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EpiDoc®: plataforma de comunicação em epidemiologia; EpiDoc® : a communication platform in epidemiology

Londoño, Humberto Reynales
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.64%
Introdução: EpiDoc® é um modelo para transferência de conhecimento na área de metodologia da pesquisa. Está baseado no conceito de estratégias de colaboração para a aprendizagem (learning communities ou communities of practice) mediante a união de esforços entre os interesses comuns de um grupo de profissionais. O objetivo deste projeto é desenvolver uma plataforma de comunicação para a transferência de conhecimento e desenvolvimento de competências em uma comunidade de prática de metodologia da pesquisa em saúde. Métodos:. A plataforma de comunicação está desenvolvido com a tecnologia de páginas de servidor ASP (Active Server Pages), interagindo com uma base de dados Microsoft SQL Server 2000. Na fase da avaliação, tomou-se uma amostra de 38 pessoas para responder a pesquisa de opinião de 84 perguntas que inclui as diferentes áreas a avaliar como são os conteúdos, a tecnologia, o ambiente educativo, os problemas e dificuldades, assim como os elementos positivos do processo de aprendizagem. Resultados: A plataforma divide-se basicamente em 2 zonas, uma pública e outra privada, e pode ser observado em inglês, espanhol e português. A plataforma conta com os seguintes módulos: Controle de acesso; biblioteca; administração de cursos; apresentações; assinatura de usuários para distribuição eletrônica de materiais educativos; correio eletrônico e correio massivo; salas virtuais de Chat; foros de discussão; manipulação de documentos entre tutores e usuários; aplicação de provas de avaliação para os usuários; geração automática de certificados; métricas e relatórios de atividades. A avaliação foi feita com uma amostra de 38 estudantes de um curso de Epidemiologia Clínica. O 94 % dos estudantes ficaram satisfeitos ou muito satisfeitos com a experiência de aprendizagem. O 95% considerou que tinha adquirido novas habilidades de comunicação e colaboração ao estudar por meio virtual. Para o 76% facilitou-se o trabalho em equipe...

Ortodontia baseada em evidência científica : incorporando ciência na prática clínica; Scientific evidence-based orthodontics : incorporating science within clinic practice

Mariano, Maria Tereza Scardua; Januzzi, Eduardo; Grossmann, Eduardo
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.68%
O objetivo deste artigo é despertar o ortodontista e conscientizá-lo sobre a importância da tomada de decisão baseada em evidência científica no cuidado aos pacientes. Serão descritos os passos essenciais para a prática da Odontologia baseada em evidência (OBE), assim como os princípios da ciência e da pesquisa. Existem caminhos adequados para a busca da informação de qualidade, sendo esses a única garantia de encontrar artigos válidos. Na seleção de artigos científicos, o primeiro passo é definir o seu desenho, pois para cada dúvida clínica há um delineamento adequado capaz de respondê-la. Dessa maneira, questões sobre tratamento, etiologia, diagnóstico, prognóstico ou prevenção só podem ser respondidas por um artigo que tenha sido delineado para tal. O conhecimento da alocação randomizada, do mascaramento e do grupo-controle é fundamental para que possamos realizar uma leitura crítica dos artigos científicos, reconhecendo os que merecem credibilidade. Em meio a tantas publicações, precisamos definir, com segurança, o que deve ser incorporado ao nosso conhecimento e o que deve ser incorporado à prática clínica, mudando a nossa conduta. Desse modo, poderemos oferecer aos nossos pacientes opções terapêuticas mais consistentes e previsíveis.; The aim of this article is to warn the orthodontist about the importance of making decision based on scientific evidence when taking care of the patients. It describes the main steps for the Dentistry practices based in evidence (EBD) as well as the science and research principles. There are adequate ways for the search of quality information. While selecting the scientific articles...

