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Epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Latin America: current situation and opportunities for prevention

SAFADI, Marco Aurelio Palazzi; CINTRA, Otavio Augusto Leite
Fonte: MANEY PUBLISHING Publicador: MANEY PUBLISHING
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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36.39%
Objective: Meningococcal disease continues to be a serious public health concern, being associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in many countries from Latin America. In addition to discussing recent changes in the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in the region, we also analyse the development and potential impact of new vaccines on the prevention of meningococcal disease. Methods: MEDLINE, SciELO, LILACS and websites of the national Ministries of Health databases were searched using the terms meningococcal disease, meningococcal epidemiology, Neisseria meningitidis, meningococcal vaccines and the name of Latin America countries, from 1998 to 2008, with emphasis on review articles, clinical trials and epidemiological studies. Results: Epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Latin America is characterized by marked differences from country to country. The overall incidence of meningococcal disease per year varied from less than 0.1 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in countries like Mexico to two cases per 100,000 inhabitants in Brazil. The highest age-specific incidence of meningococcal disease occurred in infants less than 1 year of age. Serogroups B and C were responsible for the majority of cases reported, but the emergence of serogroups W135 and Y was reported in some countries. Serogroup A disease is now rare in Latin America. Discussion: Although a few countries have established meningitis surveillance programs...

Epidemiologia comparativa de três viroses em abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo L.); Comparative epidemiology of three viruses on zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)

Moreira, Alécio Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/01/2011 PT
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A abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo L.), espécie pertencente à família Cucurbitaceae, apresenta significativa participação na produção mundial e brasileira desta família de plantas. Porém, como em toda cultura de importância econômica, as cucurbitáceas apresentam problemas fitossanitários causados por diferentes agentes etiológicos. Na produção brasileira de abóboras, já foi constatada a presença de 8 vírus, dentre eles os potyvirus PRSV-W (Papaya ringspot virus-type W) e ZYMV (Zucchini yellow mosaic virus) e o tospovirus ZLCV (Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus) têm sido considerados os mais importantes pela predominância em diversas regiões produtoras de cucurbitáceas no país e pelos consideráveis prejuízos que geralmente causam à produção. Considerando que a maioria dos estudos epidemiológicos existentes sobre estas três viroses são poucos e fragmentados, percebe-se que não há estudos que abordam em conjunto todos os parâmetros epidemiológicos de tais vírus. Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar o progresso temporal e espacial destas três viroses e verificar a relação entre a epidemiologia das mesmas em campo de abobrinha de moita, além de melhor entender o patossistema em que a clorose letal (causada pelo ZLCV) está inserida Para isso...

A contribuição da epidemiologia de campo para o estudo das doenças infecciosas e a saude publica; The contributions of field epidemiology to the estudy of infectious diseases and public health

Alexandre Macedo de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/05/2007 PT
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A epidemiologia de campo corresponde ao ramo da ciência que usa estratégias de epidemiologia clássica com o objetivo de controlar um problema de saúde pública e assim melhorar a condição de vida de uma população. Além da epidemiologia clássica, o epidemiologista de campo precisa usar conhecimentos de outras áreas como economia, antropologia, ciências sociais e comunicação para planejar e implementar medidas de controle, alcançando assim seus objetivos. As limitações nos estudos de epidemiologia de campo são muitas, mas é dever do profissional dessa área manter o rigor científico e ser criativo a fim de garantir a qualidade do seu trabalho. Mesmo sem o propósito inicial de avançar o conhecimento científico, investigações de campo oferecem oportunidades únicas para tal. Apresentamos três trabalhos de epidemiologia de campo no âmbito das doenças infecciosas, seus processos de investigação e suas implicações para saúde pública. O primeiro deles é a investigação de um surto de hepatite C numa clínica de hemato/oncologia. A investigação foi capaz de identificar 99 casos de hepatite C relacionados à referida clínica. A transmissão ocorreu através da contaminação de bolsas de solução salina pelo desrespeito às práticas de controle de infecção em serviços de saúde. Esse fato ressalta os desafios em implementar medidas de controle de infecção em serviços de saúde ambulatoriais e aprimorar a vigilância epidemiológica da hepatite C com fins à detecção precoce de surtos. O segundo trabalho é também fruto da investigação do surto de hepatite C. Fomos capazes de avaliar a sensibilidade dos testes sorológicos para hepatite C em pacientes oncológicos. Encontramos sensibilidade de 83% dos referidos testes...

