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Análise sanitário-ambiental da exposição da população em Tucuruí-PA; Environmental-sanitary analysis of population exposition in Tucuruí, PA

Moura, Romina Beatriz Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.41%
A presença de inúmeros fatores presentes no meio que influem na promoção da saúde pública leva a uma preocupação crescente em relação às condições de salubridade ambiental em que a população está inserida. A salubridade corresponde à promoção da saúde e conseqüentemente à melhora da qualidade de vida, envolvendo aspectos sanitário-ambientais e socioeconômicos. É nesta linha de pesquisa que o presente trabalho teve como objetivo geral a avaliação da saúde pública do município de Tucuruí-PA, através da análise da exposição da população ao nível sanitário-ambiental local. O estudo adotado para a determinação desta relação foi o corte-transversal, onde foi utilizado o inquérito epidemiológico, com a aplicação de questionários temáticos sobre condições de saneamento ambiental e condições socioeconômicas dos 600 domicílios que foram sorteados nas três áreas (A, B e C) escolhidas para comporem a área de amostragem do município. Dessa forma, foi composto um sistema simplificado de indicadores de saneamento ambiental que, em conjunto com os indicadores de saúde foram analisados através de recursos estatísticos com o uso de análise uni e multivariada para a descrição das áreas investigadas e a determinação da existência ou não de relação entre esses indicadores. Cada domicílio inquerido foi georreferenciado e após a análise dos dados foi possível a sua espacialização possibilitando a localização das áreas de maior ocorrência dos agravos à saúde. Como resultado do trabalho de pesquisa...

Procedimentos para apropriação de tecnologias para implantação de sistema de saneamento ambiental em comunidades isoladas e com poucos recursos financeiros e humanos.; Procedures for ownership of technologies for deployment of system on environmental sanitation in isolated communities with limited financial and human resources.

Quiante, Domingos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/04/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.65%
A falta de sistemas de saneamento ambiental acarreta muitos problemas de saúde, elevando significativamente, os gastos públicos e privados no setor, principalmente, os públicos, no que se refere ao tratamento de enfermidades, como por exemplo, a malária, a dengue, doenças de chagas, diarréias e febre tifóide, entre outras. Muitos estudos têm mostrado a relação intrínseca dos investimentos em infra-estrutura, especificamente da implantação de sistemas de saneamento ambiental, com a saúde pública, sendo que a implantação de sistemas de saneamento contribui decisivamente na melhoria do bem estar físico e mental dos indivíduos e, também, com a diminuição dos gastos públicos e privados com a Saúde. O equacionamento dos problemas de natureza sanitária e ambiental vem sendo perseguido ao longo dos anos pelos órgãos competentes, mas sempre com alcance limitado, tornando-se uma tarefa que parece cada vez mais difícil, em especial nos países ditos em desenvolvimento. As Comunidades isoladas, localizadas nas zonas rurais e/ou urbanas, sem oferta de serviços de saneamento pelas companhias públicas e com limitação de recursos financeiros e humanos, padecem e são mais susceptíveis às enfermidades relacionadas à falta de estruturas adequadas de saneamento ambiental. Dada esta singularidade e considerando o insucesso de programas de saneamento propostos pelos órgãos públicos e agências internacionais de fomento e de desenvolvimento...

Environmental determinants of infectious and parasitic diseases

Heller,Léo
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
A review of the role of the environment as a determinant of infectious and parasitic diseases is presented. Historical considerations and the several environmental classifications of diseases are introduced. In a broader perspective the subject is analyzed in view of the emergence of the environmental health area, with its new paradigms. A review of epidemiological studies about environmental sanitation conditions and measures is presented, analyzing the conclusions derived from 256 studies. Finally, an epidemiological study carried out in Betim, Minas Gerais is briefly described, in order to illustrate the potentiality of this kind of study. Setting priorities of interventions regarding diarrhea control was the aim of this investigation. Conclusion about the role of this approach to optimize preventive measures for the control of infectious and parasitic diseases, of sound importance to the reality of the developing world, is stated.

