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Epigenetics: the functional memory of ribosomal genes

Viegas, Wanda; Silva, Manuela; Neves, Nuno
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
The functional importance of Epigenetics arise from DNA sequencing programs that show the need for another code to explain the dynamics of gene expression patterns observed along cell differentiation and organism development. In this context, the study of ribosomal gene silencing is in fact an excellent model to better understand the relationships that are established between gene transcription and chromatin topology, and to unravel the epigenetic switches evolved in the framework of gene expression.

The prima donna of epigenetics: the regulation of gene expression by DNA methylation

Santos,K.F.; Mazzola,T.N.; Carvalho,H.F.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2005 EN
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36.74%
This review focuses on the mechanisms of DNA methylation, DNA methylation pattern formation and their involvement in gene regulation. Association of DNA methylation with imprinting, embryonic development and human diseases is discussed. Furthermore, besides considering changes in DNA methylation as mechanisms of disease, the role of epigenetics in general and DNA methylation in particular in transgenerational carcinogenesis, in memory formation and behavior establishment are brought about as mechanisms based on the cellular memory of gene expression patterns.

Epigenetics and genetic determinism

Burbano,Hernán A.
Fonte: Casa de Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Casa de Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
This paper posits that the gene-centered viewpoint of the organism (gene-centrism) is not enough to explain biological complexity. Organisms are not completely determined by their genomes; rather, living beings can be seen as interpreters or intentional systems. Epigenetics is the framework that allows the avoidance of gene-centrism and permits the emergence of a more holistic standpoint where determination and novelty can coexist, as shown with examples taken from developmental biology and macromolecules folding. In summary, as P. Medawar and J. Medawar wrote: "Genetics proposes; epigenetics disposes."

A role for epigenetics in hearing: Establishment and maintenance of auditory specific gene expression patterns

Provenzano, Matthew J.; Domann, Frederick E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.08%
Epigenetics is a large and diverse field encompassing a number of different mechanisms essential to development, DNA stability and gene expression. DNA methylation and histone modifications work individually and in conjunction with each other leading to phenotypic changes. An overwhelming amount of evidence exists demonstrating the essential nature of epigenetics to human biology and pathology. This field has spawned a vast array of knowledge, techniques and pharmaceuticals designed to investigate and manipulate epigenetic phenomena. Despite its centricity to molecular biology, little work has been conducted examining how epigenetics affects hearing. In this review, we discuss both the basic tenants of epigenetics and highlight the most recent advances in this field. We discuss its importance to human development, genomic stability, gene expression, epigenetic modifying agents as well as briefly introduce the expansive field of cancer epigenetics. We then examine the evidence of a role for epigenetics in hearing related processes and hearing loss. The article concludes with a discussion of areas of epigenetic research that could be applied to hearing research.

Epigenetics of Host–Pathogen Interactions: The Road Ahead and the Road Behind

Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Jordà, Mireia; Peinado, Miguel Angel; Rivero, Ana
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.96%
A growing body of evidence points towards epigenetic mechanisms being responsible for a wide range of biological phenomena, from the plasticity of plant growth and development to the nutritional control of caste determination in honeybees and the etiology of human disease (e.g., cancer). With the (partial) elucidation of the molecular basis of epigenetic variation and the heritability of certain of these changes, the field of evolutionary epigenetics is flourishing. Despite this, the role of epigenetics in shaping host–pathogen interactions has received comparatively little attention. Yet there is plenty of evidence supporting the implication of epigenetic mechanisms in the modulation of the biological interaction between hosts and pathogens. The phenotypic plasticity of many key parasite life-history traits appears to be under epigenetic control. Moreover, pathogen-induced effects in host phenotype may have transgenerational consequences, and the bases of these changes and their heritability probably have an epigenetic component. The significance of epigenetic modifications may, however, go beyond providing a mechanistic basis for host and pathogen plasticity. Epigenetic epidemiology has recently emerged as a promising area for future research on infectious diseases. In addition...

