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Validação da escala do Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression -CES-D numa população clínica de idosos

Loureiro, Marli Gomes de Pinho da Silva
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
O presente estudo tem por objectivo adaptar a escala do CENTER FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF DEPRESSION – CES-D à população portuguesa em sujeitos com idade igual ou superior a 65 anos no contexto dos Cuidados Primários de Saúde. Esta escala revelou-se noutros contextos ser um instrumento de interesse no rastreio da sintomatologia depressiva, comprovado pelos resultados de estudos realizados em diferentes países e culturas. Em Portugal, não é conhecida qualquer versão adaptada à população idosa. O estudo realizado em contexto de consulta de ambulatório, teve como participantes 260 idosos, utentes dos vários Centros de Saúde da Sub-Região de Castelo Branco. Baseou-se na aplicação da escala CES-D, complementada por um questionário sócio-demográfico e de saúde, construído para o estudo e ainda pela aplicação de uma versão portuguesa da General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) de Ralf Schwarzer & Matthias Jerusalem (1999), cujos resultados serviram de critério externo de validação. A base teórica do estudo privilegiou os conhecimentos sobre a depressão e sobre o processo de envelhecimento no contexto dos Cuidados Primários de Saúde, como enquadramento do estudo empírico. Os resultados encontrados, permitiram concluir que a escala do CENTRE FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF DEPRESSION – CES-D...

Assessing exposure in epidemiologic studies to disinfection by-products in drinking water: report from an international workshop.

Arbuckle, Tye E; Hrudey, Steve E; Krasner, Stuart W; Nuckols, Jay R; Richardson, Susan D; Singer, Philip; Mendola, Pauline; Dodds, Linda; Weisel, Clifford; Ashley, David L; Froese, Kenneth L; Pegram, Rex A; Schultz, Irvin R; Reif, John; Bachand, Annette M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
The inability to accurately assess exposure has been one of the major shortcomings of epidemiologic studies of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. A number of contributing factors include a) limited information on the identity, occurrence, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of the many DBPs that can be formed from chlorine, chloramine, ozone, and chlorine dioxide disinfection; b) the complex chemical interrelationships between DBPs and other parameters within a municipal water distribution system; and c) difficulties obtaining accurate and reliable information on personal activity and water consumption patterns. In May 2000, an international workshop was held to bring together various disciplines to develop better approaches for measuring DBP exposure for epidemiologic studies. The workshop reached consensus about the clear need to involve relevant disciplines (e.g., chemists, engineers, toxicologists, biostatisticians and epidemiologists) as partners in developing epidemiologic studies of DBPs in drinking water. The workshop concluded that greater collaboration of epidemiologists with water utilities and regulators should be encouraged in order to make regulatory monitoring data more useful for epidemiologic studies. Similarly...

Choosing an appropriate bacterial typing technique for epidemiologic studies

Foxman, Betsy; Zhang, Lixin; Koopman, James S; Manning, Shannon D; Marrs, Carl F
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/11/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
A wide variety of bacterial typing systems are currently in use that vary greatly with respect to the effort required, cost, reliability and ability to discriminate between bacterial strains. No one technique is optimal for all forms of investigation. We discuss the desired level of discrimination and need for a biologic basis for grouping strains of apparently different types when using bacterial typing techniques for different epidemiologic applications: 1) confirming epidemiologic linkage in outbreak investigations, 2) generating hypotheses about epidemiologic relationships between bacterial strains in the absence of epidemiologic information, and 3) describing the distributions of bacterial types and identifying determinants of those distributions. Inferences made from molecular epidemiologic studies of bacteria depend upon both the typing technique selected and the study design used; thus, choice of typing technique is pivotal for increasing our understanding of the pathogenesis and transmission, and eventual disease prevention.

Epidemiologic studies of ionizing radiation and cancer: past successes and future challenges.

