Página 1 dos resultados de 7764 itens digitais encontrados em 0.019 segundos

Politica ambiental transversal : experiencias na Amazonia brasileira; Transverse environmental policy: experiences in brazilian Amazonia

Roberta Graf
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/06/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
Nessa Tese desenvolveu-se o conceito da Política Ambiental Transversal, que representa a internalização da sustentabilidade sócio-ambiental no conjunto das políticas públicas de uma localidade. Parte-se da premissa de que a política ambiental transversal é mais adequada do que a política ambiental exclusivamente setorial por possibilitar o alcance de modelos de desenvolvimento ambientalmente mais sustentáveis, tal qual preconiza a Agenda 21. Os objetivos da pesquisa foram caracterizar a política ambiental transversal nos seus aspectos teóricos e metodológicos e analisar dois estudos de caso: as políticas ambientais recentes dos estados amazônicos do Acre (estudo principal) e do Amapá (estudo complementar). Sob o ideário do ?desenvolvimento sustentável?, governos destes estados adotaram prioridades ambientais em seus programas, os quais podem representar iniciativas de transversalidade. Na investigação utilizou-se um arcabouço conceitual composto da sustentabilidade sócio-ambiental, de noções históricas do ambientalismo (com destaque para as escolas do Ecodesenvolvimento e da Ecologia Profunda), da Ecologia, do paradigma sistêmico (teorias da complexidade), da Análise de Políticas Públicas, das prioridades sócio-ambientais para o bioma amazônico...

Product market integration and environmental policy coordination in an international duopoly

Straume, Odd Rune
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
We analyse the effect of product market integration on environmental policy incentives in an international duopoly, where national policy makers act strategically. If traditional trade policy instruments are not available, environmental policies will typically be determined by the interaction of conflicting policy incentives. Contrary to popular belief, we find that international product market integration, in this particular setting, might reduce the need for transnational policy coordination, both from a purely environmental and from a social welfare perspective.

A market-based environmental policy experiment in Chile

Montero, Juan-Pablo; Katz, Ricardo Santiago; Sánchez, José Miguel
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 28 p
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.08%
Despite growing interest in the use of emissions trading for pollution control, empirical evidence for this regulatory instrument has been confined to a few experiences in the United States. This paper broadens the empirical base by examining the "Emission-Offsets Trading Program" that has been in place since 1992 to control airborne particulate emissions in Santiago, Chile. While the program is doing well from an environmental perspective, due in part to the price-based introduction of natural gas, the market is performing poorly because of high transaction costs, uncertainty, and poor enforcement. However, the scarcity rents created by allocating grandfathered emission rights to incumbents have proved to be a very effective tool for completing the emissions inventory.; Supported by the MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research.

Optimal timing problems in environmental economics

Pindyck, Robert S.
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 29 p
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.21%
Because of the uncertainties and irreversibilities that are often inherent in environmental degradation, its prevention, and its economic consequences, environmental policy design can involve important problems of timing. I use a simple two-period model to illustrate these optimal timing problems and their implications for environmental policy. I then lay out and solve a continuous-time model of policy adoption in which the policy itself entails sunk costs, and environmental damage is irreversible. The model has two stochastic state variables; one captures uncertainty over environmental change, and the other captures uncertainty over the social costs of environmental damage. Solutions of the model are used to show the implications of these two types of uncertainty for the timing of policy adoption.; Supported by the MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research.

Irreversibilities and the timing of environmental policy

Pindyck, Robert S.
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 31 p
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.18%
The Standard framework in which economists evaluate environmental policies is cost-benefit analysis, so policy debates usually focus on the expected flows of costs and benefits, or on the choice of discount rate. But this can be misleading when there is uncertainty over future outcomes, when there are irreversibilities, and when policy adoption can be delayed. This paper shows how two kinds of uncertainty - over the future costs and benefits of reduction environmental degradation, and over the evolution of an ecosystem - interact with two kinds of irreversibilities - sunk costs associated with an environmental regulation, and "sunk benefits" of avoided environmental degradation - to affect optimal policy timing and design.; Supported by the MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, the M.I.T. Program on Global Climate Change and the National Science Foundation.