Avaliação do saneamento ambiental em assentamentos de reforma agrária utilizando o Método de Análise Hierárquica de processos; Evaluation of environmental sanitation in agrarian reform settlements using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Barros, Elaine Franciely dos Santos
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Engenharia do Meio Ambiente (EEC); Escola de Engenharia Civil - EEC (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Engenharia do Meio Ambiente (EEC); Escola de Engenharia Civil - EEC (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The absence or disability of environmental sanitation systems causes serious environmental and social problems . Large portion of the population lives in poor sanitation, primarily those living in rural areas . This fact tailpiece directly to agrarian reform , where the absence of public policies directed to this aspect , lack of technical assistance and insufficient funds for the construction of housing, makes many residents adopt techniques and improper practices that harm your health and the environment . The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental sanitation conditions in agrarian reform settlements using the Analytic Hierarchy Process ( AHP ) . The method was structured for the analysis of environmental sanitation in rural areas , establishing a hierarchical structure considering the aspects related to sanitation and socioeconomic conditions , determining the weights of criteria through analysis of interviews with experts in the field and elaboration of the form data collection . The application form was held in February 2013 in settlements in the region Pinga - Fogo , municipality of Miners , and settlement Don Carmelo , Caiapônia municipality , both in the state of Goiás After application form , which determined the weights of each criterion analyzed in the area ...

Avaliação da qualidade de água de captação e saneamento ambiental em Goiás; Assessment of water quality and environmental sanitation in Goiás

Souza, Saulo Bruno Silveira e
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Ambientais (PRPG); Pró-Reitoria de Pós-graduação (PRPG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Ambientais (PRPG); Pró-Reitoria de Pós-graduação (PRPG)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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It´s known that part of the world illnesses are avoidable and this factor helps improving the management of the water resources ,drinking water supplying, sanitation and hygiene. The global importance of these interventions was recognized in the Milleniun Development Objective (MDO), and it means half reduction of the proportion of people that do not have access to drinking water and basic sanitation concerning the period from 1990 to 2015. This way, knowing and identifying the hydrographic bays panorama in the state of Goiás is essential so for the development of strategies and implementation of programs in order to have improvements on the infra-structure and consequently in sanitation and health. To achieve this aim, indexes that bring information about the hydrographic bays situation were built up and they are related to two aspects: water quality and environmental health focusing sanitation. The indexes construction process envolved a series of decisions as well as an integrated environmental conception and consequently an interdisciplinarian approach that considered the environmental, demographic, behavioural, cultural and socioeconomical issues. Relaying the Water Quality Index (WQIpca)elaboration, multifactorial statistics and the methods of least ordinary squares...

Ghana - Public Expenditures Review : Rural Water and Sanitation Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
The public sector review aims at supporting the Government of Ghana (GoG) in enhancing effectiveness and efficiency in the rural and semi-urban water and sanitation sub-sectors on the basis of an analysis of trends in sector development over the period 2001 to 2006. The present report provides a number of conclusions and recommendations that have been discussed with national stakeholders at a final workshop. On this basis a first draft of an action plan for moving towards a sector-wide (programme) approach (SWAP) in the sector has been formulated. Drinking water constitutes a priority in the Ghana poverty reduction strategy. Budgetary allocations to the rural water sub-sector have increased in real terms by more than three times over the past six years 2001-2006. On the whole, budgetary allocations to the sector increased by 36 percent in real terms per year over the observed period 2001-2006 due to increases in donor aid by an annual average of 68 percent in real terms per year. However, the level of domestic funding declined on average per year by 7 percent in real terms. Then...

Enabling Environment Assessment for Scaling Up Sanitation Programs : Madhya Pradesh, India

Robinson, Andy; Raman, Rajiv
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) is in the start-up phase of a new Global Scaling up Sanitation Project. The project is applying Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (TSSM) to stimulate and scale up sanitation demand and supply. One of the central objectives of the project is to improve sanitation at a scale sufficient to meet the 2015 sanitation Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets in Indonesia, Tanzania, and the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The baseline enabling environment assessment was carried out during the start-up phase of the overall project in May and June 2007. A follow-up assessment will be carried out at the end of project implementation in approximately May or June 2009. The main objective of this assessment was to establish a baseline of the programmatic conditions needed to scale up, sustain, and replicate the Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (TSSM) approaches in the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

Enabling Environment Assessment for Scaling Up Sanitation Programs : Himachal Pradesh, India

Robinson, Andy; Raman, Rajiv
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) is in the start-up phase of a new Global Scaling up Sanitation Project. The project is applying Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (TSSM) to stimulate and scale up sanitation demand and supply. One of the central objectives of the project is to improve sanitation at a scale sufficient to meet the 2015 Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets for improved sanitation in Indonesia, Tanzania, and the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The baseline enabling environment assessment was carried out during the start-up phase of the overall project in May and June 2007. A follow-up assessment will be carried out at the end of project implementation, in approximately May or June 2009. The main objective of this assessment was to establish a baseline of the programmatic conditions needed to scale up, sustain and replicate the total sanitation and sanitation marketing in the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The TSSM project enables the WSP team to enhance and broaden the level of support provided...

Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Challenges in Latin America for the Next Decade : Lessons from the "Cusco+10" International Seminar

Pearce-Oroz, Glenn
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
This report summarizes the current context of the water and rural sanitation sub-sector and the analysis thereof undertaken at the Cusco+10 seminar. The first part of the report, basic rural services at the end of the 20th century, summarizes the situation as it stood in the 1990s and the conclusions reached at the 1999 seminar workshop. The second part, Trends in the first decade of the 21st century, identifies some of the new variables that have emerged and are shaping the context as work continues toward establishing sustainable services. The third part, challenges for the next decade, reports the findings from the Cusco plus 10 analyses and sums them up in five major challenges to be addressed. Finally, the fourth part, conclusions, looks to the future and suggests some new trends that are affecting the five major cross-cutting themes.

Economic Assessment of Sanitation Interventions in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This study evaluates the costs and benefits of technical sanitation options and programs in Yunnan Province, China, as part of the Economics of Sanitation Initiative (ESI) conducted by the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program in East Asia. As an underdeveloped province, Yunnan has achieved huge progress in sanitation improvement since the 1990s. Sanitation options evaluated in the study include the facilities to collect and convey human excreta, household wastewater treatment, and related hygiene practices. The benefits of sanitation evaluated include health, water quality, time to access sanitation facilities, external environment, reuse of human excreta, quality of life improvement, and other intangible benefits such as privacy, cleanliness and comfort. The costs of sanitation measured include investment costs and recurrent costs (operations and maintenance). The study compares the costs and benefits of alternative improved sanitation options over the expected life of each technology, to estimate efficiency of alternative sanitation options. For the study sanitation options in eight different sites throughout Yunnan Province were selected. Three rural sites include: a) villages in Luquan county s mountainous rural villages (R1); b) Dali Shangguan (R2) lakeside plain; and c) villages in Qiubei county (R3). Three urban sites represent: a) Kunming (U1); b) Dali (U2); and c) Qiubei (U3). Two peri-urban sites include: a) Kunyang town of Jinning County (PU1) and b) Dali Zhoucheng (PU2). The economic returns on all improved sanitation options are significant in all the sites evaluated...

Economic Assessment of Sanitation Interventions in Lao People's Democratic Republic

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
Access to improved sanitation is a major concern in the Lao People s Democratic Republic. Only 63 percent of the population of the country had access to improved sanitation facilities in 2010. Sanitation conditions are worse in rural areas. This study aims to generate evidence on the costs and benefits of sanitation improvements Lao PDR.

What Does It Take to Scale Up Rural Sanitation?; Comment accelerer le developpement de l'assainissement rural?

Perez, Eduardo; Cardosi, Jason; Coombes, Yolande; Devine, Jacqueline; Grossman, Amy; Kullmann, Craig; Kumar, C. Ajith; Mukherjee, Nilanjana; Prakash, Manu; Robiarto, Amin; Setiwan, Deviariandy; Singh, Upneet; Wartono, Djoko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
Over the last 30 years, most rural sanitation projects have had pockets of success, but were small in scale and could not be scaled up. Learning how to expand on the successes of small-scale projects to increase access at large scale has been an enduring challenge. Project outcomes often fail the sustainability test once external funding ceases, and the benefits, even if sustained, remain limited to project areas. Despite growing political will to do more about rural sanitation, the lack of evidence and examples of effective and sustainable large-scale rural sanitation programs has constrained governments and development partners. In an attempt to help address these issues, starting in 2007, the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) provided technical assistance to help governments design, plan, implement, and monitor national rural sanitation programs that start at scale and are sustainable. This initiative was carried out in three countries, India, Indonesia, and Tanzania. To increase the supply of sanitation products and services...

The Political Economy of Village Sanitation in South India : Capture or Poor Information ?

Ban, Radu; Das Gupta, Monica; Rao, Vijayendra
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.41%
Despite efforts to mandate and finance local governments' provision of environmental sanitation services, outcomes remain poor in the villages surveyed in the four South Indian states. The analysis indicates some key issues that appear to hinder improvements in sanitation. Local politicians tend to capture sanitary infrastructure and cleaning services for themselves, while also keeping major village roads reasonably well-served. Their decisions suggest, however, that they neither understand the health benefits of sanitation, nor the negative externalities to their own health if surrounding areas are poorly served. Our findings suggest that improving sanitary outcomes requires disseminating information on the public goods nature of their health benefits, as well as on the local government's responsibilities. It also requires putting public health regulations in place, along with measures to enable accountability in service provision.

