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Saúde ambiental no contexto da estratégia saúde da família; Environmental Health in the context of the Family Health Strategy

Ribeiro, Tânia Márcia Lopes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/12/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
Segundo relatório sobre a situação da saúde no mundo, da OMS em 2006, cerca de ¼ da carga global de doença decorre de causas ambientais evitáveis. Partindo do pressuposto que a interface saúde-ambiente está ainda inserida de forma incipiente na prática da saúde, torna-se relevante a obtenção de conhecimento sobre o modo como a Saúde Ambiental está incorporada, de fato, na assistência à saúde na lógica da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) em modelo de atenção da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF). O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a inserção da Saúde Ambiental nos 8 (100%) serviços da ESF de um município do interior de Minas Gerais, à luz de fatores ambientais priorizados para ações no campo da Vigilância em Saúde Ambiental, pela OPAS/OMS e pelo Subsistema Nacional de Vigilância em Saúde Ambiental (SINVSA). Trata-se de um estudo exploratório-descritivo e de abordagem mista (qualitativa e quantitativa). A geração de dados foi realizada por meio de grupos focais (GF), entrevistas e análise documental. Os GF e entrevistas foram realizados com 40 (45,97%) sujeitos das equipes de saúde da família desta investigação. Para a análise documental foi utilizado um Check List, construído a partir dos fatores de risco ambientais tomados como referência. Foram avaliados 132 (1...

Global environmental health and sustainable development: the role at Rio+20

Furie,Gregg Lawrence; Balbus,John
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
The Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development represents a crucial opportunity to place environmental health at the forefront of the sustainable development agenda. Billions of people living in low- and middle-income countries continue to be afflicted by preventable diseases due to modifiable environmental exposures, causing needless suffering and perpetuating a cycle of poverty. Current processes of economic development, while alleviating many social and health problems, are increasingly linked to environmental health threats, ranging from air pollution and physical inactivity to global climate change. Sustainable development practices attempt to reduce environmental impacts and should, in theory, reduce adverse environmental health consequences compared to traditional development. Yet these efforts could also result in unintended harm and impaired economic development if the new "Green Economy" is not carefully assessed for adverse environmental and occupational health impacts. The environmental health community has an essential role to play in underscoring these relationships as international leaders gather to craft sustainable development policies.

National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program: Bridging the Information Gap

McGeehin, Michael A.; Qualters, Judith R.; Niskar, Amanda Sue
Fonte: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
In January 2001 the Pew Environmental Health Commission called for the creation of a coordinated public health system to prevent disease in the United States by tracking and combating environmental health threats. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Program to integrate three distinct components of hazard monitoring and exposure and health effects surveillance into a cohesive tracking network. Uniform and acceptable data standards, easily understood case definitions, and improved communication between health and environmental agencies are just a few of the challenges that must be addressed for this network to be effective. The nascent EPHT program is attempting to respond to these challenges by drawing on a wide range of expertise from federal agencies, state health and environmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and the program’s academic Centers of Excellence. In this mini-monograph, we present innovative strategies and methods that are being applied to the broad scope of important and complex environmental public health problems by developing EPHT programs. The data resulting from this program can be used to identify areas and populations most likely to be affected by environmental contamination and to provide important information on the health and environmental status of communities. EPHT will develop valuable data on possible associations between the environment and the risk of noninfectious health effects. These data can be used to reduce the burden of adverse health effects on the American public.

Identifying Priority Health Conditions, Environmental Data, and Infrastructure Needs: A Synopsis of the Pew Environmental Health Tracking Project

Litt, Jill; Tran, Nga; Malecki, Kristen Chossek; Neff, Roni; Resnick, Beth; Burke, Thomas
Fonte: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.07%
In this article we describe the methodologic approaches of the Pew Environmental Health Commission at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health used to identify priority environmental health conditions and develop recommendations to establish a national environmental public health tracking network. We present the results of a survey of public health and environmental practitioners to uncover state and local health tracking needs and priorities. We describe the steps that combined the findings from the state and local health tracking survey and a review of the state of the science on environmental impacts on health to identify priority health end points. Through an examination of national health and health care databases, we then describe trends and public health effects of those diseases that may be linked to the environment. Based on this analysis, respiratory diseases and neurologic diseases are recommended as priorities for tracking. Specific end points recommended for tracking include asthma and chronic respiratory diseases, and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Based on trends in reported prevalence, consideration should also be given to developmental disabilities, reproductive disorders...

