Página 1 dos resultados de 749 itens digitais encontrados em 0.004 segundos

Enterprise creation and economic recovery: the case of Rio Grande do Sul

Canever, Mario Duarte; Carraro, André
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.43%
Includes bibliography; This article analyses the dynamic of new enterprise creation in Rio Grande do Sul, measured by the business start-up rate in relation to the number of pre-existing firms and also relative to the labour force. The analysis shows that business start-up rates are not homogeneous regionally or across sectors. It also identifies a relation between regional economic growth and the business start-up rate, which depends on the rate of renewal of the enterprise base and fundamentally on the entrepreneurial drive of local workers, which affects the degree to which enterprise creation rates converge between regions. The results also show that an increase in the business start-up rate improves regional economic performance after a period of time.

The Household Enterprise Sector in Tanzania : Why It Matters and Who Cares

Kweka, Josaphat; Fox, Louise
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
The household enterprise sector has a significant role in the Tanzanian economy. It employs a larger share of the urban labor force than wage employment, and is increasingly seen as an alternative to agriculture as a source of additional income for rural and urban households. The sector is uniquely placed within the informal sector, where it represents both conditions of informal employment and informal enterprise. This paper presents a case study on Tanzania using a mixed approach by combining both quantitative and qualitative analysis to examine the important role of household enterprises in the labor force of Tanzania, and to identify key factors that influence their productivity. Household enterprise owners are similar to typical labor force participants although primary education appears to be the minimum qualification for household enterprise operators to be successful. Access to location matters -- good, secure location in a marketplace or industrial cluster raises earnings - and access to transport and electricity is found to have a significant effect on earnings as well. In large urban areas...

Convergence in Institutions and Market Outcomes : Cross-country and Time-series Evidence from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Surveys in Transition Economies

Mitra, Pradeep; Muravyev, Alexander; Schaffer, Mark E.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
This paper uses firm-level data from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Surveys to study the process of convergence of transition countries with developed market economies. The study focuses on competition and market structure, finance and the structure of lending to firms, and how firms respond to the economic environment by restructuring. The authors find substantial evidence of convergence in a number of dimensions. The pattern of growth at the country, sector, and firm levels shows rapid growth of the new private sector and of the micro and small-firm sectors, with the size distribution of firms moving toward the pattern observed in the surveys of developed market economies. In finance, increasing reliance on retained earnings in transition countries reflects a maturation of the sector as new firms come to rely less on informal and family sources of finance. The authors find evidence of an inverse-U pattern, with the peak of restructuring activity taking place in 2002, the middle of the period analyzed. Throughout...

Explaining Enterprise Performance in Developing Countries with Business Climate Survey Data

Dethier, Jean-Jacques; Hirn, Maximilian; Straub, Stéphane
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
This paper surveys the recent literature which examines the impact of business climate variables on productivity and growth in developing countries using enterprise surveys. Comparable enterprise surveys today cover some 70,000 firms in over 100 countries around the world. The literature that has analyzed this data provides evidence that a good business climate drives growth by encouraging investment and higher productivity. Various infrastructure, finance, security, competition and regulation variables have been shown to significantly impact firm performance. Section 1 of this paper outlines the theoretical framework that underpins the investment climate literature. Section 2 describes the available datasets and surveys the key findings of the empirical literature, first macroeconomic and then microeconomic studies. Particular attention is paid to the robustness of the reported results. Section 3 highlights important econometric issues common to this literature and suggests a research agenda and possible improvements in survey design.

Small Enterprise Growth and the Rural Investment Climate : Evidence from Tanzania

Kinda, Tidiane; Loening, Josef L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
This paper analyzes characteristics of nonfarm enterprises, their employment growth patterns, and constraints in doing business in rural Tanzania. Using unique survey data, the authors describe a low-return sector struggling to compete in a difficult business environment. However, about one-third of rural enterprises are growing fast. Most enterprises engage in agricultural trade. Due to a rapidly growing agricultural sector in recent years, limiting demand-side constraints, rural enterprise constraints in Tanzania mainly operate from the supply side. This suggests that, in particular, access to finance, road infrastructure, and rural cell phone communication is correlated with employment growth. A major finding is that subjective and objective measurements of business constraints are broadly comparable. The authors discuss a number of factors that would help to unleash the full potential of private sector-led growth in rural areas. The findings show that marginal improvements in the rural investment climate matter for growth.