Spatiotemporal epidemiology in the identification of critical areas: an application to tuberculosis

Nunes, Carla; Gomes, Dulce; Filipe, Patrícia; Areias, Cristiana; Sousa, Bruno; Briz, Teodoro
Fonte: European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol.27, Supplement 1, p.S149 Publicador: European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol.27, Supplement 1, p.S149
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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The increasing relevance of spatiotemporal epidemiology, enhanced by a greater availability of geographical information and the growing importance of knowing where, when and how the health phenomena occurred in a spatiotemporal context, promotes more scientifically robust and effective early intervention. The identification of critical areas, either in terms of their higher incidence of a disease, or their intensity of determinants, is crucial to assess them for priorities setting.

Changing Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Small Geographic Area over an Eight-Year Period▿

Blanc, D. S.; Petignat, C.; Wenger, A.; Kuhn, G.; Vallet, Y.; Fracheboud, D.; Trachsel, S.; Reymond, M.; Troillet, N.; Siegrist, H. H.; Oeuvray, S.; Bes, M.; Etienne, J.; Bille, J.; Francioli, P.; Zanetti, G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at an international level shows that most MRSA strains belong to a few pandemic clones. At the local level, a predominance of one or two clones was generally reported. However, the situation is evolving and new clones are emerging worldwide, some of them with specific biological characteristics, such as the presence of Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL). Understanding these changes at the local and international levels is of great importance. Our objective was to analyze the evolution of MRSA epidemiology at multiple sites on a local level (Western Switzerland) over a period of 8 years. Data were based on MRSA reports from seven sentinel laboratories and infection control programs covering different areas. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to type MRSA isolates. From 1997 to 2004, a total of 2,256 patients with MRSA were reported. Results showed the presence of four predominant clones (accounting for 86% of patients), which could be related to known international clones (Berlin, New York/Japan, Southern Germany, and Iberian clones). Within the small geographic region, the 8-year follow-up period in the different areas showed spacio-temporal differences in the relative proportions of the four clones. Other international MRSA clones...

The evolving discipline of molecular epidemiology of cancer

Spitz, Margaret R.; Bondy, Melissa L.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Classical epidemiologic studies have made seminal contributions to identifying the etiology of most common cancers. Molecular epidemiology was conceived of as an extension of traditional epidemiology to incorporate biomarkers with questionnaire data to further our understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Early molecular epidemiologic studies employed functional assays. These studies were hampered by the need for sequential and/or prediagnostic samples, viable lymphocytes and the uncertainty of how well these functional data (derived from surrogate lymphocytic tissue) reflected events in the target tissue. The completion of the Human Genome Project and Hapmap Project, together with the unparalleled advances in high-throughput genotyping revolutionized the practice of molecular epidemiology. Early studies had been constrained by existing technology to use the hypothesis-driven candidate gene approach, with disappointing results. Pathway analysis addressed some of the concerns, although the study of interacting and overlapping gene networks remained a challenge. Whole-genome scanning approaches were designed as agnostic studies using a dense set of markers to capture much of the common genome variation to study germ-line genetic variation as risk factors for common complex diseases. It should be possible to exploit the wealth of these data for pharmacogenetic studies to realize the promise of personalized therapy. Going forward...

Inadequacies of Minimum Spanning Trees in Molecular Epidemiology▿

Salipante, Stephen J.; Hall, Barry G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2011 EN
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Minimum spanning trees (MSTs) are frequently used in molecular epidemiology research to estimate relationships among individual strains or isolates. Nevertheless, there are significant caveats to MST algorithms that have been largely ignored in molecular epidemiology studies and that have the potential to confound or alter the interpretation of the results of those analyses. Specifically, (i) presenting a single, arbitrarily selected MST illustrates only one of potentially many equally optimal solutions, and (ii) statistical metrics are not used to assess the credibility of MST estimations. Here, we survey published MSTs previously used to infer microbial population structure in order to determine the effect of these factors. We propose a technique to estimate the number of alternative MSTs for a data set and find that multiple MSTs exist for each case in our survey. By implementing a bootstrapping metric to evaluate the reliability of alternative MST solutions, we discover that they encompass a wide range of credibility values. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that current approaches to studying population structure using MSTs are inadequate. We instead propose a systematic approach to MST estimation that bases analyses on the optimal computation of an input distance matrix...

