Financials, Projects, and Portfolio

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: World Bank Annual Report
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.77%
International Finance Corporation (IFC) is an international organization, established in 1956, to further economic growth in its developing member countries by promoting private sector development. IFC's principal investment products are loans and equity investments, with smaller debt securities and guarantee portfolios. IFC also plays a catalytic role in mobilizing additional funding from other investors and lenders, either through co financing or through loan participations, underwritings, and guarantees. In addition to project finance, corporate lending and resource mobilization, IFC offers an array of financial products and advisory services to private businesses in the developing world to increase their chances of success. It also advises governments on how to create an environment hospitable to the growth of private enterprise and foreign investment. IFC raises virtually all of the funds for its lending activities through the issuance of debt obligations in the international capital markets, while maintaining a small borrowing window with International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). The management discussion and analysis contains forward looking statements which may be identified by such terms as 'anticipates...

IFC Annual Report 2008 : Creating Opportunity, Volume 2. IFC 2008 Financials, Projects, and Portfolio; Crear oportunidades : informe annual report 2008 Criacao de oportunidades : velatorio anual 2008 Creer des opportunites : rapport annuel 2008

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: World Bank Annual Report; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) annual report continues an approach pioneered last year, combining information on the investments and advisory services, sustainability, development effectiveness, and donor partnerships. The report covers fiscal 2008 (July 1, 2007, through June 30, 2008) and discusses the year's new business as well as the performance and development results of the portfolio. In FY08, new investments totaled $16.2 billion, rising 34 percent from the previous year. The IFC seeks to enhance the accountability and to articulate the vision, core corporate values, purpose, and the way the IFC works for a wide range of stakeholders: client companies, governments, partners, local communities affected by the activities, advocacy organizations, investors, and the staff.

Is There a Distress Risk Anomaly? Corporate Bond Spread as a Proxy for Default Risk

Anginer, Deniz; Yildizhan, Celim
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.94%
Although financial theory suggests a positive relationship between default risk and equity returns, recent empirical papers find anomalously low returns for stocks with high probabilities of default. The authors show that returns to distressed stocks previously documented are really an amalgamation of anomalies associated with three stock characteristics -- leverage, volatility and profitability. In this paper they use a market based measure -- corporate credit spreads -- to proxy for default risk. Unlike previously used measures that proxy for a firm's real-world probability of default, credit spreads proxy for a risk-adjusted (or a risk-neutral) probability of default and thereby explicitly account for the systematic component of distress risk. The authors show that credit spreads predict corporate defaults better than previously used measures, such as, bond ratings, accounting variables and structural model parameters. They do not find default risk to be significantly priced in the cross-section of equity returns. There is also no evidence of firms with high default risk delivering anomalously low returns.

Equity and Growth in a Globalizing World : Commission on Growth and Development

Kanbur, Ravi; Spence, Michael
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
The commission on growth and development was established in April 2006 in response to two insights: people do not talk about growth enough, and when they do, they speak with unearned conviction. The workshops turned out to be intense, lively affairs, lasting up to three days. It became clear that experts do not always agree, even on issues that are central to growth. But the Commission had no wish to disguise or gloss over these uncertainties and differences. And it did not want to present a false confidence in its conclusions beyond that justified by the evidence. While researchers will continue to improve people's understanding of the world, policy makers cannot wait for scholars to satisfy all of their doubts or resolve their differences. Decisions must be made with only partial knowledge of the world. One consequence is that most policy decisions, however well informed, take on the character of experiments, which yield useful information about the way the world works, even if they do not always turn out the way policy makers had hoped. It is good to recognize this fact...

Portfolio Preferences of Foreign Institutional Ivestors

Aggarwal, Reena; Klapper, Leora; Wysocki, Peter D.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.81%
The authors examine the relationship between foreign investment and the attributes of emerging market countries and firms in which investment is made. Their findings indicate that countries with higher levels of economic development and floating exchange rate regimes tend to have greater ability to obtain foreign capital. After controlling for the country's level of economic development, they find that firms in countries with stronger shareholder rights and legal framework attract more foreign capital. The authors also find that foreign institutions allocate more of their assets to firms with better corporate governance after controlling for other country and firm attributes. The main firm-level measures of corporate governance are derived from accounting quality variables. Their results imply that steps can be taken both at the country and the firm level to create an environment conducive to foreign portfolio investment. The analysis is based on a unique dataset consisting of equity positions of U.S. mutual funds in emerging markets.

Comparação entre gestão activa e gestão passiva de um portfolio de acções: um estudo empírico com base no psi 20

Oliveira, Vitor Manuel Branco
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /03/2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
Mestrado em Finanças; Este trabalho visa avaliar o contributo de uma gestão activa comparativamente a uma gestão passiva no desempenho de determinado portfolio, composto por acções do PSI20. A gestão activa teve em conta uma carteira de acções determinada com base no modelo de Markowitz, enquanto que, a gestão passiva tem por base uma carteira composta por acções com proporções iguais. Na gestão activa, as proporções a investir nos activos foram revistas tendo em conta a evolução do mercado, numa base mensal. No entanto, a determinação das ponderações óptimas teve em atenção diferentes cenários em "sistema de janela". Como segundo objectivo, foi definido o estudo do impacto dos custos de intermediação financeira na performance de ambos os portfolios anteriores. Foram utilizados títulos cotados do PSI 20 durante um período de 11 anos (entre 1 de Janeiro de 1996 e 31 de Dezembro de 2006). As conclusões mostram que não compensa optar por uma gestão activa face a uma gestão passiva, quando a carteira objecto da gestão seja composta por activos cotados no PSI20. Para esta conclusão contribuem dois factores: os custos de intermediação financeira e os erros cometidos na estimação dos principais inputs para cálculo das ponderações óptimas da carteira. A melhor opção revelou-se no investimento no índice de Mercado (PSI 20).; The goal of this Thesis is to evaluate the contribution of an active management versus passive management to the portfolio performance...