What Have We Learned from a Decade of Manufacturing Enterprise Surveys in Africa?

Bigsten, Arne; Söderbom, Måns
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
In the early 1990s the World Bank launched the Regional Program on Enterprise Development (RPED) in several African countries, a key component of which was to collect data on manufacturing firms. The data sets built by these and subsequent enterprise surveys in Africa generated considerable research. This article surveys the research on the African business environment, focusing on risk, access to credit, labor, and infrastructure, and on how firms organize themselves and do business. It reviews the research on enterprise performance, including enterprise growth, investment, and exports. The article concludes with a discussion of policy lessons.

Investment Climate Reforms and Job Creation in Developing Countries : What Do We Know and What Should We Do?

Rahman, Aminur
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
This paper reviews the literature on the role of the investment climate reforms in job creation. It finds that the current landscape of employment and private sector activity in developing countries indicates a number of potential channels through which investment climate reforms can positively affect job creation. However, rigorous empirical evidence is scarce and most of the relevant studies focus on business entry reforms with a few focusing on business taxation and investment promotion activities. Overall, there is evidence of job creation through business entry, tax reforms, and investment promotion activity in developing countries. Almost all of these evidences are from quasi-experimental studies that are significant improvements over conventional cross-country or cross-section panel data analysis. Still, various endogeneity concerns in these studies cannot be ruled out completely. In assessing job effects, future research should provide deeper insights on the gross versus net and short-run versus long-run job effects and general equilibrium effects of various investment climate reforms related to jobs...

Extending enterprise architecture modeling languages: application to telecommunications service creation

Chiprianov, V.; Kermarrec, Y.; Rouvrais, S.
Fonte: Association for Computing Machinery Publicador: Association for Computing Machinery
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Enterprise Engineering offers a global view on multiple concerns such as processes, stakeholders, supporting technology. This global view is sustained by Enterprise Architecture frameworks, languages, tools and standards. The current effort has been focused on general purpose Enterprise Architecture frameworks, modeling languages and tools, which allow describing a wide range of domains. While they are expressive enough at the business layer, at the technical layer, where more detail is needed to describe a domain specific system, such general purpose Enterprise Architecture Modeling Languages sometime lack the semantic strength required. The concepts present in the language are too abstract, they need refinement and specification. To provide the necessary specific semantic strength, this paper proposes an approach to extend Enterprise Architecture Modeling Languages with domain specificity. The proposed approach is a model-driven one, allowing a high degree of automation in the building of tools for the language extension. To better show its benefits, the approach is applied on the domain of Telecommunications, for defining an Enterprise Architecture Modeling Language extension for service creation. The so defined language and its associated tools are illustrated on an IP Multimedia Subsystem conferencing service example.; Vanea Chiprianov...

Azerbaijan : Enterprise Restructuring and Labor Redeployment, Volume 1, Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
The main objective of this report is, first, to examine changes in the welfare and labor market status of workers in Azerbaijan, with concentration on large state-owned enterprises (SOEs) already displaced or which may be displaced because of enterprise restructuring and privatization. This includes identifying: a) dominant patterns in labor market behavior, b) changes in worker socioeconomic status in the wake of redundancy; and c) assistance received under enterprise social programs and other government social safety nets. Second, the study also explores patterns of job creation and job destruction, and the dynamics of labor demand, including any barriers to firm entry and growth. The study focuses largely on identifying informational and institutional gaps in elaborating a general labor redeployment program suitable for conditions in Azerbaijan. Suggestions for the introduction of labor redeployment activities and enterprise social plans are provided that would enable authorities to design relevant mitigating measures. The report concludes that findings indicate labor market interventions have great potential to improve labor market performance; however, whether or not this potential is realized depends on a number of factors, and numerous variables can intervene to affect the final outcome of their implementation. These include external factors such as stable macroeconomic conditions...