Environmental policy in transition economies : the effectiveness of pollution changes

Söderholm, Patrik
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 18 p
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.14%
Most economists and analysts claim that extended use of pollution charges in environmental policy will have substantial efficiency advantages in countries undergoing transition to market economies. Essentially this paper challenges this view and argues that the proposed policy presumes the existence of an already functioning institutional framework. By focusing on the Russian case, the paper identifies and discusses a number of reasons why it has become hard to implement pollution charges in an economic system where behavioral patterns and jurisdictions established in the past are still prevalent. Institutional obstacles both at the firm level and within Russian regulatory agencies are discussed. The paper concludes that it is probably more appropriate to view environmental problems in transition economies not as market imperfections per se, but as results of institutional inertia in the economic and political systems. As a consequence the choice of pollution control strategy becomes much more complex than is implied by economic theory. The paper ends with a discussion of command and control regulation and input taxes as alternative ways to control pollution in Russia. Key words: Russia, Transition economies, Environmental policy, Pollution charges...

Carbon Offsets with Endogenous Environmental Policy

Strand, Jon
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
Interests in obtaining carbon offsets in host countries for Clean Development Mechanism projects may serve as an obstacle to implementing more stringent general environmental policies in the same countries. A relatively lax environmental policy, whereby carbon emissions remain high, can be advantageous for such countries as it leaves them with a higher than otherwise scope for future emissions reductions through Clean Development Mechanism and other offset projects. In this note, the potential to affect the availability of future Clean Development Mechanism projects is shown to distort environmental and energy policies of Clean Development Mechanism host countries in two ways. Measures to reduce use of fossil energy are weakened. Because this weakens private sector incentives to switch to lower-carbon technology through Clean Development Mechanism projects, host governments then also find it attractive to subsidize this switch, in order to maximize the country s advantage from the Clean Development Mechanism.

Corruption, political competition and environmental policy

Wilson, John; Damania, Richard
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 200840 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
There is a vast literature on the causes and consequences of corruption. A common theme is the belief that countries which exhibit a low level of political competition are more likely to have higher levels of corruption. The model presented here examines the effect of corruption on environmental policy under varying degrees of political competition. An important feature of this model, which has received far less attention in the literature, is that corruption may occur at different levels. A polluting firm attempts to reduce the amount of an environmental tax it pays by bribing a low level bureaucrat to make no reports regarding emission levels. In addition, it also makes contributions to the incumbent and rival parties of government in order to influence key policy parameters. The model thus provides a picture of the relationship between political competition, environmental outcomes and the type of corruption which may be observed. It is shown that higher levels of political competition result in more stringent regulations and better environmental outcomes. Political competition also has the capacity to reduce both grand and petty corruption, however, this is not assured. The model also suggests that polluting interests may have an incentive to corrupt opposition parties in order to weaken their political position. This may lead to policy convergence even when political competition is strong. Political competition is indicated as a necessary but not sufficient means by which to combat corruption.; no

Public interest or private agenda? A meditation on the role of NGOs in environmental policy and management in Australia

Lane, Marcus B.; Morrison, T. H.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
Non-government organisations (NGOs) have come to assume an important role in environmental policy in Australia. This paper considers the institutional impacts of an enlarged and formal role for NGOs in environmental governance. To foreground the analysis that follows, the paper theorises: (i) the structural democratisation of western societies which provides the preconditions for civic approaches to environmental governance; (ii) civil society organisations as political actors; and (iii) the link between non-state associations and democracy. Against this background, the paper surveys some of the ways in which NGOs are being formally involved in environmental policy and management in Australia. The paper proceeds to identify a series of risks associated with these approaches. The paper concludes by calling for a more nuanced and critical appraisal of the role of NGOs in environmental policy so political space might be reserved for the public interest and to ensure that the democratic effects of civil society are not diminished.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/348/description#description; Marcus B. Lane and T.H. Morrison

The politics of policy change :education and environmental policy in the Belgian communities and regions