Training and Service in Public Health, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training, 2008 – 2014

Nguku, Patrick; Oyemakinde, Akin; Sabitu, Kabir; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Babirye, Rebecca; Gitta, Sheba; Mukanga, David; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Gana, Chinyere; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Abubakar, A
Fonte: The African Field Epidemiology Network Publicador: The African Field Epidemiology Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/07/2014 EN
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The health workforce is one of the key building blocks for strengthening health systems. There is an alarming shortage of curative and preventive health care workers in developing countries many of which are in Africa. Africa resultantly records appalling health indices as a consequence of endemic and emerging health issues that are exacerbated by a lack of a public health workforce. In low-income countries, efforts to build public health surveillance and response systems have stalled, due in part, to the lack of epidemiologists and well-trained laboratorians. To strengthen public health systems in Africa, especially for disease surveillance and response, a number of countries have adopted a competency-based approach of training - Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP). The Nigeria FELTP was established in October 2008 as an inservice training program in field epidemiology, veterinary epidemiology and public health laboratory epidemiology and management. The first cohort of NFELTP residents began their training on 20th October 2008 and completed their training in December 2010. The program was scaled up in 2011 and it admitted 39 residents in its third cohort. The program has admitted residents in six annual cohorts since its inception admitting a total of 207 residents as of 2014 covering all the States. In addition the program has trained 595 health care workers in short courses. Since its inception...

Meta-epidemiology

Bae, Jong-Myon
Fonte: Korean Society of Epidemiology Publicador: Korean Society of Epidemiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/09/2014 EN
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The concept of meta-epidemiology has been introduced with considering the methodological limitations of systematic review for intervention trials. The paradigm of meta-epidemiology has shifted from a statistical method into a new methodology to close gaps between evidence and practice. Main interest of meta-epidemiology is to control potential biases in previous quantitative systematic reviews and draw appropriate evidences for establishing evidence-base guidelines. Nowadays, the network meta-epidemiology was suggested in order to overcome some limitations of meta-epidemiology. To activate meta-epidemiologic studies, implementation of tools for risk of bias and reporting guidelines such as the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT) should be done.

Forum: On the limited utility of KAP-style survey data in the practical epidemiology of AIDS

Caldwell, John C; Lane, J.Michael; Cara‘l, Michel; Mertens, Thierry; Cleland, John; Pitt, David
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 38149 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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This issue of Forum presents a debate on Herbert L. Smith’s, ‘On the limited utility of KAP-style survey data in the practical epidemiology of AIDS, with reference to the AIDS epidemic in Chile’, Health Transition Review 3,1,1993. His response to issues raised in this debate will appear in Health Transition Review 4,1,1994.; no

Malaria : old infections, changing epidemiology

Bradley, David J
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 50350 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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The epidemiology of malaria has always varied between different parts of the world because of widely varying vectorial capacity. Mortality from malaria can be measured from clinical records or the rise of mortality during an epidemic, but better from observing the fall of mortality during control or from the population frequency of protective host genes. Holoendemic malaria may have doubled the infant and young-child mortality rate in Africa in the recent past, but death rates have fallen because of chemotherapy. The epidemiological pattern is changing. In the Sahel, water-resource developments tend to lengthen the transmission season, though less than might be expected, and urbanization tends to decrease transmission in Africa, not in Asia. The spread of multiple drug resistance of the parasites is making case management harder and deaths may rise. Malaria control has always been unsatisfactory in sub-Saharan Africa owing to the highly effective vector. The main current hopes for control are the use of the effective insecticideimpregnated bed nets and better case management. No simple concept of an epidemiological transition can reflect the very diverse changes occurring in human malaria worldwide.; no

Proceedings of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference 17-22 November 2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: plenaries and oral presentations

Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mwesiga, Allan; Kamadjeu, Raoul
Fonte: The African Field Epidemiology Network Publicador: The African Field Epidemiology Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/07/2015 EN
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Biennially, trainees and graduates of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) are presented with a platform to share investigations and projects undertaken during their two-year training in Applied Epidemiology. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference, is a perfect opportunity for public health professionals from various sectors and organizations to come together to discuss issues that impact on public health in Africa. This year's conference was organized by the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute in collaboration with the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, Ethiopian Public Health Association (EPHA), Ethiopia Field Epidemiology Training Program (EFETP), Addis Ababa University (AAU), Training Programs in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET) and AFENET. Participants at this year's conference numbered 400 from over 20 countries including; Angola, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen and Zimbabwe. The topics covered in the 144 oral presentations included: global health security, emergency response...