Samet, J M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
The health effects of radiation have been a focus for research since early in the 20th century. As the century ends, extensive experimental and epidemiologic evidence has been accumulated that addresses the adverse consequences of radiation exposure; epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed groups from the general population and specific occupational groups provide quantitative estimates of the cancer risks associated with exposure. This report provides a perspective on the extensive epidemiologic evidence on the health effects of ionizing radiation and on likely needs for further epidemiologic research on radiation and health. Epidemiologic studies have proved informative on the quantitative risks of radiation-caused cancer but we now face the challenges of more precisely characterizing risks at lower levels of exposure and also of assessing modifiers of the risks, including dose rate, genetic susceptibility, and other environmental exposures. This report considers investigative approaches, such as pooled analysis of multiple data sets, that can be used to address these complex questions and the limitations of these approaches for addressing societal concerns about the risks of radiation exposure.

Epidemiologic studies on short-term effects of low levels of major ambient air pollution components.

Brunekreef, B; Dockery, D W; Krzyzanowski, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Since the development of the World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, a large number of epidemiologic studies have been published documenting effects of major air pollutants on health at concentrations below existing guidelines and standards. In this review, recent studies are discussed that permit some evaluation of short-term health effects observed at exposure levels lower than the current WHO Guidelines or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) standards. Some studies have been conducted at concentration levels that never exceeded existing guidelines or standards. Other studies have been conducted at exposure levels sometimes exceeding current guidelines or standards. The published analyses of several of these studies permit evaluation of low-level health effects either because analyses were restricted to levels not exceeding the guidelines or graphic analyses were reported suggesting effects at these low levels. For ambient ozone, effects on lung function of subjects exercising outdoors have now been documented at 1-hr maximum levels not exceeding 120 micrograms/m3, i.e., half the current U.S. EPA standard. One study even suggests that such effects occur at levels below 100 micrograms/m3. Several studies are now available documenting effects of particulate air pollution on health in the virtual absence of SO2. Effects on mortality and hospital admissions for asthma have been documented at levels not exceeding 100 micrograms/m3...

Chromium and disease: review of epidemiologic studies with particular reference to etiologic information provided by measures of exposure.

Lees, P S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1991 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Dozens of epidemiologic studies have been conducted since the late 1940s in an attempt to elucidate the relationship between exposure to chromium compounds and increased rates of certain cancers observed in several industries. The relationship between employment in industries producing chromium compounds from chromite ore and lung cancer has been well established in numerous studies. The relationship between exposure to certain chromium-based pigments and chromic acid and lung cancer, although not as strong, is fairly well accepted. The data concerning emissions from stainless-steel manufacturing and disease are contradictory. Although individual studies have indicated excesses of gastrointestinal and occasionally other cancers in these industries, results are not consistent and not universally accepted. There is general agreement that chromite ore does not have an associated risk of cancer. Although the chromium compound (or compounds) responsible for disease have yet to be identified, there is general agreement that hexavalent species are responsible for these diseases and that the trivalent species are not. Hypotheses about the carcinogenicity of specific chromium compounds generally relate to their solubility in body fluids. These hypotheses...

The potential of exposure biomarkers in epidemiologic studies of reproductive health.

Hogue, C J; Brewster, M A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1991 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
To further the development and application of exposure markers in field investigations in reproductive epidemiology, we have synthesized recent examinations of the issues surrounding exposure measurements in reproductive epidemiology. The specific goals of this paper are to define exposure biomarkers and explore their potential uses, particularly as screening tools. The tests for glucaric acid, thioethers, mutagenicity, and porphyrin patterns meet the general criteria for useful exposure screens. For certain xenobiotic agents, these tests accurately differentiate exposure levels, as demonstrated in occupational and environmental epidemiologic studies. As urinary screens, they are noninvasive and applicable on a large scale with current laboratory techniques. For short-term exposure, glucaric acid, thioethers, and mutagenicity tests are useful. Porphyrin patterns may measure cumulative effects as well as current exposure levels. The usefulness of these tests in epidemiologic studies of environmental effects on reproductive health has yet to be studied. To do so, the battery must be standardized for pregnant women, and test results must be correlated with measured adverse reproductive outcomes, such as gestational length and birthweight. This correlation is particularly important because maternal exposure rather than fetal exposure is being measured. The extent to which xenobiotic chemicals cross the placental barrier may vary greatly depending on the type of exposures...

Workplace exposure to passive smoking and risk of cardiovascular disease: summary of epidemiologic studies.