Methodological adequacy of articles published in two open-access Brazilian cardiology periodicals

Macedo,Cristiane Rufino; Silva,Davi Leite da; Puga,Maria Eduarda
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.66%
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The use of rigorous scientific methods has contributed towards developing scientific articles of excellent methodological quality. This has made it possible to promote their citation and increase the impact factor. Brazilian periodicals have had to adapt to certain quality standards demanded by these indexing organizations, such as the content and the number of original articles published in each issue. This study aimed to evaluate the methodological adequacy of two Brazilian periodicals within the field of cardiology that are indexed in several databases and freely accessible through the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and which are now indexed by the Web of Science (Institute for Scientific Information, ISI). DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study at Brazilian Cochrane Center. METHODS: All the published articles were evaluated according to merit assessment (content) and form assessment (performance). RESULTS: Ninety-six percent of the articles analyzed presented study designs that were adequate for answering the objectives. CONCLUSIONS: These two Brazilian periodicals within the field of cardiology published methodologically adequate articles, since they followed the quality standards. Thus, these periodicals can be considered both for consultation and as vehicles for publishing future articles. For further analyses...

To tell or not to tell: the ethical dilemmas of HIV test notification in epidemiologic research.

Avins, A L; Lo, B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1989 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
Epidemiologic studies involving HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) antibody testing create ethical dilemmas, particularly about notifying asymptomatic seropositive subjects. Four study designs address this problem: mandatory notification, optional notification, anonymous testing, and blind testing. No single design consistently optimizes the trade-off between valid and ethical research. Each strategy differs substantially from the others in its effect on response rates, bias, ability to perform longitudinal studies, numbers of subjects who learn their test results, and the number of subjects counseled about HIV risk reduction. Both local institutional review boards and potential subjects of study (and their sexual partners) should participate in decisions regarding the conduct of sensitive AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) research.

Human tissue monitoring and specimen banking: opportunities for exposure assessment, risk assessment, and epidemiologic research.

Lee, L W; Griffith, J; Zenick, H; Hulka, B S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.84%
A symposium on Human Tissue Monitoring and Specimen Banking: Opportunities for Exposure Assessment, Risk Assessment, and Epidemiologic Research was held from 30 March to 1 April 1993 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. There were 117 registered participants from 18 states and 5 foreign countries. The first 2 days featured 21 invited speakers from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, various other government agencies, and universities in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Norway. The speakers provided a state-of-the-art overview of human exposure assessment techniques (especially applications of biological markers) and their relevance to human tissue specimen banking. Issues relevant to large-scale specimen banking were discussed, including program design, sample design, data collection, tissue collection, and ethical ramifications. The final group of presentations concerned practical experiences of major specimen banking and human tissue monitoring programs in the United States and Europe. The symposium addressed the utility and research opportunities afforded by specimen banking programs for future research needs in the areas of human exposure assessment...

Epidemiologic study design for investigating respiratory health effects of complex air pollution mixtures.

Dockery, D W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Epidemiologic studies of the respiratory health effects of air pollution are intrinsically difficult because exposure is common, expected effects at concentrations found in developed countries are weak, random misclassification of exposure is common, and the respiratory health indicators have multiple etiologies. Exposures to air pollutants also are multidimensional, generally consisting of a mixture of gases and particles. In this paper, epidemiologic study designs are described, and their potential for evaluating effects of complex pollutant mixtures are discussed. Power to detect the independent effects of individual pollutants in a complex pollutant mixture or to measure their interactions is in general very weak unless the study is specifically designed to test such hypotheses. However, with innovative and creative design, the independent and joint effects of multiple pollutants should be estimable in epidemiologic studies.

Epidemiologic studies of electric and magnetic fields and cancer: strategies for extending knowledge.