DE RYNCK, Stefaan
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
Regional government has become a fashionable topic of analysis, but the impact of regional autonomy on public policy has so far received little attention. In this book, Stefaan De Rynck examines how the creation of regional government has affected the substance of public policies in Belgium. He explains the observed pattern of policy change by referring to shifts in regional power structures. His publication offers a political analysis of policy change, and warns against concluding that public policy is responsive to social problems or cultural differences between regional societies. The book demonstrates the importance of political action for understanding the link between political institutions and policy change. In its case-studies, Changing Public Policy: The Role of the Regions focuses on the development of education and agri-environmental policy in Flanders and Wallonia since 1988, the year in which competence for these sectors was transferred from the national to the regional level. The research material on the policy cases covers a twelve-year period. It is based on a wide range o interviews and extensive documentary analysis.; Defence date: 4 July 2000; Examining board: Prof. Dr. Yves Mény (EUI, Florence, Supervisor) ; Prof. Dr. Michael Keating (EUI...

What 'whole-of-government' means for environmental policy and management: An analysis of the Connecting Government initiative

Morrison, T. H.; Lane, Marcus B.
Fonte: Environment Institute of Australia and New Zealand Publicador: Environment Institute of Australia and New Zealand
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
In this article, we comment on what new ‘whole-of government’ (WG) initiatives mean for environmental policy and management in Australia. In particular, we focus on the recently released Australian Government Management Advisory Committee report, Connecting Government (2004). The nature of WG as a general public policy concept is explored before the relationship between WG and environmental policy and management is explained. Our review of Connecting Government shows it to be conceptually precise, appropriately focused on extra structural issues, such as process and culture, and sensitive to the role of extra-governmental actors (such as community and industry actors) in governance. In addition, it usefully highlights the fact that different approaches to governmental connectivity are required for different kinds of policy problems. While Connecting Government acknowledges an enlarged role for community and industry actors in the formulation and implementation of public policy, it is, unfortunately, largely uncritical of the governance problems that this role potentially entails.; Tiffany Morrison and Marcus Lane; © Environment Institute of Australia and New Zealand

Scales, networks and uncertainty : an examination of environmental policy-making in Ontario

Calvert, Kirby.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
Through a case-study analysis of Ontario's ethanol policy, this thesis addresses a number of themes that are consequential to policy and policy-making: spatiality, democracy and uncertainty. First, I address the 'spatial debate' in Geography pertaining to the relevance and affordances of a 'scalar' versus a 'flat' ontoepistemology. I argue that policy is guided by prior arrangements, but is by no means inevitable or predetermined. As such, scale and network are pragmatic geographical concepts that can effectively address the issue of the spatiality of policy and policy-making. Second, I discuss the democratic nature of policy-making in Ontario through an examination of the spaces of engagement that facilitate deliberative democracy. I analyze to what extent these spaces fit into Ontario's environmental policy-making process, and to what extent they were used by various stakeholders. Last, I take seriously the fact that uncertainty and unavoidable injustice are central to policy, and examine the ways in which this uncertainty shaped the specifics of Ontario's ethanol policy. Ultimately, this thesis is an exercise in understanding sub-national environmental policy-making in Canada, with an emphasis on how policy-makers tackle the issues they are faced with in the context of environmental change...

Política ambiental, municípios e cooperação intergovernamental no Brasil; Environmental policy, municipalities and intergovernmental cooperation in Brazil

Neves, Estela Maria Souza Costa
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/zip; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2012 POR; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
Neste artigo é realizada uma análise exploratória do papel das relações intergovernamentais nas iniciativas federais de defesa ambiental no Brasil do ponto de vista dos governos locais, na perspectiva federativa. A análise da agenda constitucional dos municípios fornece elementos para o exame de iniciativas do governo federal no campo ambiental por meio de exemplos selecionados. Conclui-se que seu êxito depende, em grande extensão, da adesão dos municípios, que têm uma condição única para combinar instrumentos típicos da institucionalidade ambiental com outros de seu uso exclusivo.; The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of intergovernmental cooperation in federal environmental policies from the perspective of Brazilian local governments, considering Brazilian federal institutional framework. The analysis of the constitutional municipal agenda highlights that environmental defense activities provides the background for the analysis of selected examples of federal environmental policy. We conclude that federal success depends on a great extent on municipal support because they are in a unique position to combine the use of typical environmental strategies and instruments with policy instruments exclusive to municipalities.