Water Supply and Sanitation in Ghana : Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond

World Bank
Fonte: Nairobi Publicador: Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
The African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW) commissioned the production of a second round of Country Status Overviews (CSOs) to better understands what underpins progress in water supply and sanitation (WSS) and what its member governments can do to accelerate that progress across countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). AMCOW delegated this task to the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program and the African Development Bank who are implementing it in close partnership with United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO) in over 30 countries across SSA. This second CSO report has been produced in collaboration with the Government of Ghana and other stakeholders during 2009-10. The analysis aims to help countries assess their own service delivery pathways for turning finance into water supply and sanitation services in each of four subsectors: rural and urban water supply, and rural and urban sanitation and hygiene. The second CSO analysis has three main components: a review of past coverage; a costing model to assess the adequacy of future investments; and a scorecard which allows diagnosis of particular bottlenecks along the service delivery pathway. The second CSO's contribution is to answer not only whether past trends and future finance are sufficient to meet sector targets...

Uganda - Environmental Sanitation : Addressing Institutional and Financial Challenges

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
Over the past 10 years the government of Uganda has endeavored to increase latrine coverage and promote hygiene with a view to improving health outcomes. In 1997, in the Kampala declaration for sanitation, leaders from all of Uganda's districts pledged to improve sanitation. Then in 2001, three ministries, the Ministry of Water, Lands, and Environment; the Ministry of Education and Sports; and the Ministry of Health, signed a memorandum of understanding to clarify institutional responsibilities with respect to sanitation and hygiene and to improve implementation at the district and local levels. The three ministries agreed to put in place institutional arrangements to prioritize resources for excreta-related sanitation and hygiene programs. Although the main focus of this report is on excreta-related sanitation and hygiene, the 2006 joint sector review for water and sanitation also requested clarification of existing mandates for two specific aspects of environmental sanitation, namely solid waste management and drainage and asked whether these two issues should be included in the memorandum. Accordingly...

Representação social em saneamento ambiental:  água suja; Social representation in environmental sanitation : dirty water

Mucci, Ana Lucia dos Santos Teco
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/11/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
O presente trabalho pesquisou a representação social e o Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo de uma população com saneamento básico deficiente, em relação à água suja e a transmissão de doenças de veiculação hídrica. O estudo se justifica, pois as doenças infecciosas e parasitárias (DIP) estão diretamente associadas à falta de saneamento básico. Nesse sentido, há comunidades que, mesmo dispondo de tratamento adequado de água e esgoto não conhecem o fato de que medidas básicas de higiene são suficientes para controlar doenças de veiculação hídrica. Considerando-se o exposto, os objetivos da pesquisa ora apresentada são: identificar e analisar a representação social relacionando a água suja e doenças de veiculação hídrica. Para a consecução dos objetivos acima, foram utilizados dados secundários obtidos do IBGE e de outros órgãos governamentais e dados primários coletados a partir de entrevistas com habitantes de favelas do distrito de Campo Limpo, zona sul de São Paulo. Os resultados foram sistematizados com o auxilio do programa computacional Qualiquantsoft; The present research investigates the social representation and the collective subject\'s discourse, in relation to dirty water and the transmission of water borne diseases. The study is important because infectious and parasitic diseases are directly related to poor basic sanitation conditions. Being so...

Ensino de saneamento do meio nas escolas de saúde pública; Teaching environmental sanitation in schools of public health

Oliveira, Walter Engracia de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/1975 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.57%
Após a última guerra mundial, e especialmente nesta década, em decorrência do crescimento demográfico e do desenvolvimento industrial, a par de migração da população rural em direção aos conglomerados urbanos, aumentaram os problemas relacionados ao saneamento do meio, devido a poluição ambiental. Aumentou assim a necessidade de maior incremento ao ensino e à pesquisa no campo do saneamento do meio, como também uma revisão dos programas. É evidenciado que o ensino do saneamento do meio deveria ser oferecido em todos os níveis do ensino, desde o primário ao superior. Nas escolas de saúde pública, este ensino, tradicionalmente, é oferecido nos cursos de graduação, para graduados e pós-graduação (mestrado e doutorado), e em cursos de nível médio. Algumas matérias do programa deveriam ser oferecidas em cursos curtos ou de especialização. O programa de saneamento do meio, além de procurar dar uma formação geral no campo do saneamento ambiental, deve ser estabelecido em função das necessidades do país, região ou Estado, o profissional que queremos preparar, e o papel da escola, isto é, o nível de preparação de pessoal - internacional, nacional, para um ou vários estados, deve influenciar o programa de saneamento do meio. Ponderou-se que as pesquisas sobre essa matéria devem ser intensificadas...