Snippets From the Past: The Evolution of Wade Hampton Frost's Epidemiology as Viewed From the American Journal of Hygiene/Epidemiology

Morabia, Alfredo
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Wade Hampton Frost, who was a Professor of Epidemiology at Johns Hopkins University from 1919 to 1938, spurred the development of epidemiologic methods. His 6 publications in the American Journal of Hygiene, which later became the American Journal of Epidemiology, comprise a 1928 Cutter lecture on a theory of epidemics, a survey-based study of tonsillectomy and immunity to Corynebacterium diphtheriae (1931), 2 papers from a longitudinal study of the incidence of minor respiratory diseases (1933 and 1935), an attack rate ratio analysis of the decline of diphtheria in Baltimore (1936), and a 1936 lecture on the age, time, and cohort analysis of tuberculosis mortality. These 6 American Journal of Hygiene /American Journal of Epidemiology papers attest that Frost's personal evolution mirrored that of the emerging “early” epidemiology: The scope of epidemiology extended beyond the study of epidemics of acute infectious diseases, and rigorous comparative study designs and their associated quantitative methods came to light.

Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014

Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar
Fonte: The African Field Epidemiology Network Publicador: The African Field Epidemiology Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/08/2015 EN
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36.47%
As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3rd African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities.

The African Field Epidemiology Network-Networking for effective field epidemiology capacity building and service delivery

Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mukanga, David; Babirye, Rebecca; Dahlke, Melissa; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Nsubuga, Peter
Fonte: The African Field Epidemiology Network Publicador: The African Field Epidemiology Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/12/2011 EN
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Networks are a catalyst for promoting common goals and objectives of their membership. Public Health networks in Africa are crucial, because of the severe resource limitations that nations face in dealing with priority public health problems. For a long time, networks have existed on the continent and globally, but many of these are disease-specific with a narrow scope. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) is a public health network established in 2005 as a non-profit networking alliance of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) and Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) in Africa. AFENET is dedicated to helping ministries of health in Africa build strong, effective and sustainable programs and capacity to improve public health systems by partnering with global public health experts. The Network's goal is to strengthen field epidemiology and public health laboratory capacity to contribute effectively to addressing epidemics and other major public health problems in Africa. AFENET currently networks 12 FELTPs and FETPs in sub-Saharan Africa with operations in 20 countries. AFENET has a unique tripartite working relationship with government technocrats from human health and animal sectors, academicians from partner universities...

A epidemiologia como referencial teórico-metodológico no processo de trabalho do enfermeiro; La epidemiología como referencial teórico-metodológico en el proceso de trabajo del enfermero; Epidemiology as a theoretical-methodological framework in the nurses' working process

Medeiros, Adeli Regina Prizybicien de; Larocca, Liliana Müller; Chaves, Marta Maria Nolasco; Meier, Marineli Joaquim; Wall, Marilene Loewen
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2012 POR; ENG
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Esta reflexão teve como objetivo compreender a Epidemiologia como referencial teórico-metodológico para a prática da Enfermagem em Saúde Coletiva. O método de pesquisa foi uma investigação bibliográfica, com a análise de artigos e livros de estudiosos que apontam as possibilidades e limites das Epidemiologias clássica, social e crítica, com intuito de aproximar suas concepções à prática do enfermeiro. Discute-se que a articulação dos conhecimentos advindos das supracitadas visões de Epidemiologia possibilita a construção de intervenções de Enfermagem para a transformação de realidades de saúde. A Epidemiologia Crítica ampara-se no reconhecimento dos processos protetores e de desgastes determinantes do processo saúde-doença vividos por grupos de classes sociais distintas. Assim, cabe ao enfermeiro planejar a intervenção em saúde para além do adoecimento identificado, propondo intervenções comprometidas com a mudança de processos históricos e sociais, nas dimensões singular, particular ou estrutural, que acabam por determinar o processo saúde-doença em indivíduos ou grupos.; Reflexión que objetivó comprender la Epidemiología como referencial teórico-metodológico para la práctica de Enfermería en Salud Colectiva. Se realizó una investigación bibliográfica...