Azerbaijan : Enterprise Restructuring and Labor Redeployment, Volume 2, Results of the Surveys Conducted in Mingachevir City in Azerbaijan Republic

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
The main objective of this report is, first, to examine changes in the welfare and labor market status of workers in Azerbaijan, with concentration on large state-owned enterprises (SOEs) already displaced or which may be displaced because of enterprise restructuring and privatization. This includes identifying: a) dominant patterns in labor market behavior, b) changes in worker socioeconomic status in the wake of redundancy; and c) assistance received under enterprise social programs and other government social safety nets. Second, the study also explores patterns of job creation and job destruction, and the dynamics of labor demand, including any barriers to firm entry and growth. The study focuses largely on identifying informational and institutional gaps in elaborating a general labor redeployment program suitable for conditions in Azerbaijan. Suggestions for the introduction of labor redeployment activities and enterprise social plans are provided that would enable authorities to design relevant mitigating measures. The report concludes that findings indicate labor market interventions have great potential to improve labor market performance; however, whether or not this potential is realized depends on a number of factors, and numerous variables can intervene to affect the final outcome of their implementation. These include external factors such as stable macroeconomic conditions...

Poland : Labor Market Study--The Challenges of Job Creation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
The study reviews recent labor market developments in Poland, examining the factors behind the rise in unemployment, and, proposing actions that should contribute to increased job creation rates. Its main purpose is to inform - based on research findings - on the policy dialogue regarding the current labor market situation in the country. Those main findings indicate that the rise in unemployment results primarily from an acceleration of job destruction, that begun with the wave of enterprise restructuring in the aftermath of the Russia crisis, and has persisted in part, because of an imbalance in the fiscal-monetary policy mix. It also finds that the recent rise in unemployment has highlighted important barriers in the transition from old, to new jobs. These barriers include a binding minimum wage, high taxes on labor income, limitations in the labor code, and a relatively easy access to early retirement, and other social benefits. Additionally, the problems with the ongoing restructuring of the Polish labor market have been compounded by an increase in new labor market entrants...

Urbanization and Agglomeration Benefits : Gender Differentiated Impacts on Enterprise Creation in India's Informal Sector

Ghani, Ejaz; Kanbur, Ravi; O'Connell, Stephen D.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.62%
This paper presents an exploration at the intersection of four important themes in the current development discourse: urbanization, agglomeration benefits, gender and informality. Focusing on the important policy objective of new enterprise creation in the informal sector, it asks and answers four specific questions on the impact of urbanization and gender. It finds that (i) the effect of market access to inputs, on creation of new enterprises in the informal sector, is greater in more urbanized areas; (ii) This "urbanization gradient" also exists separately for the creation of female owned enterprises and male owned enterprises; (iii) there is a differential impact of female specific market access compared to male specific market access, on female owned enterprise creation in the informal sector ; and (iv) gender specific market access to inputs matters equally in more or less urbanized areas. Among the policy implications of these findings are that (i) new enterprise creation by females can be encouraged by urbanization...

Working Out of Poverty : Job Creation and the Quality of Growth in Africa

Fox, Louise; Sekkel Gaal, Melissa
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
This paper explores Africa's economic performance and the creation of jobs over the decade and more since 1995, recognizing that some standard labor concepts are difficult to apply to conditions prevailing in Africa. The intent of the paper is to identify the economic factors behind the more successful outcomes and the options available for improving the quality of growth. The report focuses on several key issues: how has the structure of economic growth and labor demand shaped the job creation process? Does rigidity in African labor markets impede job creation? Have the quality and quantity of the labor supply affected job creation? What policies have been pursued to raise the quality of the African labor force? What does the expanding "informal" sector mean for the labor market and the quality of growth? Is it a route out of poverty or a low-skills trap? Throughout the paper, the focus is on the factors, exogenous and endogenous, that are linked to the outcomes, and the implications that these factors may have for raising the quality of Africa's economic growth. Some countries have reversed many of the vicious cycles underlying Sub- Saharan Africa's generally poor performance on job creation; those countries are highlighted where adequate data are available...