Savitz, D A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
Epidemiologic research concerning electric and magnetic fields in relation to cancer has focused on the potential etiologic roles of residential exposure on childhood cancer and occupational exposure on adult leukemia and brain cancer. Future residential studies must concentrate on exposure assessment that is enhanced by developing models of historical exposure, assessment of the relation between magnetic fields and wire codes, and consideration of alternate exposure indices. Study design issues deserving attention include possible biases in random digit dialing control selection, consideration of the temporal course of exposure and disease, and acquisition of the necessary information to assess the potential value of ecologic studies. Highest priorities are comprehensive evaluation of exposure patterns and sources and examination of the sociology and geography of residential wire codes. Future occupational studies should also concentrate on improved exposure assessment with increased attention to nonutility worker populations and development of historical exposure indicators that are superior to job titles alone. Potential carcinogens in the workplace that could act as confounders need to be more carefully examined. The temporal relation between exposure and disease and possible effect modification by other workplace agents should be incorporated into future studies. The most pressing need is for measurement of exposure patterns in a variety of worker populations and performance of traditional epidemiologic evaluations of cancer occurrence. The principal source of bias toward the null is nondifferential misclassification of exposure with improvements expected to enhance any true etiologic association that is present. Biases away from the null might include biased control selection in residential studies and chemical carcinogens acting as confounders in occupational studies.

Future directions in epidemiologic studies of 1,3-butadiene-exposed workers.

Acquavella, J F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
To date, epidemiologic research on 1,3-butadiene has consisted of cohort mortality studies of workers in the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and butadiene monomer industries. These studies have been extremely useful both in defining the focus on human health effects to the lymphopoietic cancers and in providing a perspective on which to evaluate the available animal models for human risk assessment. The next step for epidemiologic research will involve a lymphopoietic cancer case control approach to enable a more precise assessment of whether there is a relationship between 1,3-butadiene exposure and lymphopoietic cancer. In addition, periodic mortality updates of the 1,3-butadiene-exposed worker cohorts will be important to monitor trends in lymphopoietic cancer rates and to ensure that other cancers with long latency do not begin to show elevated rates. This paper describes an industry-sponsored program of case-control and cohort mortality update studies along with the critical elements in research design and analysis for each study. Epidemiological studies will play an important role in testing hypotheses developed from toxicological studies about potential biological mechanisms of 1,3-butadiene carcinogenesis in humans.

An epidemiologic approach to ecogenetics.

Khoury, M J; Adams, M J; Flanders, W D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1988 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
Although "ecogenetics" seeks to examine genetically mediated differences in susceptibility to environmental agents, researchers often examine the relation between genetic markers and disease without regard to environmental determinants. By using epidemiologic definitions of genotype-environment interaction, it can be shown that the relative risk of disease for the genetic marker is a function of the frequency of exposure to the environmental agent, the strength of interaction between the genotype and the agent, and the specificity of the environmental effect vis-à-vis the genotype. Using examples from the literature, we illustrate under six patterns of genotype-environment interaction that the relative risk associated with the marker can fluctuate markedly. However, with infrequent exposures, the relative risk is close to unity (implying no genetic effect) even in the face of strong genotype-environment interaction. Alternatively, elevated relative risks imply a frequent environmental exposure or a strong pattern of interaction. We suggest that genetic marker-disease associations be evaluated within the context of an epidemiologic study design that considers specific environmental determinants of risk.

Alzheimer’s Disease and Environmental Exposure to Lead: The Epidemiologic Evidence and Potential Role of Epigenetics

Bakulski, Kelly M.; Rozek, Laura S.; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Paulson, Henry L.; Hu, Howard
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
Several lines of evidence indicate that the etiology of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) is complex, with significant contributions from both genes and environmental factors. Recent research suggests the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in defining the relationship between environmental exposures and LOAD. In epidemiologic studies of adults, cumulative lifetime lead (Pb) exposure has been associated with accelerated declines in cognition. In addition, research in animal models suggests a causal association between Pb exposure during early life, epigenetics, and LOAD. There are multiple challenges to human epidemiologic research evaluating the relationship between epigenetics, LOAD, and Pb exposure. Epidemiologic studies are not well-suited to accommodate the long latency period between exposures during early life and onset of Alzheimer’s disease. There is also a lack of validated circulating epigenetics biomarkers and retrospective biomarkers of Pb exposure. Members of our research group have shown bone Pb is an accurate measurement of historical Pb exposure in adults, offering an avenue for future epidemiologic studies. However, this would not address the risk of LOAD attributable to early-life Pb exposures. Future studies that use a cohort design to measure both Pb exposure and validated epigenetic biomarkers of LOAD will be useful to clarify this important relationship.