Kawachi, I; Colditz, G A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
We reviewed the published epidemiologic studies addressing the relationship between workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cardiovascular disease risk in three case-control studies and three cohort studies. Although the point estimates of risk for cardiovascular disease exceeded 1.0 in five of six studies, none of the relative risks was statistically significant because of the small number of cardiovascular end points occurring in individual studies. In common with most epidemiologic investigations of the health risks of ETS, none of the workplace studies included independent biochemical validation of ETS exposure. In contrast to the evidence on increased cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to spousal ETS, studies of ETS exposure in the workplace are still sparse and inconclusive. Conversely, there is no biologically plausible reason to believe that the hazards of ETS exposure that have been demonstrated in the home should not also apply to the workplace.

Statistical problems in epidemiologic studies of the natural history of disease.

Brookmeyer, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
The development of effective disease prevention and treatment programs depends on an understanding of the natural history of disease. A conceptual framework is presented for disease natural history and consists of an asymptomatic period of disease followed by a period of symptomatic disease. The focus is on epidemiologic studies for identifying risk factors of the onset of asymptomatic disease, for identifying cofactors of progression to symptomatic disease, and for estimating the duration of the asymptomatic period. The strengths and limitations of various epidemiologic study designs and sources of epidemiologic data are considered for characterizing disease natural history. Issues in the interpretation and analysis of natural history parameters of disease estimated from cross-sectional, prevalent cohort, cohort, and matched case-control studies are considered. The issues and analytic methods are illustrated with studies of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cervical cancer. Based on these analytic methods, an estimate of the incubation period distribution of AIDS is given.

Field epidemiologic studies of populations exposed to waste dumps.

Heath, C W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1983 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Epidemiologic studies are required for assessing health risks related to toxic waste exposure. Since the settings in which such studies must be performed are extremely diverse, epidemiologic approaches must be versatile. For any particular study, three fundamental requirements are to assess what toxic materials are present, understand how human exposure may occur, and objectively measure possible biologic effects. In assessing links between exposure and disease, epidemiologists must be particularly aware of: expected disease frequencies in relation to the size of populations studied, implications of long or varied disease latencies for study design and competing causes of disease and associated confounding variables. These concepts are illustrated by discussion of epidemiologic studies related to the Love Canal toxic waste dump site in Niagara Falls, NY.

Observational Epidemiologic Studies of Nutrition and Cancer: The Next Generation (with Better Observation)

Schatzkin, Arthur; Subar, Amy F.; Moore, Steven; Park, Yikyung; Potischman, Nancy; Thompson, Frances E.; Leitzmann, Michael; Hollenbeck, Albert; Morrissey, Kerry Grace; Kipnis, Victor
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
It would be of enormous public health importance if diet and physical activity—both modifiable behavioral factors--were causally related to cancer. Nevertheless, the nutritional epidemiology of cancer remains problematic, in part because of persistent concerns that standard questionnaires measure diet and physical activity with too much error. We present a new strategy for addressing this measurement error problem. First, as background, we note that food frequency and physical activity questionnaires require respondents to report ‘typical’ diet or activity over the previous year or longer. Multiple 24-hour recalls (24HR), based on reporting only the previous day’s behavior, offer potential cognitive advantages over the questionnaires, and biomarker evidence suggests the 24HR is more accurate than the food frequency questionnaire. The expense involved in administering multiple 24HRs in large epidemiologic studies, however, has up to now been prohibitive. In that context, we suggest that internet-based 24HRs, for both diet and physical activity, represent a practical and cost-effective approach for incorporating multiple recalls in large epidemiologic studies. We discuss 1) recent efforts to develop such internet-based instruments and their accompanying software support systems; 2) ongoing studies to evaluate the feasibility of using these new instruments in cohort studies; 3) additional investigations to gauge the accuracy of the internet-based recalls vis-à-vis standard instruments and biomarkers; and 4) new statistical approaches for combining the new instruments with standard assessment tools and biomarkers The incorporation of internet-based 24HRs into large epidemiologic studies may help advance our understanding of the nutritional determinants of cancer.