“Little NEPAs”: State Equivalents to the National Environmental Policy Act in Indiana, Minnesota and Wisconsin

Marchman, Patrick
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em 08/10/2012 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
Enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1969 and signed into law by President Richard Nixon in 1970, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) is the United States’ flagship environmental law. Unlike, for example, the Endangered Species Act, another one of the many major environmental laws passed around the same time as NEPA, NEPA is a procedural law, requiring that all Federal actions be examined for their impacts on the natural and human environment. NEPA is often known best for the environmental assessments (EA) and environmental impact statements (EIS) that often require tremendous resources in the form of time, money, and technical expertise to complete, despite NEPA’s intent to ensure that potential impacts on the natural and human environments are taken into account in decision making. Since the enactment of NEPA, sixteen states, New York City, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia have enacted procedural laws similar to NEPA in their intent to require activities at a state level to document their impacts on the natural and human environment and to include environmental considerations in decision-making . These “little NEPAs” vary widely in their requirements, impact, and effectiveness in encouraging state decision makers to take into account impacts on the natural environment. This paper will examine three little NEPAs of three Midwestern states – Indiana’s Indiana Environmental Policy Act (IEPA)...

Volatility and Uncertainty in Environmental Policy

Maniloff, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%

Environmental policy is increasingly implemented via market mechanisms. While this is in many ways a great success for the economics profession, a number of questions remain. In this dissertation, I empirically explore the question of what will happen as environmental outcomes are coupled to potentially volatile market phenomena, whether policies can insulate environmental outcomes and market shocks, and policymakers should act to mitigate such volatility. I use a variety of empirical methods including reduced form and structural econometrics as well as theoretical models to consider a variety of policy, market, and institutional contexts. The effectiveness of market interventions depends on the context and on the policy mechanism. In particular, energy markets are characterized by low demand elasticities and kinked supply curves which are very flat below a capacity constraint (elastic) and very steep above it (inelastic). This means that a quantity-based policy that acts on demand, such as releasing additional pollution emission allowances from a reserved fund would be an effective way to constrain price shocks in a cap-and-trade system. However, a quantity-based policy that lowers the need for inframarginal supply, such as using ethanol as an oil product substitute to mitigate oil shocks...

Possibilities for change: incorporating technology policy and analysis of stakeholder preferences into the environmental policy framework for reducing air emissions from containerized supply chains

Woehl, Melissa
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
Corbett, James J.; This research, through a detailed assessment of the vessel emissions issue and the containerized shipping segment, examines the environmental policy-making framework within the area of international maritime shipping. It evaluates current approaches and methods being used and investigates whether or not alterations could be made to improve the current policy-making process for environmental issues. Specifically, this work probes whether or not the incorporation of concepts from technology policy and decision theory, explicitly through tools designed to identify stakeholder values, could provide new insights to or approaches for environmental policy-making within the international marine transportation system. The study then provides direction as to how these elements might be integrated with the current structure. An industry born from and controlled by the supply and demand requirements of growing domestic and global economies, international marine transportation has a reputation of fierce internal competition. This characteristic rewards forward thinking and has led to a focus on technological change and innovation for advancement. Unlike many land-based industries, though, international marine transportation has been able to continue to drive its development - from a regulatory standpoint - in a uniquely independent manner due to its distinctive situation as a business where every nation has a stake but no one has ultimate control [1-6]. Knowledge regarding the harmful effects and sources of various air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides...