Placental biomarkers of phthalate effects on mRNA transcription: application in epidemiologic research

Adibi, Jennifer J; Whyatt, Robin M; Thaker, Harshwardhan M; Nelson, Heather; Bhat, Hari K; Hauser, Russ B.; Williams, Paige L.; Herrick, Robert F.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.74%
Background: CYP19 and PPARγ are two genes expressed in the placental trophoblast that are important to placental function and are disrupted by phthalate exposure in other cell types. Measurement of the mRNA of these two genes in human placental tissue by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) offers a source of potential biomarkers for use in epidemiologic research. We report on methodologic challenges to be considered in study design. Methods: We anonymously collected 10 full-term placentas and, for each, sampled placental villi at 12 sites in the chorionic plate representing the inner (closer to the cord insertion site) and outer regions. Each sample was analyzed for the expression of two candidate genes, aromatase (CYP19) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor protein gamma (PPARγ) and three potential internal controls: cyclophilin (CYC), 18S rRNA (18S), and total RNA. Between and within placenta variability was estimated using variance component analysis. Associations of expression levels with sampling characteristics were estimated using mixed effects models. Results: We identified large within-placenta variability in both transcripts (>90% of total variance) that was minimized to <20% of total variance by using 18S as an internal control and by modelling the means by inner and outer regions. 18S rRNA was the most appropriate internal control based on within and between placenta variability estimates and low correlations of 18S mRNA with target gene mRNA. Gene expression did not differ significantly by delivery method. We observed decreases in the expression of both transcripts over the 25 minute period after delivery (CYP19 p-value for trend = 0.009 and PPARγ (p-value for trend = 0.002). Using histologic methods...

A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Asthma in Epidemiologic Studies: Results from the Danish National Birth Cohort

Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Granström, Charlotta; Olsen, Sjurdur F.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
Asthma is a heterogeneous outcome and how the condition should be measured to best capture clinically relevant disease in epidemiologic studies remains unclear. We compared three methods of measuring asthma in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n>50.000). When the children were 7 years old, the prevalence of asthma was estimated from a self-administered questionnaire using parental report of doctor diagnoses, ICD-10 diagnoses from a population-based hospitalization registry, and data on anti-asthmatic medication from a population-based prescription registry. We assessed the agreement between the methods using kappa statistics. Highest prevalence of asthma was found using the prescription registry (32.2%) followed by the self-report (12.0%) and the hospitalization registry (6.6%). We found a substantial non-overlap between the methods (kappa = 0.21–0.38). When all three methods were combined the asthma prevalence was 3.6%. In conclusion, self-reported asthma, ICD-10 diagnoses from a hospitalization registry and data on anti-asthmatic medication use from a prescription registry lead to different prevalences of asthma in the same cohort of children. The non-overlap between the methods may be due to different abilities of the methods to identify cases with different phenotypes...

Thrombophilias and adverse pregnancy outcome - A confounded problem!