Simultaneous Recovery of DNA and RNA from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue and Application in Epidemiologic Studies

Huang, Wen-Yi; Sheehy, Timothy M.; Moore, Lee E.; Hsing, Ann W.; Purdue, Mark P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Analysis of DNA, RNA, and protein extracted from tissue specimens in epidemiologic studies is useful for assessing etiologic heterogeneity, mechanisms of carcinogenesis and biomarkers for prognosis and prediction of treatment responses. Fresh-frozen tissue samples may provide optimal quality nucleic acids, but pose multiple logistical considerations, including rapid access to tissues prior to histopathologic examination and specialized equipment for freezing, transport and storage; in addition, morphology is often compromised. In contrast, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples, including enormous archives of existing specimens, represent a valuable source of retrospective biological material for epidemiologic research, although presenting different limitations compared to frozen samples. Recent efforts have made progress toward enhancing the utility of FFPE specimens for molecular analyses, including DNA studies, and increasingly for RNA and other macromolecules. Here we report the method that we used to simultaneously recover DNA and RNA from FFPE tissue specimens with appreciable quantity and quality, and discuss briefly the application of tumor markers in epidemiologic studies.

Considerations in setting up and conducting epidemiologic studies of cancer in middle- and low-income countries: the experience of a case–control study of inflammatory breast cancer in North Africa in the past 10 years

Soliman, Amr S; Schairer, Catherine
Fonte: WILEY-VCH Verlag Publicador: WILEY-VCH Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
This article illustrates some issues we faced during our experience in conducting an epidemiologic case–control study of inflammatory breast cancer in North Africa. We expect that some of the questions we had to ask in order to address these issues might be helpful to others in setting up epidemiologic studies in developing regions. We describe our experience from different angles including the use of multiple sites to achieve adequate sample size, standardizing diagnosis of disease, identifying cancer cases at the time of diagnosis, control selection procedures, logistics of study implementation, questionnaire development and interviewing, biologic specimens, and procedures for protection of human subjects. We have developed a brief checklist to summarize important issues for conducting future epidemiologic studies in these or similar low- or middle-income countries.

Stability and Reproducibility of the Measurement of Plasma Nitrate in Large Epidemiologic Studies

Wang, Yushan; Townsend, Mary K.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Wu, Tianying
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
Inorganic nitrate has emerged as a therapeutic agent for cardiovascular disease; however, nitrate can also metabolize to carcinogenic nitrosamines under pathologic conditions. Few large epidemiologic studies have examined circulating levels of nitrate in relation to cardiovascular disease and cancer. Data on the validity of nitrate measurement in blood samples collected in typical epidemiologic settings are needed before nitrate can be evaluated as an exposure in large epidemiologic studies.

Measuring exposure to the polyphenol metabolome in observational epidemiologic studies: current tools and applications and their limits123

Zamora-Ros, Raul; Touillaud, Marina; Rothwell, Joseph A; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Much experimental evidence supports a protective role of dietary polyphenols against chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. However, results from observational epidemiologic studies are still limited and are often inconsistent. This is largely explained by the difficulties encountered in the estimation of exposure to the polyphenol metabolome, which is composed of ∼500 polyphenols distributed across a wide variety of foods and characterized by diverse biological properties. Exposure to the polyphenol metabolome in epidemiologic studies can be assessed by the use of detailed dietary questionnaires or the measurement of biomarkers of polyphenol intake. The questionnaire approach has been greatly facilitated by the use of new databases on polyphenol composition but is limited by bias as a result of self-reporting. The use of polyphenol biomarkers holds much promise for objective estimation of polyphenol exposure in future metabolome-wide association studies. These approaches are reviewed and their advantages and limitations discussed by using examples of epidemiologic studies on polyphenols and cancer. The current improvement in these techniques, along with greater emphasis on the intake of individual polyphenols rather than polyphenols considered collectively...

Workplace exposure to passive smoking and risk of cardiovascular disease: summary of epidemiologic studies

Kawachi, Ichiro; Colditz, Graham A.
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
We reviewed the published epidemiologic studies addressing the relationship between workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cardiovascular disease risk in three case-control studies and three cohort studies. Although the point estimates of risk for cardiovascular disease exceeded 1.0 in five of six studies, none of the relative risks was statistically significant because of the small number of cardiovascular end points occurring in individual studies. In common with most epidemiologic investigations of the health risks of ETS, none of the workplace studies included independent biochemical validation of ETS exposure. In contrast to the evidence on increased cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to spousal ETS, studies of ETS exposure in the workplace are still sparse and inconclusive. Conversely, there is no biologically plausible reason to believe that the hazards of ETS exposure that have been demonstrated in the home should not also apply to the workplace.