Global Environmental Change: What Can Health Care Providers and the Environmental Health Community Do About It Now?

Schwartz, Brian S.; Parker, Cindy; Glass, Thomas A.; Hu, Howard
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
The debate about whether global environmental change is real is now over; in its wake is the realization that it is happening more rapidly than predicted. These changes constitute a profound challenge to human health, both as a direct threat and as a promoter of other risks. We call on health care providers to inform themselves about these issues and to become agents of change in their communities. It is our responsibility as clinicians to educate patients and their communities on the connections between regressive policies, unsustainable behaviors, global environmental changes, and threats to health and security. We call on professional organizations to assist in educating their members about these issues, in helping clinicians practice behavior change with their patients, and in adding their voices to this issue in our statehouses and Congress. We call for the development of carbon- and other environmental-labeling of consumer products so individuals can make informed choices; we also call for the rapid implementation of policies that provide tangible economic incentives for choosing environmentally sustainable products and services. We urge the environmental health community to take up the challenge of developing a global environmental health index that will incorporate human health into available “planetary health” metrics and that can be used as a policy tool to evaluate the impact of interventions and document spatial and temporal shifts in the healthfulness of local areas. Finally...

The Ambulatory Pediatric Association Fellowship in Pediatric Environmental Health: A 5-Year Assessment

Gitterman, Ben; Lanphear, Bruce; Forman, Joel; Karr, Catherine; Moshier, Erin L.; Godbold, James; Crain, Ellen; Landrigan, Philip J.; Woolf, Alan David
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.95%
Background: Evidence is mounting that environmental exposures contribute to causation of disease in children. Yet few pediatricians are trained to diagnose, treat, or prevent disease of environmental origin. Objectives: To develop a cadre of future leaders in pediatric environmental health (PEH), the Ambulatory Pediatric Association (APA) launched a new 3-year fellowship in 2001—the world’s first formal training program in PEH. Sites were established at Boston Children’s Hospital, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, George Washington University, University of Cincinnati, and University of Washington. Fellows are trained in epidemiology, biostatistics, toxicology, risk assessment, and preventive medicine. They gain clinical experience in environmental pediatrics and mentored training in clinical research, policy development, and evidence-based advocacy. Thirteen fellows have graduated. Two sites have secured follow-on federal funding to enable them to continue PEH training. Discussion: To assess objectively the program’s success in preparing fellows for leadership careers in PEH, we conducted a mailed survey in 2006 with follow-up in 2007. Conclusions: Fifteen (88%) of 17 fellows and graduates participated; program directors provided information on the remaining two. Nine graduates are pursuing full-time academic careers...

Adverse Effects of Methylmercury: Environmental Health Research Implications

Satoh, Hiroshi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Eto, Komyo; Grandjean, Philippe
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.96%
Background: The scientific discoveries of health risks resulting from methylmercury exposure began in 1865 describing ataxia, dysarthria, constriction of visual fields, impaired hearing, and sensory disturbance as symptoms of fatal methylmercury poisoning. Objective: Our aim was to examine how knowledge and consensus on methylmercury toxicity have developed in order to identify problems of wider concern in research. Data sources and extraction: We tracked key publications that reflected new insights into human methylmercury toxicity. From this evidence, we identified possible caveats of potential significance for environmental health research in general. Synthesis: At first, methylmercury research was impaired by inappropriate attention to narrow case definitions and uncertain chemical speciation. It also ignored the link between ecotoxicity and human toxicity. As a result, serious delays affected the recognition of methylmercury as a cause of serious human poisonings in Minamata, Japan. Developmental neurotoxicity was first reported in 1952, but despite accumulating evidence, the vulnerability of the developing nervous system was not taken into account in risk assessment internationally until approximately 50 years later. Imprecision in exposure assessment and other forms of uncertainty tended to cause an underestimation of methylmercury toxicity and repeatedly led to calls for more research rather than prevention. Conclusions: Coupled with legal and political rigidity that demanded convincing documentation before considering prevention and compensation...