SME Contributions to Employment, Job Creation, and Growth in the Arab World

Nasr, Sahar; Rostom, Ahmed
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Recent economic and political developments have highlighted a challenge shared across the Arab region of generating employment, promoting inclusive growth, and improving competitiveness. In the short run, weakened macroeconomic fundamentals in the developing economies of the Middle East and North Africa are a key challenge. The region's main challenge is to achieve sustainable growth that delivers the quantity and quality of jobs needed. An inclusive and competitive private sector has proven to be one of the most effective and long-term solutions for this challenge. This paper provides an analytical framework to diagnose and identify key challenges to the growth of small and medium enterprises that is supported by a quantitative model based on the World Bank's Enterprise Surveys database. The findings reconfirm that the route to a sustained role for small and medium enterprises in job creation requires improving the credibility of reforms, the effectiveness of policies, and equitable enforcement. Although one size fits all is infeasible for Arab countries...

Light Manufacturing in Zambia : Job Creation and Prosperity in a Resource-Based Economy

Dinh, Hinh T.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
This book on light manufacturing in Zambia is part of broader World Bank work on light manufacturing in Africa. The focus on light manufacturing, with its emphasis on labor-intensive economic activities, is particularly appropriate for a resource-based economy such as that of Zambia. While Zambia's recent growth has been impressive, it has not been accompanied with adequate job creation. The long-term job creation in copper production has been small; links to the rest of the economy tend to be weak as well; and the development of natural resources tends to discourage job-creating sectors such as manufacturing in any case. This book has several innovative features. First, it provides in-depth cost comparisons between Zambia and four other countries in Africa and Asia at the sector and product levels. Second, the book uses a wide array of quantitative and qualitative techniques to identify key constraints to enterprises and to evaluate differences in the performance of firms across countries. Third, it uses a focused approach to identify country-and industry-specific constraints. It proposes market-based measures and selected government interventions to ease these constraints. Fourth, it highlights the interconnectedness of constraints and solutions. For example...

Light Manufacturing in Tanzania : A Reform Agenda for Job Creation and Prosperity

Dinh, Hinh T.; Monga, Célestin
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
The chapters in part one provides the overall context of light manufacturing in Tanzania. Chapter one presents the rationale for the study, the potential of the sector in creating jobs and prosperity for Africa, and the approach and methodology of the study. Chapter two reviews Tanzania's recent economic performance and prospects and concludes that, despite good macroeconomic performance, the country still needs to pursue structural transformation and diversification. Moreover, despite Tanzania's abundant natural endowments, manufacturing remains a viable source for job creation and prosperity. Chapter three examines the overall business environment among firms of all sizes in light industry in Tanzania. It first reviews the macroeconomic framework, focusing on wages, exchange rates, and interest rates before analyzing the microeconomic issues affecting firms such as export incentives, trade logistics, and access to electricity, land, and finance. Competition, an issue of paramount importance in improving Tanzania's competitiveness, is analyzed next, before a discussion of a potential shortcut for addressing some of the related macro and micro problems.

Is Russia Restructuring? New Evidence on Job Creation and Destruction

Broadman, Harry G.; Recanatini, Francesca
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
The authors explore the labor dynamics of Russian enterprise restructuring, empirically assessing how patterns of job creation and destruction are related to various aspects of enterprise restructuring across firms in different sectors and regions, and to different forms, sizes, vintages, and performance characteristics of ownership. Evidence from case studies - based on more than 50 site visits in 2000 - suggests that jobs have been destroyed, but only to a limited degree in some sectors and regions, largely because of institutional and incentive constraints and a still-widespread "socialist" corporate culture. Jobs have been created - particularly in sectors where devaluation had the most pronounced effect on important substitution and export promotion - but only slowly, mostly for lack of skilled workers and because regional mobility is limited. Labor turnover appears higher within regions than across regions. Newly available data for 1996 - 99 (provided by Goskomstat) for about 128,000 enterprises in 24 industrial sectors in Russia's 89 regions indicates that the typical firm has experienced only modest downsizing - about 12 percent - in number of employees. Smaller firms have entered...