Epigenetics-related genes in prostate cancer: Expression profile in prostate cancer tissues, androgen-sensitive and -insensitive cell lines

SHAIKHIBRAHIM, ZAKI; LINDSTROT, ANDREAS; OCHSENFAHRT, JACQUELINE; FUCHS, KERSTIN; WERNERT, NICOLAS
Fonte: D.A. Spandidos Publicador: D.A. Spandidos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.96%
Epigenetic changes have been suggested to drive prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to identify novel epigenetics-related genes in PCa tissues, and to examine their expression in metastatic PCa cell lines. We analyzed the expression of epigenetics-related genes via a clustering analysis based on gene function in moderately and poorly differentiated PCa glands compared to normal glands of the peripheral zone (prostate proper) from PCa patients using Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarrays. Our analysis identified 12 epigenetics-related genes with a more than 2-fold increase or decrease in expression and a p-value <0.01. In moderately differentiated tumors compared to normal glands of the peripheral zone, we found the genes, TDRD1, IGF2, DICER1, ADARB1, HILS1, GLMN and TRIM27, to be upregulated, whereas TNRC6A and DGCR8 were found to be downregulated. In poorly differentiated tumors, we found TDRD1, ADARB and RBM3 to be upregulated, whereas DGCR8, PIWIL2 and BC069781 were downregulated. Our analysis of the expression level for each gene in the metastatic androgen-sensitive VCaP and LNCaP, and -insensitive PC3 and DU-145 PCa cell lines revealed differences in expression among the cell lines which may reflect the different biological properties of each cell line...

Epigenetics—DNA-Based Mirror of our Environment?

Cooney, Craig A.
Fonte: IOS Press Publicador: IOS Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.08%
Epigenetics affects health, appearance and behavior and propagates mammalian phenotypes across generations. Nutrients, drugs and behavior can all direct changes in epigenetics. In at least some cases, these directed changes are propagated across generations. This range of influences on epigenetics suggests that epigenetics is highly interactive with the environment. Changes in the environment may regularly change epigenetics and influence our future responses to the environment. The current research challenge is to understand these influences and use them to direct epigenetics toward improved health and longevity.

Mapping the new molecular landscape: social dimensions of epigenetics

Pickersgill, Martyn; Niewöhner, Jörg; Müller, Ruth; Martin, Paul; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.03%
Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the DNA itself. The field is rapidly growing and being widely promoted, attracting attention in diverse arenas. These include those of the social sciences, where some researchers have been encouraged by the resonance between imaginaries of development within epigenetics and social theory. Yet, sustained attention from science and technology studies (STS) scholars to epigenetics and the praxis it propels has been lacking. In this article, we reflexively consider some of the ways in which epigenetics is being constructed as an area of biomedical novelty and discuss the content and logics underlying the ambivalent promises being made by scientists working in this area. We then reflect on the scope, limits and future of engagements between epigenetics and the social sciences. Our discussion is situated within wider literatures on biomedicine and society, the politics of “interventionist STS,” and on the problems of “caseness” within empirical social science.

Molecular Epigenetics in the Management of Ovarian Cancer: Are We Investigating a Rational Clinical Promise?

Nguyen, Ha T.; Tian, Geng; Murph, Mandi M.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.08%
Epigenetics is essentially a phenotypical change in gene expression without any alteration of the DNA sequence; the emergence of epigenetics in cancer research and mainstream oncology is fueling new hope. However, it is not yet known whether this knowledge will translate to improved clinical management of ovarian cancer. In this malignancy, women are still undergoing chemotherapy similar to what was approved in 1978, which to this day represents one of the biggest breakthroughs for treating ovarian cancer. Although liquid tumors are benefiting from epigenetically related therapies, solid tumors like ovarian cancer are not (yet?). Herein, we will review the science of molecular epigenetics, especially DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA, but also include transcription factors since they, too, are important in ovarian cancer. Pre-clinical and clinical research on the role of epigenetic modifications is also summarized. Unfortunately, ovarian cancer remains an idiopathic disease, for the most part, and there are many areas of patient management, which could benefit from improved technology. This review will also highlight the evidence suggesting that epigenetics may have pre-clinical utility in pharmacology and clinical applications for prognosis and diagnosis. Finally...