A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Asthma in Epidemiologic Studies: Results from the Danish National Birth Cohort

Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Granström, Charlotta; Olsen, Sjurdur F.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%
Asthma is a heterogeneous outcome and how the condition should be measured to best capture clinically relevant disease in epidemiologic studies remains unclear. We compared three methods of measuring asthma in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n>50.000). When the children were 7 years old, the prevalence of asthma was estimated from a self-administered questionnaire using parental report of doctor diagnoses, ICD-10 diagnoses from a population-based hospitalization registry, and data on anti-asthmatic medication from a population-based prescription registry. We assessed the agreement between the methods using kappa statistics. Highest prevalence of asthma was found using the prescription registry (32.2%) followed by the self-report (12.0%) and the hospitalization registry (6.6%). We found a substantial non-overlap between the methods (kappa = 0.21–0.38). When all three methods were combined the asthma prevalence was 3.6%. In conclusion, self-reported asthma, ICD-10 diagnoses from a hospitalization registry and data on anti-asthmatic medication use from a prescription registry lead to different prevalences of asthma in the same cohort of children. The non-overlap between the methods may be due to different abilities of the methods to identify cases with different phenotypes...

Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies

Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao
Fonte: Wolters Kluwer Health Publicador: Wolters Kluwer Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
Abstract Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of citrus intake, study-specific odds ratio or relative risk, and the P value and associated 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest dietary intake of citrus fruit level. The association was quantified using meta-analysis of standard errors with a random-effects model. Thirteen case–control studies and 6 cohort studies were eligible for inclusion. Citrus intake may significantly reduce risk of esophageal cancer (summary odds ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval = 0.52–0.75; P = 0), without notable publication bias (intercept = −0.79, P = 0.288) and with significant heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 52%). The results from epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The significant effect is consistent between case–control and cohort studies. Larger prospective studies with rigorous methodology should be considered to validate the association between citrus fruits and esophageal cancer.

Bone lead as a biological marker in epidemiologic studies of chronic toxicity: conceptual paradigms.

Hu, H; Rabinowitz, M; Smith, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
The skeleton contains the majority of the body's lead burden in both children and adults. The half-life of lead in bone is in the range of years to decades, depending on bone type, metabolic state, and subject age, among other things. Measurement of skeletal lead has benefited greatly from the recent development of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments that can make rapid, safe, accurate, and relatively precise measurements of lead in bone. Two types of XRF technologies exist, LXRF and KXRF; this paper focuses on KXRF, which has been the most widely validated and used. KXRF is proving to be a powerful analytical methodology for evaluating bone lead levels as a measure of time-integrated (i.e., cumulative) lead dose in epidemiologic studies of the effects of chronic lead exposure. However, insufficient attention has been given to conceptualizing the paradigms by which bone lead levels reflect lead exposure and by which the skeleton serves as an endogenous source of lead. Consideration of these paradigms, which rely on bone lead kinetics, is necessary for the proper development of a priori hypotheses involving bone lead accumulation and release, the selection of bone sites for measurement by KXRF, and the design of epidemiologic studies involving bone lead dynamics. We discuss and present supporting evidence for a conceptual model that distinguishes two major paradigms of skeletal lead...

Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies

Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao
Fonte: Wolters Kluwer Health Publicador: Wolters Kluwer Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of citrus intake, study-specific odds ratio or relative risk, and the P value and associated 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest dietary intake of citrus fruit level. The association was quantified using meta-analysis of standard errors with a random-effects model. Thirteen case–control studies and 6 cohort studies were eligible for inclusion. Citrus intake may significantly reduce risk of esophageal cancer (summary odds ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval = 0.52–0.75; P = 0), without notable publication bias (intercept = −0.79, P = 0.288) and with significant heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 52%). The results from epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The significant effect is consistent between case–control and cohort studies. Larger prospective studies with rigorous methodology should be considered to validate the association between citrus fruits and esophageal cancer.