Kist, W.; Janssen, N.; Kalk, J.; Hague, W.; Dekker, G.; de Vries, J.
Fonte: Schattauer GMBH-Verlag Medizin Naturwissenschaften Publicador: Schattauer GMBH-Verlag Medizin Naturwissenschaften
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.62%
It was the objective of this study to analyse the influence of confounders, such as ethnicity,severity of illness and method of testing, in articles concerning the still moot relationship of thrombophilias to adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Relevant casecontrol studies were identified using Medline and EMBASE databases between 1966 and 2006. Search terms were recurrent fetal loss, intrauterine fetal death, preeclampsia, HELLP-syndrome, eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, abruptio placentae, combined with maternal thrombophilias. Data was extracted from the articles per subgroup ofAPO regardless of confounder. These subgroups were tested if they fulfilled the heterogeneity testing criterion (I2 > 35%) to weigh the influence of the confounder. Confounders were selected and examined with Mantel- Haenszel method. Increased thrombophilia prevalence was confirmed in most adverse pregnancy outcomes. Ethnicity, genetic testing only and severity of illness were confounders in the various forms of APO. Stronger relationships between factor V Leiden and severity of disease were found in 2nd and 3rd trimester than 1st trimester recurrent fetal loss, in preeclampsia with: blood pressure ≥160/110 mmHg than ≥140/90 mmHg; proteinuria ≥5 grams per day than < 5 grams; onset before than after 28 weeks...

The value of value of information: best informing research design and prioritization using current methods

Eckermann, S.; Karnon, J.; Willan, A.
Fonte: Adis International Ltd Publicador: Adis International Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.85%
Value of information (VOI) methods have been proposed as a systematic approach to inform optimal research design and prioritization. Four related questions arise that VOI methods could address. (i) Is further research for a health technology assessment (HTA) potentially worthwhile? (ii) Is the cost of a given research design less than its expected value? (iii) What is the optimal research design for an HTA? (iv) How can research funding be best prioritized across alternative HTAs? Following Occam's razor, we consider the usefulness of VOI methods in informing questions 1–4 relative to their simplicity of use. Expected value of perfect information (EVPI) with current information, while simple to calculate, is shown to provide neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition to address question 1, given that what EVPI needs to exceed varies with the cost of research design, which can vary from very large down to negligible. Hence, for any given HTA, EVPI does not discriminate, as it can be large and further research not worthwhile or small and further research worthwhile. In contrast, each of questions 1–4 are shown to be fully addressed (necessary and sufficient) where VOI methods are applied to maximize expected value of sample information (EVSI) minus expected costs across designs. In comparing complexity in use of VOI methods...

Frequency of policy recommendations in epidemiologic publications.

Jackson, L W; Lee, N L; Samet, J M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and character of policy statements in epidemiologic reports. METHODS: The first author followed a standardized protocol and reviewed a random sample of articles selected from the American Journal of Epidemiology, Annals of Epidemiology, and Epidemiology. The second author reviewed all articles with policy statements and a 10% sample without such statements. RESULTS: Overall, 23.8% of the articles contained policy statements. Annals of Epidemiology and the American Journal of Epidemiology had similar frequencies of articles with policy statements (30% and 26.7%, respectively), while Epidemiology evidenced the lowest frequency (8.3%). The majority of policy statements (55%) pertained to public health practice; 27.5% involved clinical practice, and the remainder (17.5%) focused on corporate policies, regulatory actions, or undefined arenas. The frequency of policy statements differed according to first author's affiliation, type of publication, area of research, research design, and study population. CONCLUSIONS: Although a minority of publications included policy statements, the inclusion of a statement seemed to be influenced by specific study characteristics.

Design options and methodological fallacies in the studies of reproductive failures.

Olsen, J; Skov, T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.77%
Reproductive failures are at first sight well suited for epidemiologic research. The time of pregnancy is closely monitored, and failures such as spontaneous abortions and subfecundity are rather frequent. Although epidemiologists' interest in the field has been growing, there is still disappointingly little new information of relevance for prevention. A number of methodologic shortcomings may explain this. A large part of disease classification is not well suited for etiologic research, reduced fertility has diminished the populations at risk, close medical monitoring tends to mask causal links, and many scientific problems related to this area bring limitations to the research field. Still, much more could be learned from a systematic use of epidemiologic knowledge, existing registers, and the joint effort between different research groups.