The social brain meets the reactive genome: neuroscience, epigenetics and the new social biology

Meloni, Maurizio
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/05/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.08%
The rise of molecular epigenetics over the last few years promises to bring the discourse about the sociality and susceptibility to environmental influences of the brain to an entirely new level. Epigenetics deals with molecular mechanisms such as gene expression, which may embed in the organism “memories” of social experiences and environmental exposures. These changes in gene expression may be transmitted across generations without changes in the DNA sequence. Epigenetics is the most advanced example of the new postgenomic and context-dependent view of the gene that is making its way into contemporary biology. In my article I will use the current emergence of epigenetics and its link with neuroscience research as an example of the new, and in a way unprecedented, sociality of contemporary biology. After a review of the most important developments of epigenetic research, and some of its links with neuroscience, in the second part I reflect on the novel challenges that epigenetics presents for the social sciences for a re-conceptualization of the link between the biological and the social in a postgenomic age. Although epigenetics remains a contested, hyped, and often uncritical terrain, I claim that especially when conceptualized in broader non-genecentric frameworks...

Recent developments on the role of epigenetics in obesity and metabolic disease

van Dijk, S.J.; Tellam, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Muhlhausler, B.S.; Molloy, P.L.
Fonte: Biomed Central Publicador: Biomed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
The increased prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities is a major public health problem. While genetic factors undoubtedly play a role in determining individual susceptibility to weight gain and obesity, the identified genetic variants only explain part of the variation. This has led to growing interest in understanding the potential role of epigenetics as a mediator of gene-environment interactions underlying the development of obesity and its associated comorbidities. Initial evidence in support of a role of epigenetics in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was mainly provided by animal studies, which reported epigenetic changes in key metabolically important tissues following high-fat feeding and epigenetic differences between lean and obese animals and by human studies which showed epigenetic changes in obesity and T2DM candidate genes in obese/diabetic individuals. More recently, advances in epigenetic methodologies and the reduced cost of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have led to a rapid expansion of studies in human populations. These studies have also reported epigenetic differences between obese/T2DM adults and healthy controls and epigenetic changes in association with nutritional, weight loss...

Challenges and perspectives to enhance cattle production via in vitro techniques: focus on epigenetics and cell-secreted vesicles

Bressan,Fabiana Fernandes; Fantinato-Neto,Paulo; Andrade,Gabriella Mamede; Sangalli,Juliano Rodrigues; Sampaio,Rafael Vilar; Silveira,Juliano Coelho da; Perecin,Felipe; Meirelles,Flávio Vieira
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
This review aim to present some clinical problems found in IVP-derived animals focusing on NT procedures and to discuss the possible role of epigenetics in such process. Also, as cell-secreted vesicles have been reported as possible regulators of important physiological reproductive processes such as folliculogenesis and fertilization, it is also presented herein a new perspective of manipulating the pre-implantation period trough effector molecules contained in such vesicles.

Epigenetics and human obesity

Van Dijk, S.J.; Molloy, P.L.; Varinli, H.; Morrison, J.L.; Muhlhausler, B.S.; Buckley, M.; Clark, S.J.; McMillen, I.C.; Noakes, M.; Samaras, K.; Tellam, R.L.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
BACKGROUND: Recent technological advances in epigenome profiling have led to an increasing number of studies investigating the role of the epigenome in obesity. There is also evidence that environmental exposures during early life can induce persistent alterations in the epigenome, which may lead to an increased risk of obesity later in life. METHOD: This paper provides a systematic review of studies investigating the association between obesity and either global, site-specific or genome-wide methylation of DNA. Studies on the impact of pre- and postnatal interventions on methylation and obesity are also reviewed. We discuss outstanding questions, and introduce EpiSCOPE, a multidisciplinary research program aimed at increasing the understanding of epigenetic changes in emergence of obesity. RESULTS: An electronic search for relevant articles, published between September 2008 and September 2013 was performed. From the 319 articles identified, 46 studies were included and reviewed. The studies provided no consistent evidence for a relationship between global methylation and obesity. The studies did identify multiple obesity-associated differentially methylated sites, mainly in blood cells. Extensive, but small, alterations in methylation at specific sites were observed in weight loss intervention studies...