Determination of the historical changes in primary and secondary risk factors for cancer using U.S. public health records

Herrero Jimenez, Pablo, 1972-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 354 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.9%
Overall cancer mortality rates have risen from about 4% of all deaths in the early 20th century to about 25% of all deaths by the end of the century in the United States. To assess any potential hypotheses for this increase required knowledge of the mortality rate changes specific to each form of cancer, and the time points when these rates had changed. For this purpose, population and cancer mortality data of the U.S. were collected and organized to create age-specific mortality rates for each birth decade from the 1800s forward, delineated by the organ of incidence. Concurrently, cancer survival data were collected so as to correct for any effect of improved treatment on historical changes in cancer mortality rates. To analyze these data, a mathematical model for the three-stage process of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, and progression) was developed to estimate for each birth decade cohort the value of the fraction of the cohort at lifetime risk for that cancer, the value of the growth rate of the respective precancerous lesion, and the values for the mutation rates of normal and precancerous cells in the organ of incidence. This methodology permits the analysis of the potential historical effect of new chemical exposures during the last century on cancer mortality rates. These chemical exposures represent potential risk factors that determine the fraction of the population at risk of developing cancer (lifetime...

Environmental Health

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
Environmental health (EH) is concerned with preventing disease, death and disability by reducing exposure to adverse environmental conditions and promoting behavioral change. It focuses on the direct and indirect causes of diseases and injuries, and taps resources inside and outside the health care system to help improve health outcomes. Environmental health risks can be prevented or significantly mitigated, by activities in various sectors in addition to health especially infrastructure, energy, and agriculture. The infrastructure sector has huge potential to improve health outcomes and save lives: water, sanitation, drainage, transportation, housing, and urban development. Many EH interventions are very cost-effective. Although the number of studies is limited, a review of available evidence of the effectiveness of measures outside the health sector in achieving health improvements found the estimated costs per deaths and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) saved to US$70,000 per DALY and more for some pollution control measures...

Environmental Health and Sustainable Development

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
Despite its importance to sustainable development, very little information exists on environmental health linkages. Being multisectoral, it escapes focused attention during project design. Recently, however, the World Bank conducted a study on Sub-Saharan Africa infrastructure operations to assess their environmental health dimensions and lessons learned which could be transferred to projects without unduly complicating project management. The result is a three-volume report: bridging environmental health gaps. Volume one contains environmental health background material as well as a checklist for integrating environmental health into projects. Volume two offers a cross-sectoral analysis of the literature. Drawing from some 2,000 books and articles, and about 300 published Bank documents, it summarizes the major themes of the literature, demonstrating that, outside the health sector, health has not played a significant role in setting policies and priorities. Finally, volume three discusses the compatibility of environmental and health considerations...

Environmental Health : Bridging the Gaps

Listorti, James A.; Doumani, Fadi M.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
This discussion paper: a) proposes a new approach of targeted collaboration among different sectors; b) devises new tools or enhances existing ones to facilitate the contributions of different sectors to help relieve health problems; and c) puts theory into practice through a pilot in Ghana. The report is divided into three parts. Part 1 explains the foundations of environmental health and proposes a new approach that taps health benefits systematically outside the health sector through multisectoral collaboration. Part 2 provides basic tools to identify, prioritize, and propose remedial measures for many multisectoral health problems, many of which could and do otherwise fall between the cracks in single sector projects. Part 3 summarizes the findings and presents background material from a workshop in Ghana, "Targeted Collaboration among Line Agencies, Local Communities and the Ministry of Health," putting into practice the ideas of Parts 1 and 2. Annex A provides a rapid checklist on environmental health for practitioners and task managers. Annex B provides one-page summaries of about twenty major diseases.