The creation of enterprises and strategy. Reflections from the resource perspective; Creación de empresas y estrategia. Reflexiones desde el enfoque de recursos.

Liyis Gómez
Fonte: Revista científica Pensamiento y Gestión Publicador: Revista científica Pensamiento y Gestión
Tipo: article; publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
The two most important administrative disciplines in the last decades are the creation of enterprises and strategy. The interest for them has been not on pragmatic but also academic. It is also a product of the need the enterprises have of guarantee their permanence in the market, and the necessity of economics of promoting their adequate development and growth. The strategy arises as a support of enterprise decisions with regard to their growth and consolidation, and of enterprise creation as a revitalizing element and a welfare generator one. This theoretical article deals with one of the academic discussions, which has aroused greater interest in the field of management: the relation enterprise creation- strategy. We aim to analyze such relation starting from the strategic approach of capabilities and resources, with the objective of stating clearly potential contact links between enterprise creation and strategy, in order to contribute to a greater knowledge and use the two disciplines.; La Creación de empresas y la estrategia son dos de las disciplinas administrativas que mayorimportancia han cobrado en las últimas décadas. El interés por ellas ha sido tanto pragmáticocomo académico, producto de la necesidad que tienen las empresas de garantizarsu permanencia en el mercado...

Institutional approach and enterprise creation: support systems in the case of cities in rural and peripheral areas of Portugal

Silva, M. J.; Trigo, V.; Antunes, R.
Fonte: Editura ASE Publicador: Editura ASE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
WOS:000286525100019 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science); The research aims to identify and analyse the formal institutional factors in the environment that constrain the creation of industrial enterprises in small city in rural and peripheral areas of Portugal, namely Covilha County. It has as reference sources several approaches about enterprise creation and institutional economic theory due to their adequacy to the study of the factors that influence enterprise creation by encompassing institutions, services, programs and support measures. With this analysis we try to evaluate the extent to which entrepreneurs know about and employ the available institutional programs/services. Investigation hypotheses are formulated and subject them to empiric tests. The results, from the offer point of view of the services/programs, show that, duplication of resources and efforts on the part of institutions in the region often occurs making coordination more difficult and alienating the demand (entrepreneurs). From the view point of the demand, we noticed that entrepreneurs may have a broad awareness of the institutions, but this does not imply that they use their programs and services. Therefore recommendations are made having in view a better coordination among the different institutions involved so that the programs they offer can be more effective in the future.

Ecology, water and enterprise development in selected rural South African towns

Toerien,DF; Seaman,MT
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
South Africa's imperatives for rural development and job creation raise the question whether water abundance in a region results in improved enterprise development in rural towns. The enterprise assemblages of 2 groups of towns, a river group from water-abundant areas and a Great Karoo group from the arid heartland of South Africa, were examined using a variety of different methods based on approaches used frequently in ecology. The comparisons included factors such as the ages of towns, clusters of towns and enterprise diversity. Although some hints were obtained that water abundance favoured enterprise development positively, the null hypothesis that water abundance would not influence enterprise development positively could not be rejected. Several lessons were learnt: there are regularities in enterprise development whether in water-abundant or water-scarce areas; these regularities are understandable in terms of recent economic thinking as well as old concepts such as 'threshold populations'; money is the basic driver of enterprise success and more enterprises in one town than another reflects differences in the amount of money entering and/or circulating in towns; 'entrepreneurial space' in certain business sectors is used very effectively by 'run-of-the-mill entrepreneurs'; towns will give rise to different types of businesses and in proportion to the needs of the customers present in the towns; the degree of utilisation of certain business sectors differs statistically significantly between clusters of towns; and approaches and tools used effectively in the study of ecology offer many advantages for the study of enterprise development dynamics in towns...