How to design and write a clinical research protocol in Cosmetic Dermatology*

Bagatin,Ediléia; Miot,Helio A.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.78%
Cosmetic Dermatology is a growing subspecialty. High-quality basic science studies have been published; however, few double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trials, which are the major instrument for evidence-based medicine, have been conducted in this area. Clinical research is essential for the discovery of new knowledge, improvement of scientific basis, resolution of challenges, and good clinical practice. Some basic principles for a successful researcher include interest, availability, persistence, and honesty. It is essential to learn how to write a protocol research and to know the international and national regulatory rules. A complete clinical trial protocol should include question, background, objectives, methodology (design, variable description, sample size, randomization, inclusion and exclusion criteria, intervention, efficacy and safety measures, and statistical analysis), consent form, clinical research form, and references. Institutional ethical review board approval and financial support disclosure are necessary. Publication of positive or negative results should be an authors' commitment.

Observational analytic studies in multiple sclerosis: controlling bias through study design and conduct. The Australian Multicentre Study of Environment and Immune Function

Lucas, Robyn; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; McMichael, Anthony; Van Der Mei, Ingrid; Chapman, Caron; Coulthard, Alan; Dear, Keith; Dwyer, Terry; Kilpatrick, Trevor; Pender, Michael; Taylor, Bruce V; Valery, Patricia C; Williams, David
Fonte: Sage Publications Inc Publicador: Sage Publications Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.72%
Rising multiple sclerosis incidence over the last 50 years and geographic patterns of occurrence suggest an environmental role in the causation of this multifactorial disease. Design options for epidemiological studies of environmental causes of multiple

Child health and the environment: the INMA Spanish Study

Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Ramón, Rosa; Ballester, Ferrán; Grimalt, Joan O.; Marco, Alfredo; Olea, Nicolás; Posada, Manuel; Rebagliato, Marisa; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing; Society for Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiologic Research Publicador: Blackwell Publishing; Society for Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiologic Research
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 19968 bytes; application/msword
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.62%
8 pages, 3 tables.-- PMID: 16911019 [PubMed].; The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Environment and Childhood]) is a population-based cohort study in different Spanish cities, that focuses on prenatal environmental exposures and growth, development and health from early fetal life until childhood. The study focuses on five primary areas of research: (1) growth and physical development; (2) behavioural and cognitive development; (3) asthma and allergies; (4) sexual and reproductive development; and (5) environmental exposure pathways. The general aims of the project are: (1) to describe the degree of individual prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants, and the internal dose of chemicals during pregnancy, at birth and during childhood in Spain; (2) to evaluate the impact of the exposure to different contaminants on fetal and infant growth, health and development; (3) to evaluate the role of diet on fetal and infant growth, health and development; and (4) to evaluate the interaction between persistent pollutants, nutrients and genetic determinants on fetal and infant growth, health and development; Extensive assessments will be carried out on 3100 pregnant women and children. Data will be collected by physical examinations, questionnaires...

Epidemiologic models to develop new research on human mycoses

Novoa Montero,Darío; Serrano,José A; Boiron,Patrick
Fonte: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiología. Publicador: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiología.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.95%
Summary We propose to apply a new sub model of the case-control-community-based epidemiologic design as a model to biomedical and epidemiologic research aimed to develop advanced and holistic research on human deep or localized mycoses transmitted from environment-to-man, in addition to classic or empirical epidemiologies. This new epidemiologic approach complement classic and empirical epidemiologies, which by them selves are suitable to develop research on cutaneous, nail, or ocular mycoses. Our own contribution to complement and enhance research on deep and localized mycoses is the multidisciplinary family-case biomedical and epidemiologic model very useful to carry out biomedical and epidemiologic research on pathogenic deep and localized mycoses infections or diseases in man. In fact, the multidisciplinary family-case epidemiologic approach would also be a powerful for comprehensive research studies on chronic infections and syndromes associated to paracoccidioidomycosis, chromomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, sporotrichosis, eumycetoma and actinomycetoma. The common starting point of such model to be followed in order to study any of those mycoses is based on a nested group of cases which have been previously well-defined as clinical deep mycotic patients from any of the research groups in Latin American countries. African countries...