Epigenetics: a new frontier in dentistry

Williams, S.D.; Hughes, T.E.; Adler, C.J.; Brook, A.H.; Townsend, G.C.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
In 2007, only four years after the completion of the Human Genome Project, the journal Science announced that epigenetics was the 'breakthrough of the year'. Time magazine placed it second in the top 10 discoveries of 2009. While our genetic code (i.e. our DNA) contains all of the information to produce the elements we require to function, our epigenetic code determines when and where genes in the genetic code are expressed. Without the epigenetic code, the genetic code is like an orchestra without a conductor. Although there is now a substantial amount of published research on epigenetics in medicine and biology, epigenetics in dental research is in its infancy. However, epigenetics promises to become increasingly relevant to dentistry because of the role it plays in gene expression during development and subsequently potentially influencing oral disease susceptibility. This paper provides a review of the field of epigenetics aimed specifically at oral health professionals. It defines epigenetics, addresses the underlying concepts and provides details about specific epigenetic molecular mechanisms. Further, we discuss some of the key areas where epigenetics is implicated, and review the literature on epigenetics research in dentistry...

Epigenetics meets endocrinology

Zhang, Xiang; Ho, Shuk-Mei
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.08%
Although genetics determines endocrine phenotypes, it cannot fully explain the great variability and reversibility of the system in response to environmental changes. Evidence now suggests that epigenetics, i.e. heritable but reversible changes in gene function without changes in nucleotide sequence, links genetics and environment in shaping endocrine function. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA, partition the genome into active and inactive domains based on endogenous and exogenous environmental changes and developmental stages, creating phenotype plasticity that can explain interindividual and population endocrine variability. We will review the current understanding of epigenetics in endocrinology, specifically, the regulation by epigenetics of the three levels of hormone action (synthesis and release, circulating and target tissue levels, and target-organ responsiveness) and the epigenetic action of endocrine disruptors. We will also discuss the impacts of hormones on epigenetics. We propose a three-dimensional model (genetics, environment, and developmental stage) to explain the phenomena related to progressive changes in endocrine functions with age, the early origin of endocrine disorders...

Scrutinizing the epigenetics revolution

Meloni, Maurizio; Testa, Giuseppe
Fonte: Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Palgrave Macmillan
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.08%
Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the life sciences. Its rise is frequently framed as a revolutionary turn that heralds a new epoch both for gene-based epistemology and for the wider discourse on life that pervades knowledge-intensive societies of the molecular age. The fundamentals of this revolution remain however to be scrutinized, and indeed the very contours of what counts as ‘epigenetic' are often blurred. This is reflected also in the mounting discourse on the societal implications of epigenetics, in which vast expectations coexist with significant uncertainty about what aspects of this science are most relevant for politics or policy alike. This is therefore a suitable time to reflect on the directions that social theory could most productively take in the scrutiny of this revolution. Here we take this opportunity in both its scholarly and normative dimension, that is, proposing a roadmap for social theorizing on epigenetics that does not shy away from, and indeed hopefully guides, the framing of its most socially relevant outputs. To this end, we start with an epistemological reappraisal of epigenetic discourse that valorizes the blurring of meanings as a critical asset for the field and privileged analytical entry point. We then propose three paths of investigation. The first looks at the structuring elements of controversies and visions around epigenetics. The second probes the mutual constitution between the epigenetic reordering of living phenomena and the normative settlements that orient individual and collective responsibilities. The third highlights the material import of epigenetics and the molecularization of culture that it mediates. We suggest that these complementary strands provide both an epistemically and socially self-reflective framework to advance the study of epigenetics as a molecular juncture between nature and nurture and thus as the new critical frontier in the social studies of the life sciences.