Considerações acerca dos fundamentos teóricos da explicação em epidemiología; Considerations concerning the theoretical foundations of explanation in epidemiology

Silva, Luiz Jacintho da
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/1985 POR
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São analisadas as condições históricas do surgimento da epidemiologia como disciplina científica, em meados do século passado. É revista a evolução das bases teóricas do processo explicativo em epidemiologia até o momento atual. Especial atenção é dada ao papel da lógica positivista de Stuart Mill como base teórica da Epidemiologia até recentemente. São discutidas as alternativas teóricas correntes e proposta maior abertura da epidemiologia a diferentes correntes filosóficas como o caminho para o estabelecimento da epidemiologia como uma ciência madura.; The historical conditions surrounding the emergence, by the mid-19th century, of epidemiology as a scientific discipline, were analysed. Special consideration is given to the influence of the political milieu of Victorian England in the definition of the theoretical basis of epidemiology. The English Sanitary Movement is seen as a response of the emerging bourgeoise to problems created by industrialization and urbanization. As a consequence, epidemiology was strongly influenced by Stuart Mill's system of logic. During the latter part of the 19th century, bacteriology brought important transformations to epidemiology. However, its theoretical foundations suffered almost no change. Possibly the new challenges created by -the expanding colonial empires were the driving force in the evolution of epidemiology. As a science...

Historical development of epidemiology and of the concepto of risk; Desenvolvimento histórico da epidemiologia e do conceito de risco

Ayres, José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/09/2009 POR
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A utilização do raciocínio probabilístico nas práticas de saúde foi originalmente introduzida pela epidemiologia e é hoje amplamente utilizado em todas as áreas da medicina. O objetivo deste trabalho foi revisitar o desenvolvimento histórico da epidemiologia e a formalização de seu elemento epistemológico nuclear, o conceito de risco, responsável pela emergência da probabilidade como parte do raciocínio causal nas ciências da saúde. O estudo situa-se na fronteira entre as disciplinas de medicina preventiva e social, história e filosofia das ciências, caracterizando-se como uma epistemologia histórico-crítica. O período de estudo abrangeu os anos de 1872 a 1965 e sua base documental foi constituída por trabalhos de periódicos científicos relacionados à construção do campo epidemiológico, em particular o American Journal of Hygiene, livros, anais de congressos, brochuras científicas etc. Foram identificadas e discutidas três etapas de desenvolvimento da epidemiologia: epidemiologia da constituição, epidemiologia da exposição e epidemiologia do risco, apontando-se aspectos epistemológicos e sócio-culturais relacionados a cada uma delas. Destacou-se a importância da reflexão crítica sobre a ciência epidemiológica...

The use of models in the estimation of disease epidemiology

Kruijshaar,Michelle E.; Barendregt,Jan J.; Hoeymans,Nancy
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2002 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To explore the usefulness of incidence-prevalence-mortality (IPM) models in improving estimates of disease epidemiology. METHODS: Two artificial and four empirical data sets (for breast, prostate, colorectal, and stomach cancer) were employed in IPM models. FINDINGS: The internally consistent artificial data sets could be reproduced virtually identically by the models. Our estimates often differed considerably from the empirical data sets, especially for breast and prostate cancer and for older ages. Only for stomach cancer did the estimates approximate to the data, except at older ages. CONCLUSION: There is evidence that the discrepancies between model estimates and observations are caused both by data inaccuracies and past trends in incidence or mortality. Because IPM models cannot distinguish these effects, their use in improving disease estimates becomes complicated. Expert opinion is indispensable in assessing whether the use of these models improves data quality or, inappropriately, removes the effect of trends.

Psychiatric epidemiology: selected recent advances and future directions

Kessler,Ronald C.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2000 EN
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Reviewed in this article are selected recent advances and future challenges for psychiatric epidemiology. Major advances in descriptive psychiatric epidemiology in recent years include the development of reliable and valid fully structured diagnostic interviews, the implementation of parallel cross-national surveys of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders, and the initiation of research in clinical epidemiology. Remaining challenges include the refinement of diagnostic categories and criteria, recognition and evaluation of systematic underreporting bias in surveys of mental disorders, creation and use of accurate assessment tools for studying disorders of children, adolescents, the elderly, and people in less developed countries, and setting up systems to carry out small area estimations for needs assessment and programme planning. Advances in analytical and experimental epidemiology have been more modest. A major challenge is for psychiatric epidemiologists to increase the relevance of their analytical research to their colleagues in preventative psychiatry as well as to social policy analysts. Another challenge is to develop interventions aimed at increasing the proportion of people with mental disorders who receive treatment. Despite encouraging advances...