Environmental Health in Nicaragua : Addressing Key Environmental Challenges

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region has a unique mix of qualities and challenges when it comes to the environment. It is exceptionally endowed with natural assets, with globally significant biodiversity and valuable crops, and also harbors the world s greatest carbon sink in the Amazon. The purpose of the series is to contribute to the global knowledge exchange on innovation in environmental and water resources management and the pursuit of greener and more inclusive growth. The series addresses issues relevant to the region s environmental sustainability agenda from water resources management to environmental health, natural resource management, biodiversity conservation, environmental policy, pollution management, environmental institutions and governance, ecosystem services, environmental financing, irrigation and climate change and their linkages to development and growth. In this particular paper, the author presents the findings of a study looking at three fundamental environmental health risks in Nicaragua...

Environmental Health Costs in Colombia : The Changes from 2002 to 2010

Golub, Elena; Klytchnikova, Irina; Sanchez-Martinez, Gerardo; Belausteguigoitia, Juan Carlos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
Despite considerable progress in the area of environmental management over the last decade, Colombia still faces significant impacts from population exposure to urban air pollution, inadequate access to water supply and sanitation, and indoor air pollution from solid fuel use. This study estimates that the total health cost attributable to these three factors amounts to about 10.2 trillion Colombian Pesos (COP) annually, or about 2 percent of GDP in 2010. In terms of mortality, about 7,600 annual premature deaths can be attributed to these environmental factors. This study updates some of the estimates of environmental health costs reported in the 2005 Colombia Country Environmental Analysis environmental priorities and poverty reduction . Specific policy recommendations and targeted interventions can be derived from future analysis of environmental health costs at subnational level, cost-benefit analysis of specific policy interventions, and an analysis of the burden of health costs disaggregated by population groups and poverty levels. Disaggregated statistics on health outcomes...

Environmental Health in Nicaragua

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
Globally, an estimated 24 percent of the disease burden (healthy life years lost) and an estimated 23 percent of all deaths (premature mortality) are attributable to environmental risks (World Health Organization, or WHO 2006). The burden of disease is unequally shared, with the children and the poor being particularly affected. Among children between the ages 0 and 14, the proportion of deaths attributable to environmental risks, such as poor water and sanitation, indoor air pollution and vector-borne diseases, is estimated to be as high as 36 percent (WHO 2006). Several key messages have emerged from the process of putting together this study: (i) environmental health risks impose a significant burden on Nicaraguas economy, amounting to 2.6 billion Nicaraguan Cordoba (NIO) or 2.4 percent of the countrys Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and result in premature deaths and infections, especially in children under five; (ii) cost-effective interventions to address these environmental health risks exist and should be prioritized in Nicaragua; (iii) country-specific health and environmental data are somewhat limited...

Environmental Health in Nicaragua

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
Globally, an estimated 24 percent of the disease burden (healthy life years lost) and an estimated 23 percent of all deaths (premature mortality) are attributable to environmental risks (World Health Organization, or WHO 2006). The burden of disease is unequally shared, with the children and the poor being particularly affected. Among children between the ages 0 and 14, the proportion of deaths attributable to environmental risks, such as poor water and sanitation, indoor air pollution and vector-borne diseases, is estimated to be as high as 36 percent (WHO 2006). Several key messages have emerged from the process of putting together this study: (i) environmental health risks impose a significant burden on Nicaraguas economy, amounting to 2.6 billion Nicaraguan Cordoba (NIO) or 2.4 percent of the countrys Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and result in premature deaths and infections, especially in children under five; (ii) cost-effective interventions to address these environmental health risks exist and should be prioritized in Nicaragua; (iii) country-specific health and environmental data are somewhat limited...

Environmental Health and Child Survival

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
Interest in environmental health has increased in recent years, largely because the most vulnerable groups remain disproportionately exposed to and affected by health risks from environmental hazards. More than 40 percent of the global burden of disease attributed to environmental factors falls on children below five years of age, who account for about 10 percent of the world's population. Children are especially susceptible to environmental factors that put them at risk of developing illness early in life. Malnutrition is an important contributor to child mortality; malnutrition and environmental infections are inextricably linked, but these links have been forgotten or neglected by policy-makers. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently convened an expert panel, which concluded that about 50 percent of the consequences of malnutrition are in fact caused by inadequate water and sanitation provision and poor hygienic practices. Recent recognition of environmental linkages with malnutrition highlights the urgent need to develop a spectrum of interventions to reduce exposure to environmental risks.