Review of Epigenetics: A Reference Manual: A book edited by Jeffrey M. Craig and Nicholas C. Wong

Banister, Carolyn E.
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/2012 EN
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27.03%
The study of epigenetics has experienced exponential growth in the past 15 years and continues to be a major focus of study across biological disciplines. A new reference text Epigenetics: A Reference Manual, published by Caister Academic Press and edited by Jeffrey M. Craig and Nicholas C. Wong (Developmental Epigenetics Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Victoria, Australia), presents a current and comprehensive look into the many facets of epigenetics research. The information targets a wide scientific audience and accommodates the expectations of both the novice and expert alike. Scientists with an inquisitive interest in epigenetics will appreciate the thorough description of epigenetic mechanisms with little a priori knowledge required. Scientists working in the field will find the current techniques, description of the technologies and resource tools valuable. With an ever evolving and expanding research field, the established epigenetic investigator will appreciate a centralized tome containing reviews across epigenetic mechanism and model system.

Epigenetics and obesity: the reproduction of habitus through Intracellular and social environments

Warin, M.J.; Moore, V.; Davies, M.; Ulijaszek, S.
Fonte: SAGE Publicador: SAGE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
Bourdieu suggested that the habitus contains the ‘genetic information’ which both allows and disposes successive generations to reproduce the world they inherit from their parents’ generation. While his writings on habitus are concerned with embodied dispositions, biological processes are not a feature of the practical reason of habitus. Recent critiques of the separate worlds of biology and culture, and the rise in epigenetics, provide new opportunities for expanding theoretical concepts like habitus. Using obesity science as a case study we attempt to conceptualise the enfolding of biological and social processes (via a Deleuzian metaphor) to develop a concept of biohabitus – reconfiguring how social and biological environments interact across the life course, and may be transmitted and transformed intergenerationally. In conclusion we suggest that the enfolding and reproduction of social life that Bourdieu articulated as habitus is a useful theoretical frame that can be enhanced to critically develop epigenetic understandings of obesity, and vice versa.; Megan Warin, Vivienne Moore, Michael Davies, Stanley Ulijaszek; Published online before print June 29, 2015

Epigenetics: A Paradigm Shift or Tweaking the Details?

Barber, Emily
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' thesis
Publicado em 12/05/2015 EN_US
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37.14%

*Designated as an Exemplary Final Project for 2014-15*

We know that our lifestyle choices and experiences can influence our health: the food we eat, the environment we live in, and the social relationships we form can all have an impact on our development and health. But what if events that occur before we are even born, during our early stages of development, or even before we are conceived, determine our health in adulthood? What if our life experiences affect the health of our future, unborn descendants? Epigenetics is a field that gives us insight into the relationship between our surrounding environment and our genetic makeup, addressing the nature-nurture interaction. Epigenetics is the study of the regulation of genes, specifically how genes are activated--or turned on--and deactivated--turned off. Environmental factors such as stress, nutrition, pollution, toxins, and many others, can affect the regulation of genes without altering the genome, and this dysregulation can lead to the development of disease states. Epigenetics describes how these environmental factors can become molecularly embodied in our cells. With this new field we must ask: to what extent (if at all) does epigenetics fundamentally change our way of thinking about human (1) mental and (2) physical health? Do new insights into epigenetic processes represent a paradigm shift...

The complex interplay of genetics, epigenetics, and environment in the predisposition to alcohol dependence

Díaz-Anzaldúa,Adriana; Díaz-Martínez,Alejandro; Díaz-Martínez,Leonila Rosa
Fonte: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Publicador: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
Alcohol dependence is a major global problem, associated with lower quality of physical and mental health, higher mortality and an enormous familial and social cost. Prevention strategies and treatment of this condition are therefore crucial. Success of psychosocial programs and pharmacological treatments has been frequently reported, but a better understanding of the etiology of this chronic disease is needed. For this purpose, the identification of associated factors in different populations is of great significance. It has been clearly demonstrated by twin and adoption studies and supported by animal models that both genetic and environmental components play a substancial role in alcohol dependence. Heritabil ity estimates range from 40 to 60%, depending on the specific analyzed sample. Several coexisting genetic variants in each affected individual, rather than a single gene transmitted in a Mendelian manner, may be the rule in alcohol dependence. Similarly, many environmental factors can increase susceptibility, and because of their diversity, they do not have to be the same in every affected person. Environmental contribution may be linked to epigenetics, which refers to chemical processes that can modify gene activity without changing the sequence of DNA. In humans...