An evaluation of environmental interest groups and their effort to influence environmental policy in Delaware

Carter, David
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
McNutt, John G.; Environmental interest groups are critical to the conservation and protection of environmental resources. They play an essential role in the public policy process by bringing attention to environmental issues, building support for change, and lobbying for new laws. These organizations have been studied extensively at the national scale, but our understanding of them at the state level is incomplete. This thesis is the first comprehensive description of the environmental interest groups active in Delaware. The research provides an inventory and characterization of Delaware's environmental interest group community. Seventy-two environmental organizations comprised of local, statewide, regional, and national groups with activity in Delaware were identified and surveyed. Analysis shows this community is comprised of a diverse group of formal and informal organizations with varying missions, funding, and staffing resources. The existing core of Delaware organizations has shown considerable resiliency, with an average age of 22 years. The network of environmental interest organizations does have a substantial base of resources, including funding, staffing, and volunteers. Collectively they utilize an estimated $8-10 Million in annual operating funds...

Sustainability policy and environmental policy

Pezzey, John (Jack)
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
A theoretical, representative-agent economy with a depletable resource stock, polluting emissions and productive capital is used to contrast environmental policy, which internalises externalised environmental values, with sustainability policy, which achieves some form of intergenerational equity. The obvious environmental policy comprises an emissions tax and a resource stock subsidy, each equal to the respective external cost or benefit. Sustainability policy comprises an incentive affecting the choice between consumption and investment, and can be a consumption tax, capital subsidy or investment subsidy, or a combination thereof. Environmental policy can reduce the strength of the sustainability policy needed. More specialised results are derived in a small open economy with no environmental effects on utility.

Environmental psychology and environmental policy: theoretical and practical questions; Psychologie de l'environnement et politique de l'environnement: questions theoriques et pratiques; Psicologia Ambiental e Política Ambiental: questões teóricas e práticas

Garcia Mira, Ricardo; Stea, David; Elguea, Silvia
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2005 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
The article asks how one can contribute to build a bridge between environmental psychologists and politicians, since environmental psychologists have been more concerned about the theoretical and academic development of the discipline than about connecting applied areas of Environmental Psychology with the complex world of Environmental Policy. It argues that, although the bridges vary in scale, there are other equally important suppositions to be considered, such as the democratic and participative context. It presents uni-directional x bi-directional communication and discusses the way in which Environmental Psychology has seen this bridge. It concludes proposing Environmental Psychology as a process within an alternative view of participation.; L'article s'enquiert de la façon suivant laquelle il serait possible de contribuer à construire un pont entre les psychologues environnementaux et les politiciens, vu que les psychologues environnementaux se sont davantage souciés du développement théorique et académique de la discipline que de la façon dont on relierait des domaines appliqués de la Psychologie de l'Environnement au monde complexe de la Politique de l'Environnement. Il relève que, bien que les ponts varient quant à l'échelle...

Política ambiental brasileira: limitações e desafios; The Brazilian environmental policy: limitations and challenges

Redin, Ezequiel; Universidade Federal de Santa Maria; Silveira, Paulo Roberto Cardoso da; Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/12/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-8951.2012v13n103p163O objetivo do trabalho é analisar a política ambiental brasileira para o espaço, formulada na década de 80, traçando uma abordagem sobre os limites, dificuldades e desafios. As informações usadas para a elaboração referem-se a documentos, leis e referenciais analíticos que traduzem um debate sobre as diretrizes e aspectos sociológicos das questões ambientais. O estudo possibilitou identificar limitações e dificuldades da política, diante das ações legais redimensionadas, tais como: a) ser tecnocrática; b) apresentar gargalo na construção participativa; e, c) a política gesta o componente, mas não o espaço. Entende-se por componente, os elementos que a política ambiental pretende gestar como a água, fauna e a flora. O espaço é compreendido como as relações sociais mediadas pelas pessoas diante dos conflitos socioambientais presentes nas ações de proteção ao meio ambiente. Por fim, é necessário acrescentar ao debate da política, uma concepção além dos elementos naturais, valorizando a interação humana no tempo-espaço, e, por outro lado, existe uma expectativa que os conflitos socioambientais sejam sanados através da gestão ambiental e de um desenvolvimento qualitativo...