Environmental Health and Child Survival : Epidemiology, Economics, Experiences

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
This report complements Repositioning Nutrition as Central to Development by looking at environmental health issues that affect child health broadly, while also exploring the links through malnutrition. This report argues that environmental health interventions are preventive measures that are imperative to improve child survival with sustainable results in the long term. Preventive measures, such as improving environmental conditions are effective in reducing a child's exposure to a disease agent and thereby averting infection. The overall aim of this report is to provide information to decision-makers on the optimal design of policies to help reduce premature deaths and illness in children under five years of age. To protect the health, development, and wellbeing of young children, decision-makers must identify and reduce environmental risk factors by providing appropriate interventions that prevent and diminish exposures. This study is intended to advance the understanding of what those risk factors are...

Incorporating Environmental Health into Pediatric Medical and Nursing Education

McCurdy, Leyla Erk; Roberts, James; Rogers, Bonnie; Love, Rebecca; Etzel, Ruth; Paulson, Jerome; Witherspoon, Nsedu Obot; Dearry, Allen
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Science Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.09%
Pediatric medical and nursing education currently lacks the environmental health content necessary to appropriately prepare pediatric health care professionals to prevent, recognize, manage, and treat environmental-exposure–related disease. Leading health institutions have recognized the need for improvements in health professionals’ environmental health education. Parents are seeking answers about the impact of environmental toxicants on their children. Given the biologic, psychological, and social differences between children and adults, there is a need for environmental health education specific to children. The National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, in partnership with the Children’s Environmental Health Network, created two working groups, one with expertise in medical education and one with expertise in nursing education. The working groups reviewed the transition from undergraduate student to professional to assess where in those processes pediatric environmental health could be emphasized. The medical education working group recommended increasing education about children’s environmental health in the medical school curricula, in residency training, and in continuing medical education. The group also recommended the expansion of fellowship training in children’s environmental health. Similarly...

Working for Change in the Environmental Health Sphere: Unique Challenges and the Best Practices to Address Those Challenges

Messenger, Leigh
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 27/04/2012 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
Individuals working for change in environmental health face some challenges that best practices can help navigate. Environmental health is becoming a much more important area of focus as expanding knowledge increasingly links everyday environmental exposures with a higher risk of disease. These exposures can be from a variety of substances including common everyday chemicals, pollution, heavy metals, and other substances. The focus of this project is to identify through an interdisciplinary lens some of the unique challenges and best practices in Environmental Health using conversational interviews, observations, and all forms of published information from geographically diverse individuals and organizations. The challenges discussed underscore the difficulty that many characteristics of environmental health are not necessarily visible and tangible to many people and individuals must rely on changing belief, perceptions, and behavior in order to effect change. This is as challenging as trying to get someone to quit smoking or exercise more. Those working in environmental health find their work to be more difficult due to public disputes over health effects, as well as the validity of the scientific findings. Overall, individuals working in the area of environmental health can benefit from understanding the basics of health-related models and communication...

Global environmental health and sustainable development: the role at Rio+20

Furie,Gregg Lawrence; Balbus,John
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
The Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development represents a crucial opportunity to place environmental health at the forefront of the sustainable development agenda. Billions of people living in low- and middle-income countries continue to be afflicted by preventable diseases due to modifiable environmental exposures, causing needless suffering and perpetuating a cycle of poverty. Current processes of economic development, while alleviating many social and health problems, are increasingly linked to environmental health threats, ranging from air pollution and physical inactivity to global climate change. Sustainable development practices attempt to reduce environmental impacts and should, in theory, reduce adverse environmental health consequences compared to traditional development. Yet these efforts could also result in unintended harm and impaired economic development if the new "Green Economy" is not carefully assessed for adverse environmental and occupational health impacts. The environmental health community has an essential role to play in underscoring these relationships as international leaders gather to craft sustainable development policies.