;;Levantamento soroepidemiológico de leptospirose em trabalhadores do serviço de saneamento ambiental em localidade urbana da região sul do Brasil; Serological survey of leptospirosis among environmental sanitation workers in an urban locality in southern Brazil

Almeida, Laerte Pereira de; Martins, Luís Fernando da Silva; Brod, Claudiomar Soares; Germano, Pedro Manuel Leal
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/1994 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
A pesquisa de aglutininas anti-Leptospira, pela técnica de soroaglutinação microscópica, em soros de trabalhadores dos serviços de águas, bueiros e galerias, esgotos, coleta de lixo e limpeza pública, do Município de Pelotas, RS, Brasil, revelou 10,4% de reagentes a um ou mais sorovares; não houve diferenças significantes entre as proporções de reagentes de cada um dos setores de trabalho. Foram identificados 12 sorovares diferentes; castelonis e australis, apesar de mais freqüentes, não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes com os demais. Constatou-se que 86,9% das amostras apresentavam títulos aglutinantes compreendidos entre 100 e 400; as proporções de soros com títulos iguais a 100 e 400 foram superiores às dos títulos 800, 1.600 e 3.200 (p < 0,05).; Sera from 386 environmental sanitation workers, concerned with water supply, drains and drainage galleries, sewers, garbage collection and road sweepers, were examined for leptospiral agglutinins by the microscopic agglutination test. Altogether 40 of the 386 workers (10.4%) were positive to one or more serovars; however, the difference in seropositivity between the professional categories was not significant (p >; 0.05). Twelve serovars were recorded among the seropositive workers with predominance of L. castelonis and L. australis; but the difference between the serovars was not statistically significant (p >; 0.05). Of the seropositive workers...

Avaliação qualitativa e participativa de projetos: uma experiência a partir de pesquisa em educação ambiental e saneamento do meio; Qualitative and participatory project evaluation: an experience based on environmental education and environmental sanitation research

Ribeiro, Helena; Günther, Wanda M. Risso; Araujo, Joyce Maria de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2002 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
A avaliação de projetos de pesquisa em educação ambiental e em saneamento do meio, desenvolvidos em comunidades urbanas e rurais brasileiras, é uma atividade ainda bastante restrita, em que pese sua grande importância acadêmica e prática. Sua relevância é ainda maior quando se trata de pesquisa-ação, em que os pesquisadores desempenham papel ativo na busca de soluções para o equacionamento de problemas encontrados. A possibilidade de tornar disponíveis, às comunidades estudadas, os resultados de investigações, de forma simples e compreensível, pode servir de instrumento para melhor dimensionamento e eficácia de políticas públicas; além disso, fornece respostas aos pesquisadores, que podem embasar suas atuações futuras em realidades semelhantes. O presente artigo baseia-se em avaliação qualitativa e participativa do projeto "Educação ambiental via representações acadêmicas e populares do meio", desenvolvido nos municípios de Espírito Santo do Turvo e Vera Cruz, no oeste do estado de São Paulo, nos anos 1998 a 2001. Concluído o projeto, foram realizadas entrevistas para avaliá-lo com moradores do dois municípios, considerados personagens-chave nas ações locais empreendidas. Empregou-se metodologia qualitativa de pesquisa e roteiro previamente estruturado...

Preventing trachoma through environmental sanitation: a review of the evidence base

Prüss,A.; Mariotti,S.P.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
A review of the available evidence for the associations between environmental sanitation and transmission of trachoma was undertaken with a view to identifying preventive interventions. The WHO Global Alliance for the Elimination of Trachoma by the Year 2020 (GET2020) has adopted the ‘‘SAFE’’ strategy, consisting of four components: Surgery, Antibiotic treatment, promotion of Facial cleanliness and initiation of Environmental changes. This review of 19 studies selected from the 39 conducted in different parts of the world shows that there is clear evidence to support the recommendation of facial cleanliness and environmental improvements (i.e. the F and E components of the SAFE strategy) to prevent trachoma. Person-to-person contact and flies appear to constitute the major transmission pathways. Improvement of personal and community hygiene has great potential for a sustainable reduction in trachoma transmission. Controlled clinical trials are needed to estimate the relative contribution of various elements to the risk of transmission of trachoma and the effectiveness of different interventions. These could show the relative attributable risks and effectiveness of interventions to achieve improvement of personal hygiene and fly control by environmental improvements...